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Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

Renée J H Richters, Natallia E Uzunbajakava, Nadya Timofeeva, Peter C M van de Kerkhof, Piet E J van Erp
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aberrant skin barrier and intercorneocyte adhesion are potential contributors to the pathomechanism of sensitive skin (SS). Here we aimed to develop a novel and easy-to-apply method to analyze corneodesmosomes and to interrogate potential differences between corneocytes of subjects with SS and non-SS (NSS). METHODS: Corneocytes of the volar forearm and upper outer quadrant of the left buttock of SS (n = 10) and NSS (n = 8) subjects were extracted as a function of depth using adhesive tape and stained with anti-desmoglein 1 (DSG1) antibody...
January 23, 2019: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Christian Hausmann, Dominique Hertz-Kleptow, Christian Zoschke, Barbara Wanjiku, Alexandra Wentzien-Odenthal, Martina Kerscher, Monika Schäfer-Korting
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The skin provides protection against chemical, physical, and biological stressors, yet the skin morphology changes over the course of life. These changes might affect the skin barrier function and facilitate the onset of age-related diseases. Since orally applied lactic acid bacteria ameliorate signs of aged and atopic skin, we investigated the effects of a topically applied Lactococcus lactis emulsion. METHODS: In a blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled trial, we studied topical Lactococcus effects both in vitro and in 20 healthy female volunteers...
January 10, 2019: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Clemens Painsi, Karoline Hesterberg, Jürgen Lademann, Dietrich Knorr, Alexa Patzelt, Staffan Vandersee, Martina C Meinke, Heike Richter, Adrienne Bob, Fanny Knorr, Franz Quehenberger, Bernhard Lange-Asschenfeldt
Antioxidants like carotenoids play a major role in the prevention of the destructive influence of free radicals in our skin. Carotenoids, as well as all other antioxidants, are substantial substances which must be supplied by nutrition. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) allows measurement of the carotenoid content of eggs, representing a rich carotenoid source in our nutrition. A previous study showed that eggs from organic production contain higher carotenoid levels in contrast to eggs from conventionally housed chicken...
January 4, 2019: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Nazli Dizen-Namdar, Fatma Emel Kocak, Mehtap Kidir, Gulben Sarici, Hasan Tak, Irfan Altuntas
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is a disease characterized by the hair loss sharply limited in any part of the body, especially on the scalp, in circular or oval areas. The purpose of this study is to search the serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1), arylesterase and oxidative status with serum prolidase activities in people with AA. METHODS: The study included 60 AA and 50 healthy control subjects. In both groups, serum PON1, prolidase, arylesterase activities, total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAS) levels and oxidative stress index (OSI) were calculated...
December 13, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Nicole Braun, Sabrina Binder, Hanna Grosch, Carmen Theek, Jasmina Ülker, Hagen Tronnier, Ulrike Heinrich
BACKGROUND: Skin reaction to spaceflight has not really been studied yet, although the skin has a very important barrier function to protect the body and can contribute to a more general understanding of physiology. It is proposed here to make a more thorough investigation of the skin during long-term spaceflight, using noninvasive techniques. AIMS: The aim of the present Skin-B study is to investigate the kinetics and range of possible skin modifications during long-duration spaceflights and their recovery...
November 28, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Nicole Braun, Simone Thomas, Hagen Tronnier, Ulrike Heinrich
BACKGROUND: One of the most challenging and important factors of manned space missions is to keep astronauts healthy on orbit. In a study on 46 ISS crew members who were on 6-month (average) missions, skin rashes were the most self-reported event. Furthermore, among notable events, 40% were classified as skin rashes/hypersensitivities. Thus, especially skin conditions during space travel are of major clinical interest and require further research. AIMS: The aim of the study was to determine skin conditions in space flight among US and European astronauts, especially taking into account the terrestrial skin conditions as well as on-orbit skin care habits...
November 28, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Camila O Vieira, Jeffrey E Grice, Michael S Roberts, Isha N Haridass, Marcelo Dutra Duque, Patrícia S Lopes, Vânia R Leite-Silva, Tereza S Martins
AIM: We evaluated the effects of the incorporation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in a mesoporous matrix, aiming to improve the textural, structural and morphological properties and verify their safety so that they can be applied in sunscreen cosmetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ZnO nano-particles were incorporated into an ordered mesoporous silica matrix known as Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15), using post-synthesis methodology. The resulting nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and predicted in vitro sun protector factor (SPF) estimation...
October 31, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Santo Scalia, Sarah Battaglioli, Anna Bianchi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The data available on the skin permeability of ethylhexyl triazone (EHT), a widely used high-molecular-weight (823.1-Da) UV filter, are scarce and obtained only via in vitro studies. Therefore, we evaluated in vivo the penetration of EHT in human stratum corneum by the tape stripping technique. Moreover, the effect of EHT encapsulation in lipid microparticles (LMs) on its diffusion through the stratum corneum was examined. METHODS: LMs loaded with EHT were prepared using glyceryl behenate and phosphatidylcholine...
October 31, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Astrid Pany, Victoria Klang, Marion Brunner, Johanna Ruthofer, Elisabeth Schwarz, Claudia Valenta
BACKGROUND: Although very common in our society, the effect of hair removal on physiological skin parameters and on the ingress of applied chemicals has not been systematically investigated. Thus, as a first step, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of hair removal through epilation (electric epilation, waxing) and depilation (dry and wet shaving, depilatory cream) on skin properties in vitro using the porcine ear model. METHODS: Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, measurement of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL), visualization by capacitance-based contact imaging, confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS), diffusion cell studies and tape stripping experiments were employed...
October 19, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Peter M Elias, Joan S Wakefield, Mao-Qiang Man
We compare here the principal characteristics of over-the-counter moisturizers with physiologic lipid-based barrier repair therapy. Moisturizers are standard ancillary therapy for anti-inflammatory skin disorders, like atopic dermatitis (AD), and can attenuate the emergence of AD, the initial step in the "atopic march." But not all moisturizers are beneficial; some can make skin function worse, and can even induce inflammation, possibly accounting for the frequent occurrence of "sensitive skin" in women...
October 18, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Kamila Zduńska, Agnieszka Dana, Anna Kolodziejczak, Helena Rotsztejn
Ferulic acid has low toxicity and possesses many physiological functions (anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, anticancer, and antidiabetic effect). It has been widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industry. Ferulic acid is a free radical scavenger, but also an inhibitor of enzymes that catalyze free radical generation and an enhancer of scavenger enzyme activity. Ferulic acid has a protective role for the main skin structures: keratinocytes, fibroblasts, collagen, elastin...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Mridvika Narda, Laurent Peno-Mazzarino, Jean Krutmann, Carles Trullas, Corinne Granger
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in skin has been associated with skin aging. Inhibition of glycation of proteins of extracellular matrix may help skin texture and appearance. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the antiglycation activity of topically applied carnosine and novel facial cream (FC) containing carnosine in human skin explants ex vivo. METHODS: Glycation was induced in human skin explants by methylglyoxal (MG) in culture media...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Mahsa Sabouri, Aniseh Samadi, Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi, Effat Sadat Farboud, Bahareh Mirrahimi, Hournaz Hassanzadeh, Mansour Nassiri Kashani, Rassoul Dinarvand, Alireza Firooz
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory skin condition which is treated using Tretinoin (TRE), a widely used retinoid. Nano emulations (NEs) are colloidal nano-sized particles that enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TRE and minimize adverse effects. This study is aimed at developing a TRE-loaded NE (NE-TRE) and at assessing the therapeutic effects of the formulation in acne vulgaris lesions, compared to conventional 0.05% TRE emulsion. METHOD: The high energy emulsification method was used to make NE-TRE...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Katharina Ossadnik, Sandra Philipp, Wolfgang Bost, Marc Fournelle, Heike Richter, Jürgen Lademann
Psoriasis is prone to relapses and requires long-term therapy that may induce a range of adverse effects; therefore, an efficient and early detection of relapses is desirable. In this study, photoacoustic imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) methods were investigated for their suitability in psoriasis follow-up examinations. Using a high-resolution photoacoustic system, the vascular structures of 11 psoriatic patients and 6 healthy volunteers were investigated. No differences were detected with respect to the average vessel diameter and vasculature per unit volume in the tissue of healthy volunteers and non-lesional and lesional skin areas of psoriatic patients...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Dindar S Bari, Haval Y Yacoob Aldosky, Christian Tronstad, Håvard Kalvøy, Ørjan G Martinsen
BACKGROUND/AIM: Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a widely used measure in psychophysiological research, and its use in wearable devices has grown in recent times. It is recommended to have proper conditions for EDA measurement, and skin hydration is one factor that has a significant influence. It is, however, not known to what extent the ambient humidity influences the recording. This study explored the influence of relative humidity (RH) on EDA levels, and also the responses using a new technique for simultaneous recording of all measures of EDA: skin conductance (SC), skin susceptance (SS), and skin potential (SP) at the same skin site...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Johannes Wohlrab, Alexander Gabel, Martin Wolfram, Ivo Grosse, Reinhard H H Neubert, Sophie C Steinbach
Of particular importance for Stratum corneum (SC) lipids are the free fatty acids (FFAs). Age-related changes of the SC structure lead to diminished capacity for barrier compensation. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to identify even-numbered especially odd-numbered FFAs within the intercorneocytic lamellar lipid structures of the SC and to explore age- and diabetes-related changes in FFAs. Gas chromatography - flame ionisation detection was used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess FFAs extracted from the SC...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Jarika Kaewbanjong, Thanaporn Amnuaikit, Eliana B Souto, Prapaporn Boonme
AIM: Antifungal activity, skin permeation and skin retention of water-in-oil microemulsion (ME) and microemulsion-based gel (MBG) containing clotrimazole (CTZ) were evaluated in comparison to a conventional CTZ cream. METHODS: CTZ-ME and CTZ-MBG containing 1% w/w of CTZ were produced. Antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes was assessed by the agar diffusion method. Pig skin was used in the in vitro penetration study using modified Franz diffusion cells...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Philip Wertz
In the mid-1950s and 1960s, transmission electron microscopes became widely available, leading to many studies of the ultrastructure of various tissues including the epidermis. Most of these studies involved tissue fixation with formaldehyde and postfixation with osmium tetroxide. A few studies employed freeze-fracture electron microscopy. One set of these studies identified a small organelle variously called lamellar granules (LGs), lamellar bodies, membrane-coating granules, cementsomes, and Odland bodies...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Megan N Kelchen, Gopi Menon, Patrick Ten Eyck, Donald Prettypaul, Nicole K Brogden
Application of exogenous products, such as creams, to the skin can result in subclinical changes in selected epidermal functions such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration, redness, and pH; these changes may lead to or contribute to irritation. Changes in skin surface inflammatory factors may provide further insight into this potential for irritation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in epidermal properties and inflammatory mediators after 4 days of topical application of 2 different polymers formulated in cosmetic creams...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Franz Trautinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
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