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Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

Minami Goto, Keishi Owaki, Akihiro Hirata, Tokuma Yanai, Hiroki Sakai
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an apoptosis-inducing cytokine that shows potential therapeutic value for human neoplasms, and is effective in some canine tumors; however, its potential for killing canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cells is unknown. Thus, we evaluated the proapoptotic effect of TRAIL in nine canine HSA cell lines. Cells (JuA1, JuB2, JuB2-1, JuB4, Re11, Re12, Re21, Ud2, and Ud6) were cultured with three recombinant human TRAILs (rhTRAILs): TRAIL-TEC derived from Escherichia coli, TRAIL-TL derived from mammalian cells, and izTRAIL containing an isoleucine-zippered structure that facilitates trimerization...
February 15, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Emma A Hurst, Lisa Y Pang, David J Argyle
The inducible inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) are prominent tumour promoters, and expression of COX-2 is elevated in a number of tumours of both humans and canines. Targeting COX-2 in cancer is an attractive option due to readily available non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and there is a clear epidemiological link between NSAID use and cancer risk. In this study we aim to establish the anti-tumourigenic effects of the selective, long-acting COX-2 inhibitor mavacoxib...
February 15, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Leonardo Della Salda, Marcella Massimini, Mariarita Romanucci, Chiara Palmieri, Antonella Perillo, Valeria Grieco, Daniela Malatesta, Maria Antonia Spinillo, Giuseppe Passantino, Francesco Dondi, Cinzia Benazzi
Nectin-4 is an E-cadherin-based adherens junction protein of normal epithelial cells, as well as a potent mediator of anchorage-independent cancer colony formation. It is considered a tumour-associated histological and serological marker in various human cancers. The transcription factor p63 is a basal cell marker in the normal prostate, involved in cell adhesion, as well as in the formation and survival of circulating tumour cell clusters. The aim of this study was to evaluate Nectin-4 and p63 immunohistochemical expression in 42 canine prostate tissues including 2 normal prostates, 10 benign prostatic hyperplasias (BPHs), 30 prostatic carcinomas (PCs), 1 pulmonary and 1 lymph node metastasis...
February 15, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Masaya Igase, Kazuha Shousu, Noriyuki Fujiki, Masashi Sakurai, Makoto Bonkobara, Chung Chew Hwang, Matt Coffey, Shunsuke Noguchi, Yuki Nemoto, Takuya Mizuno
Canine histiocytic sarcoma is an aggressive, fatal neoplastic disease with a poor prognosis. Lomustine is generally accepted as the first-line systemic therapy, although this compound does not provide complete regression. Therefore, research into a novel approach against canine histiocytic sarcoma is needed. However, anti-tumour effects of oncolytic therapy using reovirus against histiocytic sarcoma are unknown. Here, we showed that reovirus has oncolytic activity in canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo...
February 14, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Peiran Li, Jigui Wang, Gaoxiang Chen, Xiaomei Zhang, Degui Lin, Yun Zhou, Yongle Yu, Weiquan Liu, Di Zhang
Canine distemper virus (CDV), bearing a close resemblance to measles virus, represents a promising candidate for oncolytic therapy; however, its application and underlying oncolytic mechanisms in canine mammary carcinoma cells remain to be explored. Here, we found that an attenuated canine distemper vaccine strain, CDV-L, efficiently infected and inhibited the growth of canine mammary tubular adenocarcinoma CIPp cells but not MDCK cells in vitro. Transcriptomic analysis of CDV-L-infected CIPp cells revealed substantially differentially expressed genes in apoptotic and NF-κB signaling pathways...
February 12, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Franziska Schmidt, Daniela Brodesser, Martin Reifinger, Sara Forte, Pia Semp, Matthias C Eberspächer-Schweda, Markus Wolschek, Sabine Brandt, Miriam Kleiter, Barbara Pratscher
Canine oral malignant melanoma (COMM) is a potentially lethal cancer disease. We established primary cell lines from mostly amelanotic primary COMM and metastases and assessed lesions and derived cells for Melan A, PNL2 and CD146 expression. Then, migration and invasion of CD146-enriched versus -depleted COMM cells were analysed. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was addressed by Vimentin-staining and MMP2/MMP9 zymography. Phagocytic behaviour was analysed by histopathological examination and phagocytosis assay...
February 4, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Filippo Torrigiani, Alessio Pierini, Ron Lowe, Petra Simčič, George Lubas
Canine soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are locally invasive mesenchymal neoplasms. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is an antitumour local ablative treatment that uses electric pulses to enhance the intracellular delivery of cytotoxic drugs. The aim of this retrospective study was to review the current treatment for STSs and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ECT with bleomycin in canine STSs. Fifty-two dogs with 54 STSs were included. Three groups were arranged: (1) ECT alone, (2) intra-operative ECT, and (3) adjuvant ECT...
January 27, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Jennifer L Willcox, Stanley L Marks, Yu Ueda, Katherine A Skorupski
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a frequently recognized dermal tumor in dogs and has been described as a common pathology induced by solar ultraviolet radiation exposure. Little has been published about this neoplasm with regard to clinical features and outcome in dogs. This retrospective study included 193 dogs from a single institution histopathologically diagnosed with SCC of the dermis. Thirty-eight percent of all dogs had documented histopathologic actinic change. The overall median survival time was 1004 days, with the population demonstrating actinic change associated with a significantly longer survival time (median 1359 days, range 16-3530 days) compared to dogs without actinic change (median 680 days, range 16-3066 days) and this achieved significance on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0...
January 25, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Lauren J Harris, Kelly L Hughes, E J Ehrhart, Julia D Labadie, Janna Yoshimoto, Anne C Avery
T-cell lymphomas (TCL) are a diverse group of neoplasms with variable diagnostic features, pathophysiologies, therapeutic responses, and clinical outcomes. In dogs, TCL includes indolent and aggressive tumors such as T-zone lymphoma (TZL) and peripheral T-cell lymhoma (PTCL), respectively. Delineation of molecular subtypes and investigation into underlying pathophysiologies of aggressive TCLs remains inadequate. We investigate the correlations between flow cytometry and histopathology of 73 cases of nodal TCL...
January 25, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Sita S Withers, Daniel York, Jin W Choi, Kevin D Woolard, Renee Laufer-Amorim, Ellen E Sparger, Jenna H Burton, Stephen J McSorley, Arta M Monjazeb, William J Murphy, Robert J Canter, Robert B Rebhun
Our lack of understanding of the immune microenvironment in canine osteosarcoma (cOSA) has limited the identification of potential immunotherapeutic targets. In particular, our ability to utilize readily available tissue from a dog's primary tumor to predict the type and extent of immune response in their pulmonary metastatic lesions is unknown. We therefore collected 21 matched pairs of primary tumors and pulmonary metastatic lesions from dogs with OSA and performed immunohistochemistry to quantify T lymphocyte (CD3), FOXP3+ cell, B lymphocyte (Pax-5), and CD204+ macrophage infiltration...
January 25, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Kirsten Bogedale, Vidhya Jagannathan, Vinzenz Gerber, Lucia Unger
The aim of this study was to investigate microRNA (miRNA) differential expression in the two most common equine skin tumors, equine sarcoid (ES) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and its potential influence on the tumor microenvironment at post-transcriptional level. We investigated miRNA fingerprints in four subgroups: mild (ESM) and aggressive (ESA) ES and ocular SCC (oSCC) and genital SCC (gSCC). Three tumor and three control samples were included in each of the four subgroups. Following next generation sequencing (NGS), miRNA differential expression analysis using DESeq2 was carried out...
January 25, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Dan Linden, Julius M Liptak, Arathi Vinayak, Janet A Grimes, Maninder Sandey, Whitney Smiley, Brad M Matz
Primary abdominal visceral soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare tumors in dogs with little information available on outcomes. The goal of this retrospective, multi-institutional study was to describe the common tumor types, location, and prognostic factors associated with primary abdominal visceral soft tissue sarcomas. Medical records were searched for dogs with primary abdominal visceral STSs at six institutions and were retrospectively reviewed. Tumors were graded using the previously described grading scheme for STSs of the skin and subcutis when information in the histopathology report contained adequate detail...
January 21, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Katherine Smallwood, Jean-Benoit Tanis, Iain Andrew Grant, Laura Blackwood, David Roper Killick, Isabel Amores-Fuster, James Elliott, Aran Mas, Aaron Harper, Mary Marrington, Riccardo Finotello
The DMAC protocol (dexamethasone, melphalan, actinomycin-D, cytarabine) has been evaluated in American studies for the treatment of relapsed canine lymphoma, comparing similarly to other rescue protocols. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of DMAC, in a larger United Kingdom cohort of resistant canine lymphomas. Medical records of dogs with resistant non-Hodgkin high-grade lymphomas that received DMAC as a rescue protocol were reviewed from 2007-2017. Response, time from initiation to discontinuation (TTD), and toxicity (VCOG criteria) were assessed...
January 21, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Patrick Alastair Daniel Smith, Shona Burnside, Jenny Rose Helm, Joanna Siriol Morris
Veterinary clients may have trepidation about treating their pet with radiotherapy due to concerns about radiation side effects or repeated anaesthetics. The purpose of this study is to assess whether owners' attitudes towards veterinary radiotherapy, including concerns over side effects, change during the course of treatment, and whether radiotherapy was perceived to affect pets' quality of life. A prospective cohort study of clients from 2012-2015 was performed. Pets received palliative or definitive radiotherapy for various tumours...
January 20, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Luke A Wittenburg, Kristen Weishaar, Dominique Ramirez, Daniel L Gustafson
Doxorubicin (DOX) area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated for 40 dogs with spontaneously occurring cancers using a previously validated limited-sampling approach. All dogs were administered a dose of 30 mg/m2 by intravenous infusion and serum samples were collected at 5, 45 and 60 minutes post-infusion. Doxorubicin and its major metabolite, doxorubicinol (Doxol), were quantified in serum samples using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Wide interpatient variability was observed in the predicted DOX AUC with a coefficient of variation of 34%...
January 14, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
N Shimizu, A Hamaide, M Dourcy, S Noël, C Clercx, E Teske
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is a chemotactic cytokine recruiting monocytes, releasing growth factors and promoting adhesion in vascular endothelium. Elevated serum and urinary CCL2 levels and expression of its receptor (CCR2) have been associated with tumorigenesis in human urinary malignancies. CCL2 implication has not been investigated in canine urothelial carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate CCL2 serum and urine levels (measured by ELISA) in dogs with urothelial carcinoma or non-neoplastic urinary tract disease...
December 26, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Carmit Chalfon, Valeria Martini, Stefano Comazzi, Luca Aresu, Damiano Stefanello, Fulvio Riondato, Roberta Ferrari, Laura Marconato
Most dogs with large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) that undergo chemotherapy and achieve clinical complete remission (CR) eventually relapse. However, time to relapse (TTR) is unpredictable. The aims of this prospective study were to assess the influence of post-chemotherapy lymph node (LN) infiltration by large CD21+ cells using flow cytometry (FC) on TTR, and to establish a cut-off value of prognostic significance. Dogs with newly-diagnosed, completely staged LBCL in CR after treatment were enrolled. Minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis by FC was performed on LN aspirates...
December 21, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Tatsuya Deguchi, Kenji Hosoya, Yusuke Murase, Koangyong Sung, Sangho Kim, Masahiro Okumura
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are self-renewing cells comprising a small subpopulation in tumors, and generate differentiated progeny via asymmetric division. It has been shown that CSCs are resistant to ionizing radiation, and this feature could be one of the mechanisms of tumor recurrence after radiation therapy. Much attention has been focused on to target CSCs; however, difficulty of isolating CSCs and lack of knowledge on their radiosensitivity have limited this kind of research in veterinary medicine...
December 13, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Katelyn W Marlowe, Cecilia S Robat, Dawn M Clarke, Angela Taylor, Maude Touret, Brian D Husbands, David M Vail
Primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma (PHS) has been reported, but is not well characterized. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe clinical characteristics, characterize prognostic factors and report the outcome of a larger group of dogs with primary PHS. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with primary PHS at 11 institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-seven dogs were included; 13 received CCNU-based chemotherapy alone, 18 received surgery and adjuvant CCNU-based chemotherapy, 3 received medical management alone and 3 dogs received surgery alone...
December 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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