Journals Expert Review of Anti-infectiv...

Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Karen Bush
INTRODUCTION: -Lactamases are some of the most prevalent and well-studied families of enzymes, especially in the area of antibiotic resistance. Early attempts to categorize them used either functional names such as penicillinase or cephalosporinase or structural designations into classes A and D. Increasing diversity of the properties of these enzymes has required a more expansive approach to nomenclature. AREAS COVERED: Historical designations for the early -lactamases relied heavily on functional names based on the biochemical properties of purified enzymes...
March 23, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jheng-Yan Wu, Po-Yu Huang, Ting-Hui Liu, Chia-Yin Kuo, Ya-Wen Tsai, Hung-Jen Tang, Chih-Cheng Lai
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess the clinical efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and were searched for studies from their inception to February 8, 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the clinical efficacy of probiotics with usual care or standard care for patients with COVID-19 were included. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality...
March 7, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jason A Roberts, Katherine Croom, Nicholas Adomakoh
INTRODUCTION: Continuous infusion (CI) of beta-lactam antibiotics may be of benefit in some patients, particularly those with severe infections. However, most studies have been small and conflicting results have been reported. The best available evidence on clinical outcomes of beta-lactam CI comes from systematic reviews/meta-analyses that integrate the available data. AREAS COVERED: A search of PubMed from inception to the end of February 2022 for systematic reviews of clinical outcomes with beta-lactam CI for any indication identified 12 reviews, all of which focused on hospitalized patients, most of whom were critically ill...
March 3, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Suhaib M Muflih, Sayer Al-Azzam, Reema A Karasneh, Barry A Bleidt, Barbara R Conway, Stuart E Bond, Mamoon A Aldeyab
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess public understanding of antibiotics, self-medication, and drug disposal practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional self-administered online survey was undertaken in Jordan. RESULTS: The study was completed by 1,105 participants. When asked about their knowledge of antibiotics, rational antibiotic use, and disposal practices, 16% percent believed they should discontinue antibiotics once they felt better, and 12% agreed to take the same antibiotics prescribed to others for the same illness...
February 27, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Johann Dd Pitout, Gisele Peirano, Rebekah DeVinney
INTRODUCTION: High-risk multidrug (MDR) clones have played essential roles in the global emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), especially among Extra-intestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC). AREAS COVERED: Successful global ExPEC MDR clones are linked with the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance, CTX-M enzymes, and with carbapenemases. This article described the underlying mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance, the acquisition of CTX-M and carbapenemase genes among three global ExPEC high-risk MDR clones, namely i) ST1193 as being an example of a fluoroquinolone resistant clone...
February 23, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Abdollah Ardebili, Ahdieh Izanloo, Mostafa Rastegar
INTRODUCTION: : The increasing prevalence of infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively-drug resistant (XDR) or difficult-to-treat drug resistant (DTR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species, and Escherichia coli poses a severe challenge. AREAS COVERED: The rapid growing of multi-resistant GNB as well as the considerable deceleration in development of new anti-infective agents have made polymyxins (e...
February 23, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jorge Luis Costa Carvalho, Ekaterina Dadachova
INTRODUCTION: : Corona Virus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has renewed interest in monoclonal antibodies for treating infectious diseases. During last two decades experimental data has been accumulated showing the potential of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of infectious diseases. In addition, COVID-19 pandemic has created a novel landscape for opportunistic fungal infections in post-COVID-19 patients resulting from severe immune suppression. AREAS COVERED: : We analyze recent results on targeting "pan-antigens" shared by fungal pathogens in mouse models and in healthy dogs; on developing RIT of prosthetic joint infections (PJI); examine RIT as potential human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cure strategy and analyze its mechanisms and safety...
February 23, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Amanj Kurdi, Niketa Platt, Aidan Morrison, Euan Proud, Karen Gronkowski, Tanja Mueller, R Andrew Seaton, William Malcolm, Marion Bennie
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the duration of antibiotic use in hospital settings. We evaluated the duration of hospital antibiotic therapy (as a quality indicator proxy) for four commonly prescribed antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline and flucloxacillin) including the assessment of COVID-19 impact. METHODS: A repeated, cross-sectional study using the Hospital Electronic Prescribing and Medicines Administration system (January/2019-March/2022)...
February 20, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Shiza Malik, Khalid Muhammad, Sana Masood Aslam, Yasir Waheed
INTRODUCTION: Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1); the causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), has been a major target of the scientific community to develop a medication or vaccine for its cure and prevention. Some successful discoveries have been made during the last two decades in the form of availability of anti-viral therapy in endemic regions. Nevertheless, a total cure and safety vaccine has not yet been designed to eradicate HIV from the world. AREAS COVERED: The purpose of this comprehensive study is to compile widespread recent data regarding therapeutic interventions against HIV and to determine future research needs in this field...
February 18, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Lorenzo Volpicelli, Mario Venditti, Alessandra Oliva
INTRODUCTION: Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) are a subtype of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), usually sustained by Gram-positive bacteria, whose incidence is high among children. ABSSSI are responsible for a considerable number of hospitalizations. Moreover, as multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens become widespread, the pediatric category seems burdened with an increased risk of resistance and treatment failure. AREAS COVERED: To obtain a view on the status of the field, we described the clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological aspects of ABSSSI in children...
February 17, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jinliang Xie, Dingwei Liu, Jianxiang Peng, Shuang Wu, Dongsheng Liu, Yong Xie
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic factors play an important role in H. pylori eradication failure whereas it can be easily missed. Therefore, we aimed to investigate and analyze these related iatrogenic factors of H. pylori eradication failure. METHODS: A total of 508 patients who experienced H. pylori eradication failure were included in this study conducted from December 2019 to February 2022. All the patients filled out a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, duration of treatment, regimens, dosage, and time intervals in rescue treatment...
February 15, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Mehran Alavi, Morahem Ashengroph
INTRODUCTION: The inactivation and eradication of multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and viruses by conventional antibiotics and drugs have not been effective. The hindering of these pathogens in hospital-acquired infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly strains of S. aureus including community-acquired methicillin-resistant (CA-MRSA) and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), is more complicated, specifically in patients having immunodeficiency syndrome. RESEARCH AREA: Bare and functionalized metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) specifically silver (Ag) NPs have shown significant antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral...
February 14, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Ashfaq Ahmad, Zhandaulet Makhmutova, Wenwen Cao, Sidra Majaz, Amr Amin, Yingqiu Xie
BACKGROUND: Although androgen in gender disparity of COVID-19 has been implied, no direct link has been provided. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Here, we applied AlphaFold multimer, bioinformatics of network pharmacology analysis, and singe cells sequencing database reanalysis to highlight specificity of Androgen receptor (AR) against Spike receptor binding protein (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Our data suggest that the LXXL motifs in Spike RBD are essential for AR binding...
February 9, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Teena Chopra
INTRODUCTION: Clostridiodes difficile infection (CDI) is a life-threatening illness that has been labelled as an urgent threat by the Centers for Disease prevention (CDC). AREAS COVERED: RBX2660, a live biotherapeutic product offers a very promising treatment option for patients with recurrent Clostridiodes difficile infection(rCDI). RBX2660 restores the healthy gut microbiome and shows clinically meaningful benefits for patients suffering from rCDI. Safety, efficacy, and tolerability of RBX2660 have been thoroughly assessed ...
February 9, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Wenjing Ji, Ali Hassan Gillani, Dan Ye, Hang Zhao, Jiaxi Du, David J McIver, Yun Tian
BACKGROUND: Senior medical students will become one of the key partners in antimicrobial stewardship efforts in the future, yet the level of education and their perceptions toward this topic are not well documented in China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: we conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey between December 2021 and February 2022. The students came from 6 universities of all five provinces/autonomous regions in northwest China. Students completed the survey by using WeChat...
February 9, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Arsha Khari, Biswambhar Biswas, Garima Gangwar, Anil Thakur, Rekha Puria
INTRODUCTION: Candida auris is included in the fungal infection category "critical" by WHO because of associated high drug tolerance and spread at an alarming rate which if remains untouched may result in serious outbreaks. Since its discovery in 2009, several assiduous efforts by mycologists across the world have deciphered its biology including growth physiology, drug tolerance, biofilm formation, etc. The differential response of various strains from different clades poses a hurdle in drawing a final conclusion...
February 8, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Andrew T Russo, Douglas W Grosenbach, Kady M Honeychurch, Paul G Long, Dennis E Hruby
INTRODUCTION: Tecovirimat oral capsule formulation is approved in the US and Canada for treatment of smallpox and in the United Kingdom (UK) and European Union (EU) for treatment of multiple human orthopoxvirus diseases, including mpox. Smallpox is considered a serious threat, and there is currently an unprecedented global mpox outbreak. AREAS COVERED: A brief summary of the threat of smallpox, the threat of increasing mpox spread in endemic regions, and the unprecedented emergence of mpox into non-endemic regions is presented...
February 2, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
George Sakoulas, Michael Nowak, Matthew Geriak
INTRODUCTION: Omadacycline is approved for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infection (ABSSSI). The integration of newer agents into clinical use involves understanding the nuances of clinical decision-making. This review will provide an in-depth focus on omadacycline in clinical practice. AREAS COVERED: Literature review of omadacycline utilizing PubMed was performed to provide a comprehensive evaluation of omadacycline pharmacology, microbiology, registrational Phase 3 clinical trials, and post-marketing clinical studies...
January 30, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Coen Butters, Karin Thursky, Diane T Hanna, Theresa Cole, Andrew Davidson, Jim Buttery, Gabrielle Haeusler
INTRODUCTION: : Febrile neutropenia is a common complication experienced by children with cancer or those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Repeated episodes of febrile neutropenia result in cumulative exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics with potential for a range of serious adverse effects. Short-course antibiotics, even in patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia, may offer a solution. AREAS COVERED: : This review addresses the known broad effects of antibiotics, highlights developments in understanding the relationship between cancer, antibiotics and the gut microbiome and discusses emerging evidence regarding long-term adverse antibiotic effects...
January 24, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Susannah Franco, Margaret R Hammerschlag
INTRODUCTION: Much has changed since Credé reported that silver nitrate decreases the incidence of ophthalmia neonatorum. Prenatal screening and treatment of pregnant women for Neisseria gonorrhoeae became standard in the 1950s and for Chlamydia trachomatis in 1993. Neonatal gonococcal and chlamydial conjunctivitis are consequently uncommon today. Currently, only 0.5% erythromycin ophthalmic ointment is available in the United States (U.S.) for neonatal ocular prophylaxis, which is ineffective against C...
January 24, 2023: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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