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Physics of Plasmas

Yifei Guan, Ravi Sankar Vaddi, Alberto Aliseda, Igor Novosselov
We present an analytical model for electro-hydrodynamic flow that describes the relationship between the corona voltage, electric field, and ion charge density. The interaction between the accelerated ions and the neutral gas molecules is modeled as an external body force in the Navier-Stokes equation. The gas flow characteristics are solved from conservation principles with spectral methods. This multiphysics model is shown to match experimental data for a point-to-ring corona configuration, shedding new insights into mass, charge, and momentum transport phenomena, and can be readily implemented in any numerical simulation...
August 2018: Physics of Plasmas
Daniel J Gershman, Adolfo F-Viñas, John C Dorelli, Melvyn L Goldstein, Jason Shuster, Levon A Avanov, Scott A Boardsen, Julia E Stawarz, Steven J Schwartz, Conrad Schiff, Benoit Lavraud, Yoshifumi Saito, William R Paterson, Barbara L Giles, Craig J Pollock, Robert J Strangeway, Christopher T Russell, Roy B Torbert, Thomas E Moore, James L Burch
Turbulence is a fundamental physical process through which energy injected into a system at large scales cascades to smaller scales. In collisionless plasmas, turbulence provides a critical mechanism for dissipating electromagnetic energy. Here we present observations of plasma fluctuations in low- β turbulence using data from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in Earth's magnetosheath. We provide constraints on the partitioning of turbulent energy density in the fluid, ion-kinetic, and electron-kinetic ranges...
2018: Physics of Plasmas
Yi-Hsin Liu, M Hesse, F Guo, H Li, T K M Nakamura
We demonstrate that the dragging of the magnetic field by the super-Alfvénic shear flows out of the reconnection plane can strongly localize the reconnection x-line in collisionless pair plasmas, reversing the current direction at the x-line. Reconnection with this new morphology, which is impossible in resistive-magnetohydrodynamics, is enabled by the particle inertia. Surprisingly, the quasi-steady reconnection rate remains of order 0.1 even though the aspect ratio of the local x-line geometry is larger than unity, which completely excludes the role of tearing physics...
2018: Physics of Plasmas
Y P Opachich, R F Heeter, M A Barrios, E M Garcia, R S Craxton, J A King, D A Liedahl, P W McKenty, M B Schneider, M J May, R Zhang, P W Ross, J L Kline, A S Moore, J L Weaver, K A Flippo, T S Perry
Direct drive implosions of plastic capsules have been performed at the National Ignition Facility to provide a broad-spectrum (500-2000 eV) X-ray continuum source for X-ray transmission spectroscopy. The source was developed for the high-temperature plasma opacity experimental platform. Initial experiments using 2.0 mm diameter polyalpha-methyl styrene capsules with ∼20  μ m thickness have been performed. X-ray yields of up to ∼1 kJ/sr have been measured using the Dante multichannel diode array...
June 2017: Physics of Plasmas
Y H Ding, S X Hu
Beryllium has been considered a superior ablator material for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs. An accurate equation-of-state (EOS) of beryllium under extreme conditions is essential for reliable ICF designs. Based on density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have established a wide-range beryllium EOS table of density ρ  = 0.001 to 500 g/cm3 and temperature T  = 2000 to 108  K. Our first-principle equation-of-state (FPEOS) table is in better agreement with the widely used SESAME EOS table ( SESAME 2023) than the average-atom INFERNO and Purgatorio models...
June 2017: Physics of Plasmas
T Gyergyek, J Kovačič
A one-dimensional, two-fluid, steady state model is used for the analysis of ion temperature effects to the plasma-wall transition. In this paper, the model is solved for a finite ratio ε between the Debye and the ionization length, while in Part II [T. Gyergyek and J. Kovačič, Phys Plasmas 24, 063506 (2017)], the solutions for [Formula: see text] are presented. Ion temperature is treated as a given, independent parameter and it is included in the model as a boundary condition. It is shown that when the ion temperature larger than zero is selected, the ion flow velocity and the electric field at the boundary must be consistent with the selected ion temperature...
June 2017: Physics of Plasmas
Gregory G Howes
Under the low density and high temperature conditions typical of heliospheric plasmas, the macroscopic evolution of the heliosphere is strongly affected by the kinetic plasma physics governing fundamental microphysical mechanisms. Kinetic turbulence, collisionless magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration, and kinetic instabilities are four poorly understood, grand-challenge problems that lie at the new frontier of kinetic heliophysics. The increasing availability of high cadence and high phase-space resolution measurements of particle velocity distributions by current and upcoming spacecraft missions and of massively parallel nonlinear kinetic simulations of weakly collisional heliospheric plasmas provides the opportunity to transform our understanding of these kinetic mechanisms through the full utilization of the information contained in the particle velocity distributions...
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
Thomas Sunn Pedersen, Andreas Dinklage, Yuriy Turkin, Robert Wolf, Sergey Bozhenkov, Joachim Geiger, Golo Fuchert, Hans-Stephan Bosch, Kian Rahbarnia, Henning Thomsen, Ulrich Neuner, Thomas Klinger, Andreas Langenberg, Humberto Trimiño Mora, Petra Kornejew, Jens Knauer, Matthias Hirsch, Novimir Pablant
The first physics operation phase on the stellarator experiment Wendelstein 7-X was successfully completed in March 2016 after about 10 weeks of operation. Experiments in this phase were conducted with five graphite limiters as the primary plasma-facing components. Overall, the results were beyond the expectations published shortly before the start of operation [Sunn Pedersen et al. , Nucl. Fusion 55 , 126001 (2015)] both with respect to parameters reached and with respect to physics themes addressed. We report here on some of the most important plasma experiments that were conducted...
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
Robert Hager, Jianying Lang, C S Chang, S Ku, Y Chen, S E Parker, M F Adams
As an alternative option to kinetic electrons, the gyrokinetic total-f particle-in-cell (PIC) code XGC1 has been extended to the MHD/fluid type electromagnetic regime by combining gyrokinetic PIC ions with massless drift-fluid electrons analogous to Chen and Parker [Phys. Plasmas 8 , 441 (2001)]. Two representative long wavelength modes, shear Alfvén waves and resistive tearing modes, are verified in cylindrical and toroidal magnetic field geometries.
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
Juan C Fernández, D Cort Gautier, Chengkung Huang, Sasikumar Palaniyappan, Brian J Albright, Woosuk Bang, Gilliss Dyer, Andrea Favalli, James F Hunter, Jacob Mendez, Markus Roth, Martyn Swinhoe, Paul A Bradley, Oliver Deppert, Michelle Espy, Katerina Falk, Nevzat Guler, Christopher Hamilton, Bjorn Manuel Hegelich, Daniela Henzlova, Kiril D Ianakiev, Metodi Iliev, Randall P Johnson, Annika Kleinschmidt, Adrian S Losko, Edward McCary, Michal Mocko, Ronald O Nelson, Rebecca Roycroft, Miguel A Santiago Cordoba, Victor A Schanz, Gabriel Schaumann, Derek W Schmidt, Adam Sefkow, Tsutomu Shimada, Terry N Taddeucci, Alexandra Tebartz, Sven C Vogel, Erik Vold, Glen A Wurden, Lin Yin
Laser-plasma interactions in the novel regime of relativistically induced transparency (RIT) have been harnessed to generate intense ion beams efficiently with average energies exceeding 10 MeV/nucleon (>100 MeV for protons) at "table-top" scales in experiments at the LANL Trident Laser. By further optimization of the laser and target, the RIT regime has been extended into a self-organized plasma mode. This mode yields an ion beam with much narrower energy spread while maintaining high ion energy and conversion efficiency...
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
O S Jones, L J Suter, H A Scott, M A Barrios, W A Farmer, S B Hansen, D A Liedahl, C W Mauche, A S Moore, M D Rosen, J D Salmonson, D J Strozzi, C A Thomas, D P Turnbull
For several years, we have been calculating the radiation drive in laser-heated gold hohlraums using flux-limited heat transport with a limiter of 0.15, tabulated values of local thermodynamic equilibrium gold opacity, and an approximate model for not in a local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) gold emissivity (DCA_2010). This model has been successful in predicting the radiation drive in vacuum hohlraums, but for gas-filled hohlraums used to drive capsule implosions, the model consistently predicts too much drive and capsule bang times earlier than measured...
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
Ellen G Zweibel
Star formation and supermassive black hole growth in galaxies appear to be self-limiting. The mechanisms for self-regulation are known as feedback. Cosmic rays, the relativistic particle component of interstellar and intergalactic plasma, are among the agents of feedback. Because cosmic rays are virtually collisionless in the plasma environments of interest, their interaction with the ambient medium is primarily mediated by large scale magnetic fields and kinetic scale plasma waves. Because kinetic scales are much smaller than global scales, this interaction is most conveniently described by fluid models...
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
Earl Scime, Michael Mauel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
J G Chen, X Q Xu, C H Ma, P W Xi, D F Kong, Y A Lei
Recently, the stationary high confinement operations with improved pedestal conditions have been achieved in DIII-D [K. H. Burrell et al. , Phys. Plasmas 23 , 056103 (2016)], accompanying the spontaneous transition from the coherent edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) to the broadband MHD turbulence state by reducing the neutral beam injection torque to zero. It is highly significant for the burning plasma devices such as ITER. Simulations about the effects of E  ×  B shear flow on the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) are carried out using the three-field two-fluid model in the field-aligned coordinate under the BOUT++ framework...
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
I R Goumiri, C W Rowley, S A Sabbagh, D A Gates, M D Boyer, S P Gerhardt, E Kolemen, J E Menard
A model-based feedback system is presented enabling the simultaneous control of the stored energy through βn and the toroidal rotation profile of the plasma in National Spherical Torus eXperiment Upgrade device. Actuation is obtained using the momentum from six injected neutral beams and the neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by applying three-dimensional magnetic fields. Based on a model of the momentum diffusion and torque balance, a feedback controller is designed and tested in closed-loop simulations using TRANSP, a time dependent transport analysis code, in predictive mode...
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
V Miller, A Lin, F Kako, K Gabunia, S Kelemen, J Brettschneider, G Fridman, A Fridman, M Autieri
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels and normally occurs during the process of inflammatory reactions, wound healing, tissue repair, and restoration of blood flow after injury or insult. Stimulation of angiogenesis is a promising and an important step in the treatment of peripheral artery disease. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be involved in stimulation of this process. For this reason, we have developed and validated a non-equilibrium atmospheric temperature and pressure short-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma system, which can non-destructively generate reactive oxygen species and other active species at the surface of the tissue being treated...
December 2015: Physics of Plasmas
V Bogdan Neculaes, Yun Zou, Peter Zavodszky, Louis Inzinna, Xi Zhang, Kenneth Conway, Antonio Caiafa, Kristopher Frutschy, William Waters, Bruno De Man
A novel electron beam focusing scheme for medical X-ray sources is described in this paper. Most vacuum based medical X-ray sources today employ a tungsten filament operated in temperature limited regime, with electrostatic focusing tabs for limited range beam optics. This paper presents the electron beam optics designed for the first distributed X-ray source in the world for Computed Tomography (CT) applications. This distributed source includes 32 electron beamlets in a common vacuum chamber, with 32 circular dispenser cathodes operated in space charge limited regime, where the initial circular beam is transformed into an elliptical beam before being collected at the anode...
May 2014: Physics of Plasmas
G B Rieker, F R Poehlmann, M A Cappelli
Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields...
July 2013: Physics of Plasmas
Stepan S Bulanov, Valery Yu Bychenkov, Vladimir Chvykov, Galina Kalinchenko, Dale William Litzenberg, Takeshi Matsuoka, Alexander G R Thomas, Louise Willingale, Victor Yanovsky, Karl Krushelnick, Anatoly Maksimchuk
The propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through matter is connected with the generation of strong moving magnetic fields in the propagation channel as well as the formation of a thin ion filament along the axis of the channel. Upon exiting the plasma the magnetic field displaces the electrons at the back of the target, generating a quasistatic electric field that accelerates and collimates ions from the filament. Two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that a 1 PW laser pulse tightly focused on a near-critical density target is able to accelerate protons up to an energy of 1...
April 2010: Physics of Plasmas
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