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Cognitive Processing

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February 16, 2019: Cognitive Processing
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February 12, 2019: Cognitive Processing
Hilary Horn Ratner, Mary Ann Foley, Cherie Spencer Lesnick
In two studies, kindergarteners participated in a series of staged events immediately preceded by pre-event interactions that were designed to identify factors relevant to improving recall. The events were based on preschool science-related activities and the experimental pre-event involved predicting actions to occur during a target event, manipulating types of cues available to support these predictive inferences. Action prediction did improve free recall, and effects may have influenced attentional processes evoked by actions generated and enacted...
February 9, 2019: Cognitive Processing
Smail Layes, Robert Lalonde, Yamina Bouakkaz, Mohamed Rebai
The following errors require correction in the article. The authors apologize for these errors.
February 8, 2019: Cognitive Processing
Mario Dalmaso, Michele Vicovaro
Stimuli associated with large quantities are typically responded to faster with a right- than a left-side key, whereas stimuli associated with small quantities are typically responded to faster with a left- than a right-side key. This phenomenon is known as the spatial-quantity association of response codes (SQUARC) effect. Here, in two experiments, we explored whether a SQUARC effect can emerge for light versus heavy items. Participants judged whether the weight associated with a central target word, describing an animal (e...
February 5, 2019: Cognitive Processing
Alexandra Kirsch
Decision making has long been of interest as a descriptive phenomenon in psychology and as a generative one in artificial intelligence. Research ranges from general, descriptive models of heuristic decision making to detailed studies of decision parameters. This paper introduces a model that formalizes and integrates several descriptive models so that it can serve both as a framework for psychological models and as an algorithm for computational decision making. We set special focus on the instantiation of this model with respect to aggregating cue values by reviewing some methods from the field of computational social choice...
January 30, 2019: Cognitive Processing
Joshua M Carlson, Betsy R Lehman, Jessica L Thompson
Humans have developed mechanisms to prioritize certain sensory input(s). Emotionally salient stimuli automatically capture observers' attention at the cost of less salient information. This prioritized processing is called attentional bias. Images of climate change have been found to elicit emotional responses. Yet, to date, there is no research assessing the extent to which climate change-relevant images produce an attentional bias. In a sample of college students (N = 39), we found that (1) climate change-related images capture attention and that (2) this attentional bias is related to individual differences in environmental disposition...
January 23, 2019: Cognitive Processing
Jing Li, Ning Xie, Weixun Zhao
In the course of spatial representation, the choice of intrinsic axis depends on various spatial and non-spatial properties. The main purpose of the current study is to investigate how people choose the intrinsic axis in a virtual reality environment with spatial cues from different categories. Sixty-four participants (32 males and 32 females) each took part in one of two experiments. In each experiment, participants learned a layout comprising seven objects and viewed the scene through a head-mounted display from two perspectives...
January 19, 2019: Cognitive Processing
Xiaobin Zhang, Qiong Li, Bin Zuo
Prior studies have used the perspective of the social function of social power (such as how power affects interpersonal interaction between the powerful and the powerless) to explore how powerful people stereotype powerless people. In the present research, we further explored how high and low levels of social power affect occupational gender stereotyping from the perspective of how social power affects cognitive processing, that is, social categorization. We proposed that higher social power-primed participants, compared to low social power-primed participants, would be more inclined to use category-based representation and thus use stereotyping...
January 2, 2019: Cognitive Processing
Robert C A Bendall, Aisha Mohamed, Catherine Thompson
Research shows that emotional stimuli can capture attention, and this can benefit or impair performance, depending on the characteristics of a task. Additionally, whilst some findings show that attention expands under positive conditions, others show that emotion has no influence on the broadening of attention. The current study investigated whether emotional real-world scenes influence attention in a visual search task. Participants were asked to identify a target letter embedded in the centre or periphery of emotional images...
December 24, 2018: Cognitive Processing
T Iachini, L Maffei, M Masullo, V P Senese, M Rapuano, A Pascale, F Sorrentino, G Ruggiero
The concept of "presence" describes the quality of subjective experience in immersive virtual reality (IVR). Presence refers to a specific state of consciousness: we behave and feel as if we actually were in the virtual world even though we know there is nothing there. In their handbook of Virtual Reality, Burdea and Coiffet (Virtual reality technology, Wiley, New York, 2003) suggested that the experience of presence in IVR would emerge from the combination of three Is: Immersion or capacity to isolate from the external world, Interaction or capacity to naturally exploring the virtual environment, and Imagination or individual aptitudes with mental imagery...
December 19, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Wai K Yeap, Md Hossain
Despite years of research into cognitive mapping, the process remains controversial and little understood. A computational theory of cognitive mapping is needed, but developing it is difficult due to the lack of a clear interpretation of the empirical findings. For example, without knowing what a cognitive map is or how landmarks are defined, how does one develop a computational theory for it? We thus face the conundrum of trying to develop a theory without knowing what is computed. In this paper, we overcome the conundrum by abandoning the idea that the process begins by integrating successive views to form a global map of the environment experienced...
December 11, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Ugo Ballenghein, Thierry Baccino
The present study utilized a new experimental set-up synchronizing eye movements and head motion for investigating referential change occurring in a reading task. We examined the effects of a change in narrative perspective during reading on eye movements and head motion. Forty-four participants read texts on a digital tablet, and both participants' eye movements and head movements were recorded using eye tracker and motion capture. The results showed longer eye fixation duration, longer reading time and decreasing head motions when perspective changed...
December 10, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Lucian Nenciovici, Geneviève Allaire-Duquette, Steve Masson
Scientifically literate individuals are defined as individuals who are able to apply scientific knowledge and use scientific reasoning skills to solve problems. In recent years, cognitive neuroscience has turned its attention to understanding the brain activation patterns associated with scientific reasoning skills, but this work has not been systematically reviewed for more than a decade. The present study reviews neuroimaging studies related to three types of scientific reasoning tasks: overcoming misconceptions, causal reasoning, and hypothesis generation...
December 8, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Kazuhiko Yasaka, Tomoki Mori, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hideto Kaba
Object recognition through tactile perception involves two elements: the shape of the object (macrogeometric properties) and the material of the object (microgeometric properties). Here we sought to determine the characteristics of microgeometric tactile representations regarding object recognition through tactile perception. Participants were directed to recognize objects with different surface materials using either tactile information or visual information. With a quantitative analysis of the cognitive process regarding object recognition, Experiment 1 confirmed the same eight concepts (composed of rules defining distinct cognitive processes) commonly generated in both tactile and visual perceptions to accomplish the task, although an additional concept was generated during the visual task...
November 16, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Geneviève Allaire-Duquette, Reuven Babai, Ruth Stavy
Students experience difficulties in comparison tasks that may stem from interference of the tasks' salient irrelevant variables. Here, we focus on the comparison of perimeters task, in which the area is the irrelevant salient variable. Studies have shown that in congruent trials (when there is no interference), accuracy is higher and reaction time is shorter than in incongruent trials (when the area variable interferes). Brain-imaging and behavioral studies suggested that interventions of either activating inhibitory control mechanisms or increasing the level of salience of the relevant perimeter variable could improve students' success...
November 15, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Trond A Tjøstheim, Christian Balkenius
We show how a multi-resolution network can model the development of acuity and coarse-to-fine processing in the mammalian visual cortex. The network adapts to input statistics in an unsupervised manner, and learns a coarse-to-fine representation by using cumulative inhibition of nodes within a network layer. We show that a system of such layers can represent input by hierarchically composing larger parts from smaller components. It can also model aspects of top-down processes, such as image regeneration.
November 3, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Yuuki Mizusaki, Sachi Ikudome, Yasumitsu Ishii, Satoshi Unenaka, Taishi Funo, Tatsuya Takeuchi, Kisho Ogasa, Shiro Mori, Hiroki Nakamoto
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the Quiet Eye (QE) acquired over time is associated with motor preparation processes by using movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs). Eighteen male, right-handed college students voluntarily participated in this study. Participants performed a dart throw while wearing an eye-tracking system and electrode cap to measure electroencephalogram waveforms (EEG). After performing the dart task, participants were randomly assigned to a Quiet Eye training group (QET) or control training group (CT)...
November 3, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Paweł Błaszczyński
The main goal was to test the relationship between types of cognitive codes (perceptual-imaginative and verbal-propositional) and autobiographical memory. The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether there are independent processes serving the self, depending on separate cognitive codes. Sixty adult participants completed the NEO-FFI inventory using two kinds of procedure: perceptual-imaginative code or verbal-propositional code. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for analysis. The study has shown the dynamic of the self, depending on two cognitive perspectives...
November 2018: Cognitive Processing
Evelien M Barendse, Marc P H Hendriks, Geert Thoonen, Albert P Aldenkamp, Roy P C Kessels
Of the triad of symptoms found in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), that is, social impairments, communication difficulties and repetitive interests and behaviour, the social impairments are the most stable and common throughout the lifespan. They typically manifest themselves in abnormalities as reciprocal interactions and difficulties in the expression and recognition of emotions. Although peer interactions become especially important during adolescence, little is known about the mentalizing abilities of high-functioning adolescents with ASD...
November 2018: Cognitive Processing
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