Journals Expert Review of Anti-infectiv...

Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Mamoon A Aldeyab, Stuart E Bond, Ian Gould, Jade Lee-Milner, Joseph J Spencer-Jones, Achyut Guleri, Adel Sadeq, Feras Jirjees, William J Lattyak
BACKGROUND: This study aims to demonstrate the utility of a threshold logistic approach to identifying thresholds for specific antibiotic use associated with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in an English teaching hospital. METHODS: A combined approach of nonlinear modeling and logistic regression, named threshold logistic, was used to identify thresholds and risk scores in hospital-level antibiotic use associated with hospital-onset, healthcare-associated (HOHA) CDI cases...
September 27, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Joseph Pechacek, Michail S Lionakis
INTRODUCTION: Candida auris is a pathogen of growing public health concern given its rapid spread across the globe, its propensity for long-term skin colonization and healthcare related outbreaks, its resistance to a variety of antifungal medications, and the high morbidity and mortality associated with invasive disease. Despite that, the host immune response mechanisms that operate during C. auris skin colonization and invasive infection remains poorly understood. AREAS COVERED: In this manuscript, we review the available literature in the growing research field pertaining to C...
September 27, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Siva Nageswararao Gajula, Lakshmi Vineela Nalla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Giorgia Sulis, Sena Sayood, Sumanth Gandra
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic overuse is a pressing global health concern, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there is limited access to quality healthcare and insufficient regulation of antibiotic dispensation. This perspective piece highlights the challenges of antibiotic overuse in LMICs and provides insights into potential solutions to address this issue. AREAS COVERED: This perspective explores key factors contributing to antibiotic overuse in LMICs, encompassing weak healthcare infrastructure, limited access to quality services, and deficiencies in diagnostic capabilities...
September 25, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Tiyani Milta Sono, Eugene Yeika, Aislinn Cook, Aubrey Kalungia, Sylvia A Opanga, Joseph Elikem Efui Acolatse, Israel Abebrese Sefah, Ana Golić Jelić, Stephen Campbell, Giulia Lorenzetti, Zia Ul Mustafa, Vanda Marković-Peković, Amanj Kurdi, Bene D Anand Paramadhas, Godfrey Mutashambara Rwegerera, Adefolarin A Amu, Mobolaji Eniola Alabi, Evelyn Wesangula, Margaret Oluka, Felix Khuluza, Ibrahim Chikowe, Joseph O Fadare, Olayinka O Ogunleye, Dan Kibuule, Ester Hango, Natalie Schellack, Nishana Ramdas, Amos Massele, Steward Mudenda, Iris Hoxha, Catrin E Moore, Brian Godman, Johanna C Meyer
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global concern. Currently, the greatest mortality due to AMR is in Africa. A key driver continues to be high levels of dispensing of antibiotics without a prescription. AREAS COVERED: A need to document current rates of dispensing, their rationale and potential ways forward including antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs). A narrative review was undertaken. The highest rates of antibiotic purchasing were in Eritrea (up to 89...
September 23, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Vivek P Chavda, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Ranjit Sah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Nazia Khursheed, Qadeer Ahsan, Salima Rattani, Madeeha Fatima, Ali Raza, Saba Tariq, Tauqeer Mustafa, Sadia Iqbal, Sibgha Zulfiqar, Syed Masroor Ahmed, Ghulam Fatima, Shehzad Akbar Khan, Farman Ullah, Rana Altaf Ahmed, Saba Jamal
BACKGROUND: Irrational use of antibiotics intensifies resistance and jeopardizes advances made in modern medicine. We aimed to conduct a baseline gap analysis survey on antibiotic prescription practices across Pakistan. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This multi-centered cross-sectional survey was conducted at six public sector tertiary care hospitals from February 2021 to March 2021. Data related to various variables including hospital infrastructure, policies and practices, monitoring and feedback, and epidemiological, clinical, and antibiotic prescription for surveyed patients was collected using World Health Organization (WHO) Point Prevalence Survey (PPS) methodology...
September 15, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Zikria Saleem, Tiyani Milta Sono, Brian Godman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Ashfaq Ahmad, Aliya Orassay, Sidra Majaz, Aamir Saeed, Darya Sadvokassova, Alan Berdigaliyev, Salar Ahmad, Lian-Xiang Wang, Yingqiu Xie
BACKGROUND: Monkeypox is an orthopoxvirus that is responsible for zoonotic infections in humans. The virus has recently spread rapidly and the WHO has listed it as an international public health emergency of concern. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Here, we used network analysis and gene enrichment protocols and analyzed datasets of MPXV infection that induced host cell gene expression list, and subsequently mapped them against two herbal target gene lists which highlighted considerable coherence in pharmacological attributes with COVID-19...
September 14, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Roya Chegene Lorestani, Ali Shojaeian, Mosayeb Rostamian
BACKGROUND: The presence of resistant ESKAPE pathogens to antimicrobials including chemical disinfectants (ChDs) is a serious threat to public health worldwide. In the present study, we systematically reviewed published reports on mechanisms beyond ChD resistance of ESKAPE bacteria. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Several databases without date limitations were searched. Studies focused on the ChD resistance/tolerance mechanisms of ESKAPE bacteria were included. Meta-analysis was done to assess the frequency of tolerance and genes in ESKAPE clinical isolates...
September 14, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Atul K Patel, Rajeev Soman, Subhash Todi
INTRODUCTION: The management of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in low and middle income countries (LMIC) is a serious challenge due to limited epidemiology studies, sub-optimal laboratory facilities, gap in antifungal management training and resources. Limited studies highlighted distinctive epidemiology of IFIs in those countries, and difficulty in distinguishing from closely related infections. To overcome the gaps for appropriate management of IFIs, innovative approaches are required...
September 12, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Gustavo Sganzerla Martinez, Alexis Garduno, Rachel Cusack, David Andaluz-Ojeda, Guillermo Lopez-Campos, David Kelvin, Paula Ramirez, Luis Tamayo Lomas Lorenzo, Lorenzo Socias Crespi, Jesús F Bermejo-Martín
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) represents a transitory status of immunoparalysis, and we hypothesized that ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) could share also some degree of immune response to a respiratory infection. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective observational study in five medical ICUs to evaluate immunological alterations of patients with VA-LRTI. Immunological gene expression profiles in the blood using whole transcriptome microarrays in the first 24 hours following diagnosis...
September 11, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Catia Cilloniz, Juan Manuel Pericas, Walter H Curioso
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection associated with high morbimortality and a highly deleterious impact on patients' quality of life and functionality. We comprehensively review the factors related to the host, the causative microorganism, the therapeutic approach and the organization of health systems (e.g. setting for care and systems for allocation) that might have an impact on CAP-associated outcomes. Our main aims are to discuss the most controversial points and to provide some recommendations that may guide further research and the management of patients with CAP, in order to improve their outcomes, beyond mortality...
September 10, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Maria Fernanda Guerra-Veloz, Riham Soliman, Kosh Agarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Bincai Wei, Ruhao Zhang, Huatang Zeng, Liqun Wu, Rongxin He, Junyao Zheng, Hao Xue, Jinlin Liu, Fengchao Liang, Bin Zhu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the impact of antiviral drugs (fluvoxamine,remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), molnupiravir, andnirmatrelvir/ritonavir (NRV/r)) on health care utilization (HCU) inCOVID-19 patients. We summarized findings from randomized controlledtrials (RCTs) and observational studies. METHODS: We systematically searched four medical databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library) for COVID-19 studies up to February 15, 2023. A comprehensive review, meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis, and subgroup analysis were conducted...
September 5, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Kabir Sardana, Savitha Sharath, Ananta Khurana, Shamik Ghosh
INTRODUCTION: There is an emergence of increased resistance in dermatophytes with ergosterol1 (Erg1) and Erg11 mutations to terbinafine and azoles respectively. Apart from mutations, mechanisms that may explain clinical failures include efflux pumps, cellular kinases, Hsp (heat shock proteins) and biofilms. Apart from itraconazole and SUBATM (Super-Bioavailable) itraconazole, measures that can be used in terbinafine-failure include efflux-pump inhibitors, Hsp inhibitors and judicious use of antifungal drugs (topical + systemic) combination...
August 22, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Roshani Patel, Kathryn Lurain, Robert Yarchoan, Ramya Ramaswami
INTRODUCTION: Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) is associated with several diseases including Kaposi sarcoma, a form of multicentric Castleman's disease, primary effusion lymphoma, and an inflammatory cytokine syndrome. These KSHV-associated diseases (KAD) can present with heterogenous signs and symptoms that are often associated with cytokine dysregulation that may result in multiorgan dysfunction. The inability to promptly diagnose and treat these conditions can result in long-term complications and mortality...
August 15, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Sarah S Alghanem, Manar Al-Otaibi, Abdelmoneim Awad
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin dosing protocols are varied in the literature for hemodialysis patients. This study sought to determine nephrologists' practices, knowledge, attitudes, and barriers toward prescribing and monitoring vancomycin at dialysis centers. METHODS: A cross-sectional and multi-center study was conducted in Kuwait using a validated self-administered questionnaire among 168 nephrologists. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed using SPSS (version 28)...
August 12, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Gangireddy Navitha Reddy, Akanksha Jogvanshi, Sana Naikwadi, Rajesh Sonti
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern in late November 2021 presaged yet another stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Paxlovid, a co-packaged dosage form of two antiviral drugs (nirmatrelvir and ritonavir) developed by Pfizer, received its first FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) and conditional marketing by European Medical Agency in patients at high risk of developing severe COVID-19. AREAS COVERED: We reviewed the timeline of the drug nirmatrelvir from its discovery to authorization by FDA...
August 1, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Roger C Hsieh, Ryan Liu, Dylan J Burgin, Michael Otto
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a widespread pathogen, often causing recurrent and deadly infections in the hospital and community. Many S. aureus virulence factors have been suggested as potential targets for antivirulence therapy to decrease the threat of diminishing antibiotic availability. Antivirulence methods hold promise due to their adjunctive and prophylactic potential and decreased risk for selective pressure. AREAS COVERED: This review describes the dominant virulence mechanisms exerted by MRSA and antivirulence therapeutics that are currently undergoing testing in clinical or preclinical stages...
July 27, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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