Christopher J Buswinka, Richard T Osgood, Rubina G Simikyan, David B Rosenberg, Artur A Indzhykulian
Our sense of hearing is mediated by sensory hair cells, precisely arranged and highly specialized cells subdivided into outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs). Light microscopy tools allow for imaging of auditory hair cells along the full length of the cochlea, often yielding more data than feasible to manually analyze. Currently, there are no widely applicable tools for fast, unsupervised, unbiased, and comprehensive image analysis of auditory hair cells that work well either with imaging datasets containing an entire cochlea or smaller sampled regions...
March 22, 2023: PLoS Biology
Yuting Lei, Yuwei Huang, Ke Yang, Xueya Cao, Yuzhao Song, Enrique Martín-Blanco, José Carlos Pastor-Pareja
Knowledge of adipogenetic mechanisms is essential to understand and treat conditions affecting organismal metabolism and adipose tissue health. In Drosophila, mature adipose tissue (fat body) exists in larvae and adults. In contrast to the well-known development of the larval fat body from the embryonic mesoderm, adult adipogenesis has remained mysterious. Furthermore, conclusive proof of its physiological significance is lacking. Here, we show that the adult fat body originates from a pool of undifferentiated mesodermal precursors that migrate from the thorax into the abdomen during metamorphosis...
March 22, 2023: PLoS Biology
Yaqing Su, Lucy J MacGregor, Itsaso Olasagasti, Anne-Lise Giraud
Understanding speech requires mapping fleeting and often ambiguous soundwaves to meaning. While humans are known to exploit their capacity to contextualize to facilitate this process, how internal knowledge is deployed online remains an open question. Here, we present a model that extracts multiple levels of information from continuous speech online. The model applies linguistic and nonlinguistic knowledge to speech processing, by periodically generating top-down predictions and incorporating bottom-up incoming evidence in a nested temporal hierarchy...
March 22, 2023: PLoS Biology
Kelly M Richardson, Perran A Ross, Brandon S Cooper, William R Conner, Tom Schmidt, Ary A Hoffmann
Bacteria that live inside the cells of insect hosts (endosymbionts) can alter the reproduction of their hosts, including the killing of male offspring (male killing, MK). MK has only been described in a few insects, but this may reflect challenges in detecting MK rather than its rarity. Here, we identify MK Wolbachia at a low frequency (around 4%) in natural populations of Drosophila pseudotakahashii. MK Wolbachia had a stable density and maternal transmission during laboratory culture, but the MK phenotype which manifested mainly at the larval stage was lost rapidly...
March 22, 2023: PLoS Biology
Yuka Koike, Sarah Pickles, Virginia Estades Ayuso, Karen Jansen-West, Yue A Qi, Ziyi Li, Lillian M Daughrity, Mei Yue, Yong-Jie Zhang, Casey N Cook, Dennis W Dickson, Michael Ward, Leonard Petrucelli, Mercedes Prudencio
A major function of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is to repress the inclusion of cryptic exons during RNA splicing. One of these cryptic exons is in UNC13A, a genetic risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The accumulation of cryptic UNC13A in disease is heightened by the presence of a risk haplotype located within the cryptic exon itself. Here, we revealed that TDP-43 extreme N-terminus is important to repress UNC13A cryptic exon inclusion. Further, we found hnRNP L, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP A2B1 bind UNC13A RNA and repress cryptic exon inclusion, independently of TDP-43...
March 17, 2023: PLoS Biology
Jens Puschhof, Eran Elinav
Human microbiome research is evolving from describing associations to understanding the impact of bioactive strains on humans. Despite challenges, progress is being made to apply data-driven microbiome diagnostics and interventions, potentially leading to precision medicine breakthroughs in the next decade.
March 17, 2023: PLoS Biology
Tian-Yeh Lim, Blake R Wilde, Mallory L Thomas, Kristin E Murphy, Jeffery M Vahrenkamp, Megan E Conway, Katherine E Varley, Jason Gertz, Donald E Ayer
The c-Myc protooncogene places a demand on glucose uptake to drive glucose-dependent biosynthetic pathways. To meet this demand, c-Myc protein (Myc henceforth) drives the expression of glucose transporters, glycolytic enzymes, and represses the expression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), which is a potent negative regulator of glucose uptake. A Mychigh/TXNIPlow gene signature is clinically significant as it correlates with poor clinical prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) but not in other subtypes of breast cancer, suggesting a functional relationship between Myc and TXNIP...
March 17, 2023: PLoS Biology
Mingjun Zhu, Jiahuang Lv, Wei Wang, Rongli Guo, Chunyan Zhong, Avan Antia, Qiru Zeng, Jizong Li, Qingtao Liu, Jinzhu Zhou, Xuejiao Zhu, Baochao Fan, Siyuan Ding, Bin Li
Coronaviruses (CoVs) comprise a group of important human and animal pathogens. Despite extensive research in the past 3 years, the host innate immune defense mechanisms against CoVs remain incompletely understood, limiting the development of effective antivirals and non-antibody-based therapeutics. Here, we performed an integrated transcriptomic analysis of porcine jejunal epithelial cells infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and identified cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 2 (CMPK2) as a potential host restriction factor...
March 17, 2023: PLoS Biology
Yongqiang Xue, Aravindan Krishnan, Juan Sebastian Chahda, Robert Allen Schweickart, Rui Sousa-Neves, Claudia Mieko Mizutani
Morphogenetic gradients specify distinct cell populations within tissues. Originally, morphogens were conceived as substances that act on a static field of cells, yet cells usually move during development. Thus, the way cell fates are defined in moving cells remains a significant and largely unsolved problem. Here, we investigated this issue using spatial referencing of cells and 3D spatial statistics in the Drosophila blastoderm to reveal how cell density responds to morphogenetic activity. We show that the morphogen decapentaplegic (DPP) attracts cells towards its peak levels in the dorsal midline, whereas dorsal (DL) stalls them ventrally...
March 13, 2023: PLoS Biology
Joseph J Ziminski, Polytimi Frangou, Vasilis M Karlaftis, Uzay Emir, Zoe Kourtzi
Experience and training are known to boost our skills and mold the brain's organization and function. Yet, structural plasticity and functional neurotransmission are typically studied at different scales (large-scale networks, local circuits), limiting our understanding of the adaptive interactions that support learning of complex cognitive skills in the adult brain. Here, we employ multimodal brain imaging to investigate the link between microstructural (myelination) and neurochemical (GABAergic) plasticity for decision-making...
March 10, 2023: PLoS Biology
Chenguang Zhao, Yuanjun Kong, Dongwei Li, Jing Huang, Lujiao Kong, Xiaoli Li, Ole Jensen, Yan Song
A growing body of research demonstrates that distracting inputs can be proactively suppressed via spatial cues, nonspatial cues, or experience, which are governed by more than one top-down mechanism of attention. However, how the neural mechanisms underlying spatial distractor cues guide proactive suppression of distracting inputs remains unresolved. Here, we recorded electroencephalography signals from 110 participants in 3 experiments to identify the role of alpha activity in proactive distractor suppression induced by spatial cues and its influence on subsequent distractor inhibition...
March 8, 2023: PLoS Biology
Guusje Collin, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli
Delineating the human brain network and analyzing its architecture is one of the major goals of modern neuroscience. Here, we commemorate a 2008 landmark structural connectome study in PLOS Biology and gauge how it shaped the field of brain network science.
March 6, 2023: PLoS Biology
Haibo Xie, Yunsi Kang, Junjun Liu, Min Huang, Zhicheng Dai, Jiale Shi, Shuo Wang, Lanqin Li, Yuan Li, Pengfei Zheng, Yi Sun, Qize Han, Jingjing Zhang, Zezhang Zhu, Leilei Xu, Pamela C Yelick, Muqing Cao, Chengtian Zhao
Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is the most common spinal deformity diagnosed in childhood or early adolescence, while the underlying pathogenesis of this serious condition remains largely unknown. Here, we report zebrafish ccdc57 mutants exhibiting scoliosis during late development, similar to that observed in human adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Zebrafish ccdc57 mutants developed hydrocephalus due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow defects caused by uncoordinated cilia beating in ependymal cells. Mechanistically, Ccdc57 localizes to ciliary basal bodies and controls the planar polarity of ependymal cells through regulating the organization of microtubule networks and proper positioning of basal bodies...
March 2, 2023: PLoS Biology
Taavi Päll, Hannes Luidalepp, Tanel Tenson, Ülo Maiväli
We assess inferential quality in the field of differential expression profiling by high-throughput sequencing (HT-seq) based on analysis of datasets submitted from 2008 to 2020 to the NCBI GEO data repository. We take advantage of the parallel differential expression testing over thousands of genes, whereby each experiment leads to a large set of p-values, the distribution of which can indicate the validity of assumptions behind the test. From a well-behaved p-value set π0, the fraction of genes that are not differentially expressed can be estimated...
March 2, 2023: PLoS Biology
Joseph D Jones, Brandon L Holder, Kiran R Eiken, Alex Vogt, Adriana I Velarde, Alexandra J Elder, Jennifer A McEllin, Stephane Dissel
Sleep is a complex and plastic behavior regulated by multiple brain regions and influenced by numerous internal and external stimuli. Thus, to fully uncover the function(s) of sleep, cellular resolution of sleep-regulating neurons needs to be achieved. Doing so will help to unequivocally assign a role or function to a given neuron or group of neurons in sleep behavior. In the Drosophila brain, neurons projecting to the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) have emerged as a key sleep-regulating area. To dissect the contribution of individual dFB neurons to sleep, we undertook an intersectional Split-GAL4 genetic screen focusing on cells contained within the 23E10-GAL4 driver, the most widely used tool to manipulate dFB neurons...
March 2, 2023: PLoS Biology
Josipa Alilović, Eline Lampers, Heleen A Slagter, Simon van Gaal
We occasionally misinterpret ambiguous sensory input or report a stimulus when none is presented. It is unknown whether such errors have a sensory origin and reflect true perceptual illusions, or whether they have a more cognitive origin (e.g., are due to guessing), or both. When participants performed an error-prone and challenging face/house discrimination task, multivariate electroencephalography (EEG) analyses revealed that during decision errors (mistaking a face for a house), sensory stages of visual information processing initially represent the presented stimulus category...
March 2, 2023: PLoS Biology
Miguel Hernandez-Gonzalez, Thomas Calcraft, Andrea Nans, Peter B Rosenthal, Michael Way
During its cytoplasmic replication, vaccinia virus assembles non-infectious spherical immature virions (IVs) coated by a viral D13 lattice. Subsequently, IV mature into infectious brick-shaped intracellular mature virions (IMVs) that lack D13. Here, we performed cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) of frozen-hydrated vaccinia-infected cells to structurally characterise the maturation process in situ. During IMV formation, a new viral core forms inside IV with a wall consisting of trimeric pillars arranged in a new pseudohexagonal lattice...
March 2, 2023: PLoS Biology
Marco K Wittmann, Maximilian Scheuplein, Sophie G Gibbons, MaryAnn P Noonan
Reward-guided choice is fundamental for adaptive behaviour and depends on several component processes supported by prefrontal cortex. Here, across three studies, we show that two such component processes, linking reward to specific choices and estimating the global reward state, develop during human adolescence and are linked to the lateral portions of the prefrontal cortex. These processes reflect the assignment of rewards contingently to local choices, or noncontingently, to choices that make up the global reward history...
March 2, 2023: PLoS Biology
Luciana López-Jury, Francisco García-Rosales, Eugenia González-Palomares, Johannes Wetekam, Michael Pasek, Julio C Hechavarria
Substantial progress in the field of neuroscience has been made from anaesthetized preparations. Ketamine is one of the most used drugs in electrophysiology studies, but how ketamine affects neuronal responses is poorly understood. Here, we used in vivo electrophysiology and computational modelling to study how the auditory cortex of bats responds to vocalisations under anaesthesia and in wakefulness. In wakefulness, acoustic context increases neuronal discrimination of natural sounds. Neuron models predicted that ketamine affects the contextual discrimination of sounds regardless of the type of context heard by the animals (echolocation or communication sounds)...
February 21, 2023: PLoS Biology
Jay Miles, Sarah Townend, Dovilė Milonaitytė, William Smith, Francesca Hodge, David R Westhead, Patricija van Oosten-Hawle
Organismal proteostasis is maintained by intercellular signaling processes including cell nonautonomous stress responses such as transcellular chaperone signaling (TCS). When TCS is activated upon tissue-specific knockdown of hsp-90 in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine, heat-inducible hsp-70 is induced in muscle cells at the permissive temperature resulting in increased heat stress resistance and lifespan extension. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanism and signaling factors mediating transcellular activation of hsp-70 expression from one tissue to another is still in its infancy...
February 13, 2023: PLoS Biology
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