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Neotropical Entomology

J M B Oliveira-Junior, L Juen
The accumulation of scientific knowledge is far outstripped by the rate of environmental disturbance from human activities in aquatic habitats. This highlights the need to develop effective proxy measures of aquatic biodiversity that can demonstrate changes in communities associated with human activities. We evaluated whether the relative abundance and species richness of Anisoptera and Zygoptera can be used as a tool to measure environmental impacts on Amazonian streams. Adult of Anisoptera and Zygoptera were sampled in 50 Amazonian streams, in the municipality of Paragominas (Pará state), Brazil, using an entomological handnet...
February 15, 2019: Neotropical Entomology
G San Blas, F M Silva Dias, A Specht, M Martins Casagrande, O H Hendrik Mielke
Feltia llanoi (Köhler, 1953) stat. rev. and its hitherto senior subjective synonym Feltia brachystria (Hampson, 1903) are two species of noctuid moths with unusual broadly bipectinate antenna and restricted distribution in central eastern Argentina, southern Brazil, and Uruguay. Examination of the type of specimens and further material from several collections indicates that these names are not synonyms, but valid species, and reveal the occurrence of F. llanoistat. rev. in Brazil. Therefore, F. llanoistat...
February 13, 2019: Neotropical Entomology
B T Martínez, A T Quintana, Y T Cambas, F O Roque
We tested whether hardness or different wood carbon densities, considered as the concentration of carbon structural compounds, influence functional feeding groups and species richness of aquatic insects in a tropical stream. We expected that harder woods would harbor aquatic insect communities with species richness and functional food group profile different from softwoods. We also expected that collector-gatherers and collector-filterers will be more abundant in softwood because harder woods are less substrate suitable for biofilm production...
February 13, 2019: Neotropical Entomology
E C Pinchao, A C Muñoz
The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii Marshall, is one of the key pest species of Psidium guajava L. fruit in Colombia. Adults that emerge after completing development on the ground attack the guava fruits in some areas of the crop more than in others. During development, the weevil spends 3-6 months in the soil, suggesting that edaphoclimatic factors may influence its biology, and hence, the spatial distribution and damage pattern caused by weevils within the guava orchard. Understanding this pattern allows specific control practices to be used at crop sites...
January 29, 2019: Neotropical Entomology
A A Santos, C R Melo, B M S Oliveira, A S Santana, A C C Santos, T S Sampaio, A F Blank, P F Cristaldo, A P A Araújo, L Bacci
Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae) is an important pest in urban environments and bioinsecticides can be an alternative to its control. Here, we determined the toxicity and repellence of the essential oil (EO) prepared from stems of Aristolochia trilobata L. (Aristolochiaceae) and its major constituents on N. corniger. We also investigated behavioral changes of individuals exposed to limonene. The lethal dose required to kill 50% of N. corniger population (LD50 ) of EO of A...
January 12, 2019: Neotropical Entomology
F Seyfollahi, M Esfandiari, M S Mossadegh, A Rasekh
Hyperaspis polita Weise is the major predator of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in southwestern Iran. The functional response of fourth instar larva, adult female and male of the ladybird, H. polita, preying upon different stages of the mealybug P. solenopsis was evaluated. All stages of H. polita exhibited type II functional responses against all stages of P. solenopsis with an exception that the functional response of the adult female stage of H. polita to first instar P. solenopsis nymphs was type III. Changing prey and predator stages did not result in significant differences in attack rates...
January 11, 2019: Neotropical Entomology
F G Silva, E M Passos, L E C Diniz, A V Teodoro, V Talamini, M F Fernandes, M Dollet
The lethal yellowing (LY) is a major phytoplasma causing disease seriously threatening coconut plantations worldwide, with imminent risk of entering Brazil. The LY phytoplasma is restricted to the phloem and transmitted by the planthopper Haplaxius crudus (Van Duzee) (Cixiidae). In this study, Auchenorrhyncha were collected on the leaves of Dwarf vs. Dwarf hybrids and Brazilian Green Dwarf Jiqui in the Brazilian northern state of Para using yellow adhesive traps in May of 2016. The planthopper H. crudus was found in coconut plantations of Brazilian Green Dwarf Jiqui, accounting for 87% of the individuals captured...
January 10, 2019: Neotropical Entomology
M Koohkanzadeh, P Pramual, L Fekrat
Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) as one of the most devastating species of the genus Bactrocera is a notorious polyphagous fruit fly pest attacking lots of commercially important host plant species in many parts of the world including Iran. Despite economic importance, the population genetics of B. zonata have remained relatively unexplored in the country. In this study, the genetic structure, genetic diversity, and demographic history of this pest in Iran were investigated on the basis of cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) sequences...
January 8, 2019: Neotropical Entomology
L J P Vieira, G M Franco, M V Sampaio
Parasitoid fitness is strongly influenced by host quality for immature parasitoid development and by oviposition host choice patterns made by adult female parasitoids. This study aimed to determine immature host quality of Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) host instars preference. To this end, the host quality of immature stages of S. graminum was assessed by rearing the parasitoid in all four instars of the aphid, placing each nymph stage of the aphid parasitized by L...
January 7, 2019: Neotropical Entomology
M A Díaz, D Rodríguez, F Cantor
Encarsia formosa (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) has been used to control for the biological control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse tomato crops. One aspect that influences the success of this method is the continuous availability of large numbers of E. formosa that enable the grower to release them at the proper time and in the quantity required. Rearing facilities of this parasitoid require reliable and low time-consuming methods for scouting populations of insects to forecast production...
January 3, 2019: Neotropical Entomology
J B Runyon, M Pollet
Four new species of Enlinia Aldrich are described from Chile: Enlinia biobio n. sp., Enlinia chilensis n. sp., Enlinia enormis n. sp., and Enlinia isoloba n. sp. These specimens were collected during a 2013 invertebrate survey in sclerophyll and Valdivian temperate rain forest habitats of the central and southern Chilean Andes. The only other species of Enlinia recorded from Chile is E. atrata (Van Duzee). Photos of holotypes and type localities and a key to the five species known to occur in Chile are provided...
December 19, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
F B Lopes, J Sant'Ana
Damage caused by herbivorous insects and application of phytohormones can activate signaling pathways, which result in greater production of secondary metabolites, increasing plant defenses. This study aimed to evaluate the induced direct resistance (local and systemic) of rice plants caused by herbivorous insects and exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) in the development of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Moreover, indirect defenses through chemotactic responses of Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) submitted to the same treatments were investigated...
December 19, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
F F Laranjeira, T T C Santos, A S Moreira, I Sanches, A S Nascimento, S X B Silva, E C Andrade, D O Almeida
Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), named as Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), is the vector of the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease. The use of citrus flushing and ACP monitoring tools is essential for the knowledge of the occurrence pattern of cycles of both and for the improvement of the ACP management. During 3 years, 20 branches from 20 trees were evaluated for vegetative flushing, ACP abundance, and occupation in tree and branches in a Brazilian citrus area free for HLB...
December 15, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
A V L Freitas, R R Ramos, K L Silva-Brandão, N Coutouné, L M Magaldi, J L Pablos, N Rosser, K S Brown
The present paper describes Heliconius hermathena curua Freitas & Ramos ssp. nov. This subspecies exhibits a non-mimetic phenotype typical of H. hermathena, but is characterized by the merging of the yellow streak over the forewing cubitus with the red postmedian band in the dorsal forewing. The subspecies is known from two localities in the south of Altamira, Pará State, Brazil, where it inhabits an isolated patch of "campina" vegetation more than 600 km from the nearest known H. hermathena populations...
December 12, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
X G Zhang, X Li, Y L Gao, Y Liu, W X Dong, C Xiao
The potato tuberworm moth (PTM) Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most damaging pests of potato Solanum tuberosum L. in warm temperate and subtropical areas. Our previous experiment showed that extracts of larval frass of PTM deterred oviposition of conspecific females. In this study, we investigated the identification of chemicals in larval frass that were influencing the oviposition of PTM by behavioral bioassays and electroantennography analysis in the laboratory. Frass was collected from third and fourth instar larvae and combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of dichloromethane extracts showed that eight compounds from larval frass extracts elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females...
December 11, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
M Bevilaqua, C R V da Fonseca
We present a list of Passalidae species found in the westmost Brazilian Amazon region, which is considered to be a diversity-rich area due to being a tectonic and geographic transition zone in relation to Brazilian Amazon lowlands and the Andean range. The specimens acquired in field collections and museums were analyzed. Their geographical distributions were estimated based on data from labeled specimens and the literature. Twenty-nine species belonging to two subfamilies, six genera, and four subgenera were listed...
December 5, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
C A Baronio, D Bernardi, M Z Nunes, J Pasinato, F R M Garcia, M Botton
The development of appropriate methodologies for bioassays is of paramount importance to study the methodological factors that may interfere in the experimental design. Thus, laboratory bioassays have become increasingly important for the determination of data that are realistic and replicable. The objective of the study was to develop a bioassay methodology with the ready-to-use toxic bait Success™ 0.02CB, 96 mg L-1 of spinosad, in adults of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) as a study model. The insect origin (laboratory population, LT50  = 11...
December 5, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
R Brito, A Specht, G L Gonçalves, G R P Moreira, E Carneiro, F L Santos, V F Roque-Specht, O H H Mielke, M M Casagrande
Spodoptera marima (Schaus, 1904) and Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852) are noctuid moths recognized for their economic importance in the New World. Historically, they have been considered cryptic species, being supposedly differentiated from each other by the absence of sexual dimorphism in S. marima, subtle differences in coloration on the hindwings and scale tufts of the ovipositor and the shape of male valva. The species are allopatric: North and Central America for S. ornithogalli and South America for S...
December 4, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
L C Forti, R S Camargo, A P P Andrade, G C Catalani, K K A Sousa, A A C Silva, N Caldato, V M Ramos
Our study seeks to discover contamination routes of leaf-cutting worker ants during chemical control by formicide baits. To do so, toxic baits containing fat-soluble tracer dye were provided to colonies of three subspecies of Acromyrmex under laboratory conditions, in order to assess the proportion of dyed workers by size category, as well as dyed internal morphological structures. Results showed that nearly 50% of the workers come into contact with the active ingredient, since the internal structures of their bodies are dyed by the fat-soluble tracer dye within the first 24 h from contact with the toxic bait...
November 29, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
K Kudô, M Hasegawa, S Mateus, R Zucchi, F S Nascimento
Social insects face strong selection from parasites because the conditions of group living often favor the transmission of infection among nestmates. However, there is little detailed information on the effects of parasite infection in the host species. Workers of Polybia species, neotropical swarm-founding wasps, are commonly infected by gregarines, protozoans that are exclusively parasitic on invertebrates. Previous studies showed that high rates of gregarine infection in workers of Polybia occidentalis (Olivier) have negative effects on their colony performance...
November 28, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
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