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Population Health Metrics

Andrés Peralta, Joan Benach, Carme Borrell, Verónica Espinel-Flores, Lucinda Cash-Gibson, Bernardo L Queiroz, Marc Marí-Dell'Olmo
Following the publication of this article [1], the authors reported a typesetting error in Table 1 that caused the columns of the table to be ordered incorrectly, and a typographical error in a sentence in the Conclusions section.
April 18, 2019: Population Health Metrics
Urarang Kitur, Tim Adair, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: Mortality in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is poorly measured because routine reporting of deaths is incomplete and inaccurate. This study provides the first estimates in the academic literature of adult mortality (45q15) in PNG by province and sex. These results are compared to a Composite Index of provincial socio-economic factors and health access. METHODS: Adult mortality estimates (45q15) by province and sex were derived using the orphanhood method from data reported in the 2000 and 2011 national censuses...
April 18, 2019: Population Health Metrics
Andrés Peralta, Joan Benach, Carme Borrell, Verónica Espinel-Flores, Lucinda Cash-Gibson, Bernardo L Queiroz, Marc Marí-Dell'Olmo
BACKGROUND: Mortality registries are an essential data source for public health surveillance and for planning and evaluating public policy. Nevertheless, there are still large inequalities in the completeness and quality of mortality registries between and within countries. In Ecuador, there have been few nationwide evaluations of the mortality registry and no evaluations of inequalities between provinces. This kind of analysis is fundamental for strengthening the vital statistics system...
March 28, 2019: Population Health Metrics
Ueli Zellweger, Christoph Junker, Matthias Bopp
BACKGROUND: Cause of death statistics are an important tool for quality control of the health care system. Their reliability, however, is controversial. Comparing death certificates with their corresponding medical records is implemented only occasionally but may point to quality problems. We aimed at exploring the agreement between information in the cause of death statistics and hospital discharge diagnoses at death. METHODS: Selection of disease categories was based on ICD-10 Tabulation List for Morbidity and ICD-10 Mortality Tabulation List 2...
March 1, 2019: Population Health Metrics
Koen Füssenich, Wilma J Nusselder, Stefan K Lhachimi, Hendriek C Boshuizen, Talitha F Feenstra
BACKGROUND: Prevention aiming at smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI could potentially bring large gains in life expectancy (LE) and health expectancy measures such as Healthy Life Years (HLY) and Life Expectancy in Good Perceived Health (LEGPH) in the European Union. However, the potential gains might differ by region. METHODS: A Sullivan life table model was applied for 27 European countries to calculate the impact of alternative scenarios of lifestyle behavior on life and health expectancy...
January 17, 2019: Population Health Metrics
Marilla Lucero, Ian Douglas Riley, Riley H Hazard, Diozele Sanvictores, Veronica Tallo, Dorothy Gay Marmita Dumaluan, Juanita M Ugpo, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: Medical certificates of cause of death (MCCOD) issued by hospital physicians are a key input to vital registration systems. Deaths certified by hospital physicians have been implicitly considered to be of high quality, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. We conducted a medical record review (MRR) of hospital MCCOD in the Philippines and compared the cause of death concordance with certificates coded by the Philippines Statistics Authority (PSA). METHODS: MCCOD for adult deaths in Bohol Regional Hospital (BRH) in 2007-2008 and 2011 were collected and reviewed by a team of study physicians...
December 29, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Junfeng Jiang, Peigang Wang
BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of urban-rural segmentation has emerged and is remarkable, and the health disparities between rural and urban China should be stressed. METHODS: Based on data from the Chinese General Social Survey from 2005 to 2013, this study not only explored the net age, period, and cohort effects of self-rated health, but compared these effects between rural and urban China from a dynamic perspective through hierarchical age-period-cohort-cross-classified random effects model...
December 27, 2018: Population Health Metrics
David E Phillips, Tim Adair, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: The registration and certification of births has a wide array of individual and societal benefits. While near-universal in some parts of the world, birth registration is less common in many low- and middle-income countries, and the quality of vital statistics vary. We assembled publicly available birth registration records for as many countries as possible into a novel global birth registration database, and we present a systematic assessment of available data. METHODS: We obtained 4918 country-years of data from 145 countries covering the period 1948-2015...
December 27, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Christian Lycke Ellingsen, Marta Ebbing, G Cecilie Alfsen, Stein Emil Vollset
BACKGROUND: For injury deaths, the underlying cause of death is defined as the circumstances leading to the injury. When this information is missing, the ICD-10 code X59 (Exposure to unspecified factor) is used. Lack of knowledge of factors causing injuries reduces the value of the cause of death statistics. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of X59-coded deaths in Norway, and to assess methods to identify the true underlying cause of injury deaths. METHODS: We used data from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry from 2005 to 2014...
December 24, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Joan K Morris, Joachim Tan, Paul Fryers, Jonathan Bestwick
BACKGROUND: Directly standardized rates (DSRs) adjust for different age distributions in different populations and enable, say, the rates of disease between the populations to be directly compared. They are routinely published but there is concern that a DSR is not valid when it is based on a "small" number of events. The aim of this study was to determine the value at which a DSR should not be published when analyzing real data in England. METHODS: Standard Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used assuming the number of events in 19 age groups (i...
December 22, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Chuen Seng Tan, Nathalie Støer, Yilin Ning, Ying Chen, Marie Reilly
BACKGROUND: To quantify temporal trends in age-standardized rates of disease, the convention is to fit a linear regression model to log-transformed rates because the slope term provides the estimated annual percentage change. However, such log-transformation is not always appropriate. METHODS: We propose an alternative method using the rank-ordered logit (ROL) model that is indifferent to log-transformation. This method quantifies the temporal trend using odds, a quantity commonly used in epidemiology, and the log-odds corresponds to the scaled slope parameter estimate from linear regression...
December 18, 2018: Population Health Metrics
David Campbell, Ken O'Day, Nadine Hertel, John R Penrod, Melinda Manley Daumont, Michael Lees
BACKGROUND: The burden of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not well understood, and the number of patients likely to receive treatment in Europe has not been quantified. The aim of this study was to forecast the annual number of patients with squamous and non-squamous advanced NSCLC likely to receive second and third lines of therapy (LOT) from 2016 to 2020 in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. METHODS: A patient count model (PCM) was developed in Microsoft Excel to estimate the number of patients with refractory advanced NSCLC eligible to receive systemic treatment...
November 26, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Irene R Mremi, Susan F Rumisha, Mercy G Chiduo, Chacha D Mangu, Denna M Mkwashapi, Coleman Kishamawe, Emanuel P Lyimo, Isolide S Massawe, Lucas E Matemba, Veneranda M Bwana, Leonard E G Mboera
BACKGROUND: Accurate and reliable hospital information on the pattern and causes of death is important to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of health policies and programs. The objective of this study was to assess the availability, accessibility, and quality of hospital mortality data in Tanzania. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved selected hospitals of Tanzania and was carried out from July to October 2016. Review of hospital death registers and forms was carried out to cover a period of 10 years (2006-2015)...
November 20, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Antonio P Ramos, Robert E Weiss, Jody S Heymann
BACKGROUND: It is widely recognized that there are multiple risk factors for early-life mortality. In practice most interventions to curb early-life mortality target births based on a single risk factor, such as poverty. However, most premature deaths are not from the targeted group. Thus interventions target many births that are at not at high risk and miss many births at high risk. METHODS: Using data from the second wave of Demographic and Health Surveys from India and a hierarchical Bayesian model, we estimate infant mortality risk for 73...
August 23, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Marc Martí-Pastor, Angels Pont, Mónica Ávila, Olatz Garin, Gemma Vilagut, Carlos G Forero, Yolanda Pardo, Ricard Tresserras, Antonia Medina-Bustos, Oriol Garcia-Codina, Juan Cabasés, Luis Rajmil, Jordi Alonso, Montse Ferrer
BACKGROUND: The EQ-5D has been frequently used in national health surveys. This study is a head-to-head comparison to assess how expanding the number of levels from three (EQ-5D-3L) to five in the new EQ-5D-5L version has improved its distribution, discriminatory power, and validity in the general population. METHODS: A representative sample (N = 7554) from the Catalan Health Interview Survey 2011-2012, aged ≥18, answered both EQ-5D versions, and we evaluated the response redistribution and inconsistencies between them...
August 16, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Ellen R Squires, Stephanie Teeple, Gloria Ikilezi, D Allen Roberts, Danny V Colombara, Sarah Katherine Allen, Stanley M Kamande, Nicholas Graetz, Abraham D Flaxman, Charbel El Bcheraoui, Kristjana Asbjornsdottir, Gilbert Asiimwe, Ângelo Augusto, Orvalho Augusto, Baltazar Chilundo, Caroline De Schacht, Sarah Gimbel, Carol Kamya, Faith Namugaya, Felix Masiye, Cremildo Mauieia, Yodé Miangotar, Honoré Mimche, Acácio Sabonete, Haribondhu Sarma, Kenneth Sherr, Moses Simuyemba, Aaron Chisha Sinyangwe, Jasim Uddin, Bradley H Wagenaar, Stephen S Lim
BACKGROUND: The under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) is an important metric of child health and survival. Country-level estimates of U5MR are readily available, but efforts to estimate U5MR subnationally have been limited, in part, due to spatial misalignment of available data sources (e.g., use of different administrative levels, or as a result of historical boundary changes). METHODS: We analyzed all available complete and summary birth history data in surveys and censuses in six countries (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Chad, Mozambique, Uganda, and Zambia) at the finest geographic level available in each data source...
August 13, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Jack E Gibson, E Louise Ander, Mark Cave, Fiona Bath-Hextall, Anwar Musah, Jo Leonardi-Bee
BACKGROUND: Long-term, low-level exposure to toxic elements in soil may be harmful to human health but large longitudinal cohort studies with sufficient follow-up time to study these effects are cost-prohibitive and impractical. Linkage of routinely collected medical outcome data to systematic surveys of soil quality may offer a viable alternative. METHODS: We used the Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE), a systematic X-ray fluorescence survey of soil inorganic chemistry throughout England and Wales to obtain estimates of the concentrations of 15 elements in the soil contained within each English and Welsh postcode area...
July 16, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Sheila Isanaka, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Rebecca F Grais, Ben G S Allen
BACKGROUND: Many health programs can assess coverage using standardized cluster survey methods, but estimating the coverage of nutrition programs presents a special challenge due to low disease prevalence. Used since 2012, the Semi-Quantitative Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SQUEAC) employs both qualitative and quantitative methods to identify key barriers to access and estimate coverage of therapeutic feeding programs. While the tool has been increasingly used in programs, the validity of certain methodological elements has been the subject of debate...
July 3, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Riley H Hazard, Nurul Alam, Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury, Tim Adair, Saidul Alam, Peter Kim Streatfield, Ian Douglas Riley, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: Deaths in developing countries often occur outside health facilities, making it extremely difficult to gather reliable cause of death (COD) information. Automated COD assignment using a verbal autopsy instrument (VAI) has been proposed as a reliable and cost-effective alternative to traditional physician-certified verbal autopsy, but its performance is still being evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the similarity of diagnosis by Medical Assistants (MA) in the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) with the SmartVA Analyze 1...
June 27, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Ji Lin, Theodore J Thompson, Yiling J Cheng, Xiaohui Zhuo, Ping Zhang, Edward Gregg, Deborah B Rolka
BACKGROUND: In the United States, diabetes has increased rapidly, exceeding prior predictions. Projections of the future diabetes burden need to reflect changes in incidence, mortality, and demographics. We applied the most recent data available to develop an updated projection through 2060. METHODS: A dynamic Markov model was used to project prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among US adults by age, sex, and race (white, black, other). Incidence and current prevalence were from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 1985-2014...
June 15, 2018: Population Health Metrics
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