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Journal of Water and Health

Jagnoor Jagnoor, Medhavi Gupta, Kamran Ul Baset, Daniel Ryan, Rebecca Ivers, Aminur Rahman
The present study investigated associations between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) factors and fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Bangladesh. Here, we report findings from a large household survey (89,700) conducted in Barisal Division of Bangladesh. Univariate analyses showed that the use of surface water rather than piped water was associated with an increased risk of both fatal and non-fatal drowning events. Additionally, increased risk of non-fatal drowning events was associated with shared toilet facilities, lack of toilet facilities and non-cemented flooring such as bamboo and wood...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Shobana Gabriel, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in Peninsular Malaysia and to compare different methodologies to detect them from water samples. Water samples were collected from tap water, recreational places, water dispensers, filtered water, etc. and tested for FLA using both cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) via plating assays and centrifugation methods. Amoebae DNA was extracted using Instagene matrix and PCR was performed using genus-specific primers. Of 250 samples, 142 (56...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Rosane C Andrade, Rafael K X Bastos, Paula D Bevilacqua, Rosângela V Andrade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Abdiel E Laureano-Rosario, Andrew P Duncan, Erin M Symonds, Dragan A Savic, Frank E Muller-Karger
Predicting recreational water quality is key to protecting public health from exposure to wastewater-associated pathogens. It is not feasible to monitor recreational waters for all pathogens; therefore, monitoring programs use fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as enterococci, to identify wastewater pollution. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict when culturable enterococci concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC) at Escambron Beach, San Juan, Puerto Rico...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Satiya Wati, Bret S Robinson, John Mieog, Judy Blackbeard, Alexandra R Keegan
Currently guidelines for disinfection of water with free chlorine, while primarily developed for potable water, are often used for virus disinfection of nitrified recycled water of >1 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit). More information is needed on the disinfection efficacy of free chlorine for viruses in waters of varying turbidity and pH due to significant reuse of treated wastewater of varying quality. In this study, disinfection efficacy in nitrified/denitrified activated sludge treated wastewater was investigated for coxsackievirus B5 (CB5), an enterovirus known to be highly resistant to free chlorine...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Meagan R Jackson, John Scott Meschke, Jeremy Simmons, Tania Busch Isaksen
Ultraviolet disinfection (UVD) units enhance onsite sewage systems (OSSs) in areas where conventional treatment is limited by site characteristics. Although UVD units are efficacious under testing conditions, few studies have considered their effectiveness when installed. This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine UVD unit effluent quality and determine the association between UV bulb status and fecal coliform levels. Samples from UVD units and pump chambers were tested for bacterial and physiochemical parameters...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Stephen Siwila, Isobel C Brink
The study investigated two engineered fabrics and five cloth fabrics for low cost drinking water treatment. An optimized fabric filtration method has been developed and tested. Numerical models for predicting particulate removal efficiency have been developed for each fabric as support tools for selecting optimal process configuration. Both engineered fabrics showed better performance and achieved the most effective particulate removal for the highest number of layers used. Sequential filtration was done on eight layers for representative fabrics of each type and recorded higher contaminant removal than one filtration run...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Stephanie Masina, Jamal Shirley, Jean Allen, Jan M Sargeant, Rebecca A Guy, Peter M Wallis, J Scott Weese, Ashlee Cunsolo, Anna Bunce, Sherilee L Harper
Indigenous communities in the Arctic often face unique drinking water quality challenges related to inadequate infrastructure and environmental contamination; however, limited research exists on waterborne parasites in these communities. This study examined Giardia and Cryptosporidium in untreated surface water used for drinking in Iqaluit, Canada. Water samples (n = 55) were collected weekly from June to September 2016 and tested for the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Maha Farhat, Khaled R Alkharsah, Fatimah I Alkhamis, Huda A Bukharie
Bacterial community diversity of bulk water and corresponding biofilms of four intensive care units' (ICUs) drinking water systems were studied and compared using 16S rRNA gene amplicons and next generation sequencing. Proteobacteria, mainly Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were dominant in the bulk water and biofilms. Principal component analysis showed different bacterial communities characterizing each of the bulk water and the biofilms in three of the studied ICUs. Taxonomic classification and comparison of different genera between samples highlighted the dominance of Aquabacterium (80%) and Novosphingobium (72%) in bulk water while biofilms harbored different bacteria affiliated to Pelomonas (97%) and Caulobacter (96%), Porphyrobacter (78%) and Staphylococcus (74%)...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Kara Dean, Mark H Weir, Jade Mitchell
This study develops novel dose-response models for Naegleria fowleri from selected peer-reviewed experiments on the virulence based on the intranasal exposure pathway. One data set measured the response of mice intranasally inoculated with the amebae and the other study addressed the response of mice swimming in N. fowleri infected water. The measured response for both studies was death. All experimental data were best fit by the beta-Poisson dose-response model. The three swimming experiments could be pooled, and this is the final recommended model with an LD50 of 13,257 amebae...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Suntae Lee, Mamoru Suwa, Hiroyuki Shigemura
F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) have been suggested as good indicators of the presence of human enteric viruses in water treatment facilities. The occurrence and reduction of norovirus (NoV) and FRNAPH genotypes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been well studied; however, the relationship between these genotypes in WWTPs has not been fully elucidated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the occurrence and reduction of FRNAPH genotypes in an attempt to identify NoV indicators in a WWTP via a 1-year survey...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel Heath
The characterization of microbial community dynamics using genomic methods is rapidly expanding, impacting many fields including medical, ecological, and environmental research and applications. One of the biggest challenges for such studies is the isolation of environmental DNA (eDNA) from a variety of samples, diverse microbes, and widely variable community compositions. The current study developed environmentally friendly, user safe, economical, and high throughput eDNA extraction methods for mixed aquatic microbial communities and tested them using 16 s rRNA gene meta-barcoding...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Mohammad Javad Amiri, Maryam Khozaei, Antonio Gil
The Thomas equation is a popular model that has been widely used to predict breakthrough curves (BTCs) when describing the dynamic adsorption of different pollutants in a fixed-bed column system. However, BTCs commonly exhibit unsymmetrical patterns that cannot be predicted using empirical equations such as the Thomas model. Fortunately, adaptive neural-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) can be used to model complex patterns found in adsorption processes in a fixed-bed column system. Consequently, a new hybrid model merging Thomas and an ANFIS was introduced to estimate the performance of BTCs, which were obtained for Cd(II) ion adsorption on ostrich bone ash-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI)...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Shakhawat Chowdhury
Desalinated seawater is the major source of drinking water in many countries. During desalination, several activities including pretreatment, desalination, stabilization, mixing, storage and distribution are performed. Few disinfectants are used during these activities to control the biofouling agents and microbiological regrowth. The reactions between the disinfectants and natural organic matter (NOM), bromide and iodide form disinfection by-products (DBPs) in product water. The product water is stabilized and mixed with treated freshwater (e...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Aparna Lal, Paul Konings
There is little evidence on how the health impacts of drought vary spatially and temporally. With a focus on waterborne cryptosporidiosis, we identify spatio-temporal hotspots and by using interrupted time series analysis, examine the impact of Australia's Big Dry (2001-2009) in these disease clusters in the Murray Darling Drainage Basin. Analyses revealed a statistically significant hotspot in the north of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and a hotspot in the north-eastern end of the basin in Queensland...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
John E Moore, John McCaughan, Jonathan Stirling, Jane Bell, B Cherie Millar
The frequency of seasonal snowfall results in the transient covering of gardens/amenity sites/open public spaces, which encourages recreational interaction mainly with children. No data is available demonstrating the microbiological composition of such fallen snow and therefore a study was undertaken to examine the microbiology of snow from 37 sites, estimating (i) total viable count (TVC), (ii) identification of bacteria, and (iii) the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mean TVC count of 8.3 colony-forming units (cfu)/ml snow melt water, 51...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Scott P Grytdal, Robert Weatherholtz, Douglas H Esposito, James Campbell, Raymond Reid, Nicole Gregoricus, Chandra Schneeberger, Tina S Lusk, Lihua Xiao, Nancy Garrett, Cheryl Bopp, Laura L Hammitt, Jan Vinjé, Vincent R Hill, Katherine L O'Brien, Aron J Hall
The Navajo Nation includes approximately 250,000 American Indians living in a remote high desert environment with limited access to public water systems. We conducted a pilot case-control study to assess associations between acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and water availability, use patterns, and quality. Case patients with AGE and non-AGE controls who presented for care to two Indian Health Service hospitals were recruited. Data on demographics and water use practices were collected using a standard questionnaire...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Luz Chacón, Víctor Arias, Kenia Barrantes, Wilson Beita-Sandí, Liliana Reyes, Rosario Achí
This study used the Canadian Water Quality Index (CWI) to characterize water sampled at three points within the Purires River micro basin, Costa Rica. The first sampling point is located in a high zone with domestic agricultural activities, the second point around the mid-point of the flow of the river, and the third point at the lowest zone with extensive agricultural activities mainly centered on the production of fresh vegetables. Eleven physicochemical parameters (As, Cd, Cr, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4 + , NO3 - , Pb, pH, percent saturation of dissolved oxygen (PSO), and total suspended solids (TSS)) and two microbiological parameters (fecal coliforms and enterococci) were evaluated...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Ana Barbosa-Vasconcelos, Ângelo Mendes, Flávia Martins, Elisabete Lopes, Ana Machado, Adriano A Bordalo, Paulo Vaz-Pires, Natividade Vieira, Paulo Martins da Costa, Lucinda J Bessa
The Ave River in northern Portugal has a history of riverbanks and water quality degradation. The river water quality was assessed by physicochemical, biological (macroinvertebrates) and microbiological (Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli) parameters in six locations (A-F, point A being the nearest to the source) throughout its course during a year. Epilithic biofilms were studied through polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing helped with selecting isolates (n = 149 E...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
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