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Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences

S Hassannejad, M Saleh Pirouie, D Zare Haghi
In order to find relationships between weed species distribution and soil pH, calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), electrical conductivity (EC), and organic matter percentage (OM %), fields surveys were done in 50 wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) fields of Uremia county (one of the northwest counties of Iran) in 2013. Data sampling of weeds was conducted from the beginning of stem elongation until the end of heading stages of wheat. In each field, 20 quadrates (0.25 m²) were randomly placed along a "W" pattern (5 quadrates in each line of this pattern) and in each quadrat, weed species were coded and recorded (density and cover percentage) for subsequent data entry and analysis...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
M Movassaghi, S Hassannejad
Eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) is one of the noxious parasitic weeds that infected many ornamental trees in green spaces and gardens. Our purpose is to find natural inhibitors for prevention of its seed germination. In order to reach this aim, laboratory studies were conducted by using of herbaceous distillates of Dracocephalum moldavica, Nasturtium officinalis, Malva neglecta, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Rosa damascene, Ziziphora tenuior, and Urtica dioica on seed germination of C. monogyna...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
M Stevanovic, N Dolovac, D Marisavljevic, A Andjelkovic, L Radivojevic, G Aleksic, V Gavrilovic
The thinning of fruits is a required pomotechnical measure in intensive fruit production which ensures the production of good quality fruits and high yields. Metamitron, known as inhibitor of photosynthesis, has been successfully used in the thinning of apple fruits. This study had the aim to determine the efficacy of metamitron on the thinning of apple fruits in the agroecological conditions of Serbia and to evaluate the possibility of its practical application. Two varieties of apples that are widely grown in Serbia, dared and Golden Delicious, have been chosen for this research...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Claerhout S, De Cauwer B
In modern agriculture, most farmers rely on herbicides for weed control. The intensive use of herbicides in crops has led to the development of herbicide resistance in numerous weeds worldwide. In Belgium, farmers have encountered problems with controlling populations of Alopecurus myosuroides, Matricaria recutita, Stellaria media and Popover rhoeas in some wheat fields with the conventionally used acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Dose response assays were conducted in the greenhouse to test the sensitivity of these populations to the key ALS-inhibiting herbicides mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron-methyl for A...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
J Latré, K Dewitte, V Derycke, B De Roo, G Haesaert
Integrated pest management has been implemented as a general practice by EU legislation. As weed control actually is the most important crop protection measure in maize for Western Europe, the new legislation will have its impact. The question is of course which systems can be successfully implemented in practice with respect to labour efficiency and economical parameters. During 3 successive growing seasons (2007, 2008, 2009) weed control in maize was evaluated, the main focus was put on different techniques of integrated weed control and was compared with chemical weed control...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
H E Öztürk, Ö Güven, I Karaca
In this study, biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (4 strains) isolated from the Colorado potato beetle and the commercial biopesticides containing entomopathogenic fungi; Priority® (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), Nibortem® (Verticillium lecanii), Nostalgist® (Beauveria bassiana), Bio-Magic* (Metarhizium anisopliae), Bio-Nematon* (Paeciliomyces sp.) and plant extracts; Nimbedicine EC* (Azadiractin) were determined against Leptinotarsa decemlineata under laboratory conditions. An Imidacloprid active ingredient commercial insecticide was also used to compare the insecticidal activity and distilled water was used as control...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
N Zapata, M Vargas, A Coronado, E J M Van Damme, G Smagghe
Entomotoxic proteins are produced by plants in defence against insect herbivory. Some carbohydrate-binding proteins exhibit strong insecticidal activity affecting the survival, growth, development and feeding behavior of phytophagous insects. The occurrence of entomotoxic lectins is well documented in the Amaryllidaceae, a plant family spread world-wide. In Chile, this family is represented by numerous species, many of which are also of high ornamental value. Protein extracts were obtained from bulbs of five different species of Chilean Amaryllidaceae...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
P Pipattanaporn, S Tharamak, P Temyarasilp, V Bullangpoti, W Pluempanupat
The seeds of Phaseolus lathyroides were extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively by Soxhlet apparatus. Each crude extract was examined for toxicity against the second instars of Spodoptera litura using a topical application method under laboratory conditions. The ethyl acetate extract showed the most effective mortality (LD₅₀ = 11,964 and 9,169 ppm after treated at 24 and 48 hours, respectively). Furthermore, in vivo enzyme based experiments revealed that acetylcholinesterase activity of survived S...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
C Somjit, N Kumrungsee, W Pluempanupat, V Bullanpotil
The insecticidal activity of thymol was evaluated in the laboratory against third instar Plutella xylostella by topical application. Our previous results described mortality in P. xylostella by thymol and the present study continues investigation for its possible efficacy on egg production and development in surviving treated P. xylostella. Our results showed that thymol at a sublethal dose (0.43 µg/larvae, LD₃₀) caused pupation inhibition, adult-emergence inhibition and abnormal adults at rates of 30, 33...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
A Pumchan, A Puangsomchit, P Temyarasilp, W Pluempanupat, V Bullangpoti
The aim of the study was to assess the bio-efficacy of four Alpinia galanga rhizome crude extracts against the second and third instars of Spodoptera litura, an important field pest. The growth of younger larvae was significantly affected while that of the older larval stage was less influenced. In both stages, the methanol crude extract showed the greatest efficiency which caused the highest number of abnormal adults to occur and produced a large LD₅₀ value (12.816 µg/ larvae) pupicidal percentage after treatment, whereas, hexane extract caused the highest mortality during the larval-pupal stage after treatment with an LD₅₀ value of 6...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
T Yooboon, W Pluempanupat, Opender Koul, V Bullangpoti
Azadirachtin is a known botanical insecticide with multiple modes of action. Whether these effects have any relation with the modes of application, specifically during ecdysis process, has been the objective of the present study and accordingly the impairment, if any, among cuticular proteins of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) was determined. Azadirachtin was applied topically, via injection or oral administration. Azadirachtin administered via injection and topical applications severely impaired the ecdysis by 86...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
S Vuković, D Indić, M Grahovac, F Franeta
O. nubilalis and H. armigera regularly occur and cause significant damages in corn crops in Serbia, particularly under global warming conditions. Several measures are applied against these pests (crop rotation, tolerant and resistant hybrids, monitoring, forecast, chemical measures). Larvae damage stem, panicle and ear, which favour development of saprophytes and secondary infections by mycotoxin producing, pathogenic fungi. The aim of the paper was to test the efficacy of the insecticides azadirachtin and indoxacarb in sweet corn protection against the mentioned pests...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Mara Tabaković-Tosić
During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
I Farkas, I Molnár, I Somlyay, E Tóth
The increasing pressure of oilseed rape pests emphasized the need to improve the insecticide portfolio, i.e. register new active ingredients with new insecticide mode of action. The tested seed treatment formulation applied at 32; 40 and 50 UAT rate of containing cyantraniliprole as active substance. 40 UAT rate gives acceptable control of the Cabbage root fly in each trial. Despite the long lasting flight and egg laying period of cabbage root fly, the standard control products and also this product give 50-65% efficacy...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Peusens G, De Jonghe K, De Roo I, Steyer S, Olivier T, Fauche F, Rys F, Bylemans D, Beliën T
Among the numerous diseases that can attack pome fruit trees, apple proliferation and pear decline, both caused by a phytoplasma ('Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' (AP) and 'Ca. P. pyri' (PD), respectively), may result into important losses of quality and quantity of the crop. Until a few years ago, no scientific and reliable data on their presence in Belgium was available and so a 2-year survey was organised to obtain more detailed information on the status of both pathogens. Root and leaf samples collected in commercial orchards were analysed using molecular detection tools and tested positive for both phytoplasmas...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
K Vrancken, T Belien, D Bylemans
Anthocoris nemoralis, Anthocoris nemorum and Orius spp. are not the only beneficial predatory bugs inhabiting pear orchards in Belgium. Quite often, the Miridae bugs Heterotoma spp. and Pilophorus spp. can be found during spring and summer in these orchards, thereby feeding on several pests such as psyllids, aphids, spider mites, ... . Side-effects are usually assessed on Anthocoris and Orius spp., but due to the potential importance of Miridae bugs in pest reduction, we tested some commonly used crop protection products used in pear cultivation on Heterotoma planicornis and Pilophorus perplexus (residue-based tests in petri-dishes)...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
E Mechant, E Pauwels, G Luypaert, J Van Huylenbroeck, B Gobin
In potted azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids) the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) is considered a severe pest with an important economic impact. Although chemical control is available, permitted acaricides are limited and have a restricted number of applications. Therefore, growers have a keen interest in alternative control measures. Recently, research on the behaviour and population dynamics of P. latus on azalea leaf disks stored at different temperatures indicated that survival and reproductive capacity of broad mite is reduced drastically when temperature drops below 7°C...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Hans E Hummel, S S Langner, U Sanguanpong
Ergography is a novel technique invented in 2003 by the first author in his attempts to understand, analyze, and quantify at one glance the work of creative scientists without reading through lengthy, usually boring laudations of invited speakers. Traditional enumeration of accomplishments is helpful but less than satisfactory. Simple descriptive texts often do not satisfactorily answer the question of how, when and why certain observations and theories were established and how they influenced the development and advance of scientific fields at large...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
S Chavalle, J-P Jansen, G San Martin y Gomez, M De Proft
The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitadiplosis mosellano (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), can cause severe losses in wheat grain yield and quality. This pest is known to be susceptible to many insecticides, but various field observations have suggested that some fungicides could also significantly affect S. mosellana. In order to confirm these field observations, the effect on adult midges of several fungicides commonly applied to wheat crops was investigated in the laboratory and in small plots in the field...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
A Boucher, P Silvie, P Menozzi, C Adda, S Auzoux, J Jean, J Huat
Habitat management involving conservative biological control could be a good crop pest management option in poor African countries. A survey was conducted from August 2013 to July 2014 in a rainfed lowland region near Pélébina, northern Benin, in order to characterize spatiotemporal landscape changes and investigate their influence on the main crop pests and their associated natural enemies. The area was mapped mainly regarding crop fields and fallows. Visual observations were recorded and a database was compiled...
2015: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
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