Varun S Venkatesh, Tian Nie, Jeffrey D Zajac, Mathis Grossmann, Rachel A Davey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarise the evidence regarding the effects of gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) on bone health in transgender people, to identify key knowledge gaps and how these gaps can be addressed using preclinical rodent models. RECENT FINDINGS: Sex hormones play a critical role in bone physiology, yet there is a paucity of research regarding the effects of GAHT on bone microstructure and fracture risk in transgender individuals. The controlled clinical studies required to yield fracture data are unethical to conduct making clinically translatable preclinical research of the utmost importance...
September 14, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Moritz Pappert, Sundeep Khosla, Madison Doolittle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of macrophages in the regulation of skeletal health with age, particularly in regard to both established and unexplored mechanisms in driving inflammation and senescence. RECENT FINDINGS: A multitude of research has uncovered mechanisms of intrinsic aging in macrophages, detrimental factors released by these immune cells, and crosstalk from senescent mesenchymal cell types, which altogether drive age-related bone loss...
September 9, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Stefaan W Verbruggen, Anuphan Sittichokechaiwut, Gwendolen C Reilly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide a background on osteocytes and the primary cilium, discussing the role it plays in osteocyte mechanosensing. RECENT FINDINGS: Osteocytes are thought to be the primary mechanosensing cells in bone tissue, regulating bone adaptation in response to exercise, with the primary cilium suggested to be a key mechanosensing mechanism in bone. More recent work has suggested that, rather than being direct mechanosensors themselves, primary cilia in bone may instead form a key chemo-signalling nexus for processing mechanoregulated signalling pathways...
September 8, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Chilan B G Leite, Gergo Merkely, Julia F Charles, Christian Lattermann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a comprehensive overview of the inflammatory response following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and to highlight the relationship between specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) and inflammatory joint conditions, emphasizing the therapeutic potential of modulating the post-injury resolution of inflammation to prevent posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). RECENT FINDINGS: The inflammatory response triggered after joint injuries such as ACL tear plays a critical role in posttraumatic osteoarthritis development...
August 24, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Lisa C Merrill, Kelsey M Mangano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the scientific evidence published in the past 5 years examining the epidemiology of bone health as it relates to the gut microbiome, across race and ethnicity groups. RECENT FINDINGS: The link between the gut microbiome and bone health is well established and is supported by numerous biological mechanisms. However, human study research in this field is dominated by studies of older adults residing in Asian countries...
August 19, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Mohamed G Hassan, Allison L Horenberg, Ariella Coler-Reilly, Warren L Grayson, Erica L Scheller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the diverse functional relationships that exist between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and bone, including key advances over the past century that inform our efforts to translate these discoveries for skeletal repair. RECENT FINDINGS: The innervation of the bone during development, homeostasis, and regeneration is highly patterned. Consistent with this, there have been nearly 100 studies over the past century that have used denervation approaches to isolate the effects of the different branches of the PNS on the bone...
August 14, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Sarah E Catheline, Ethan Kaiser, Roman A Eliseev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently published scientific literature regarding the effects of mitochondrial function and mitochondrial genome mutations on bone phenotype and aging. RECENT FINDINGS: While aging and sex steroid levels have traditionally been considered the most important risk factors for development of osteoporosis, mitochondrial function and genetics are being increasingly recognized as important determinants of bone health...
August 5, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Joan C Lo, Wei Yang, Jennifer J Park-Sigal, Susan M Ott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding osteoporosis and fracture among older US Asian adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Asian adults have lower (areal) bone density than non-Hispanic White adults and thus are more likely to be diagnosed and treated for osteoporosis, despite their lower risk of hip fracture. The latter may relate to favorable characteristics in hip geometry, volumetric bone density, and bone microarchitecture; lower risk of falls; and other clinical factors...
August 5, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Lars Rejnmark, Line Underbjerg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recently published scientific evidence on fracture risk in hypoparathyroidism. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by a low bone turnover and a high bone mineral density. Data on fracture risk are sparse and due to the rarity of the disease, available studies have only been able to include relatively few patients. Risk of non-vertebral fractures does not seem to be affected to any major degree, although epidemiological studies suggest a decreased risk of fractures at the humerus in postsurgical hypoparathyroidism, whereas an increased risk of fractures at the upper arm has been shown in non-surgical hypoparathyroidism...
August 5, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Hajime Kato, Demetrios T Braddock, Nobuaki Ito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The study aims to provide updated information on the genetic factors associated with the diagnoses 'Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis' (DISH), 'Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament' (OPLL), and in patients with spinal ligament ossification. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have advanced our knowledge of genetic factors associated with DISH, OPLL, and other spinal ossification (ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament [OALL] and the yellow ligament [OYL])...
August 2, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Jonathan H Tobias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of wnt signalling in atherogenesis raises the possibility that the wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, provides a natural defence to this process, and that anti-sclerostin antibodies might increase the risk of atherosclerosis and associated conditions such as CVD. This article aims to triangulate evidence concerning possible adverse effects of sclerostin inhibition on CVD risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomised controlled trials of treatment with the anti-sclerostin antibody, romosozumab, have yielded conflicting evidence with respect to possible adverse effects of sclerostin inhibition on CVD risk...
July 25, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Rachel Willimann, Christina Chougar, Lawrence C Wolfe, Lionel Blanc, Jeffrey M Lipton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, there has been an increasing number of studies on the crosstalk between the bone and the bone marrow and how it pertains to anemia. Here, we discuss four heritable clinical syndromes contrasting those in which anemia affects bone growth and development, with those in which abnormal bone development results in anemia, highlighting the multifaceted interactions between skeletal development and hematopoiesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Anemia results from both inherited and acquired disorders caused by either impaired production or premature destruction of red blood cells or blood loss...
July 12, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Hironori Hojo, Shinsuke Ohba
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Runt-related transcription factors (RUNX) play critical roles in skeletal development, metabolism, and diseases. In mammals, three RUNX members, namely RUNX1, RUNX2, and RUNX3, play distinct and redundant roles, although RUNX2 is a dominant factor in skeletal development and several skeletal diseases. This review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of RUNX-mediated transcriptional regulation in different skeletal cell types. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in chromatin immunoprecipitation and next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) have revealed genome-wide RUNX-mediated gene regulatory mechanisms, including their association with cis-regulatory elements and putative target genes...
July 12, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
L Gabel, K Kent, S Hosseinitabatabaei, A J Burghardt, M B Leonard, F Rauch, B M Willie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize current approaches and provide recommendations for imaging bone in pediatric populations using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). RECENT FINDINGS: Imaging the growing skeleton is challenging and HR-pQCT protocols are not standardized across centers. Adopting a single-imaging protocol for all studies is unrealistic; thus, we present three established protocols for HR-pQCT imaging in children and adolescents and share advantages and disadvantages of each...
July 10, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Piera Smeriglio, Antoine Zalc
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize (i) the latest evidence on cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) contribution to craniofacial development and ossification; (ii) the recent discoveries on the mechanisms responsible for their plasticity; and (iii) the newest procedures to ameliorate maxillofacial tissue repair. RECENT FINDINGS: CNCC display a remarkable differentiation potential that exceeds the capacity of their germ layer of origin. The mechanisms by which they expand their plasticity was recently described...
July 8, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Benjamin H Mullin, Amy B P Ribet, Nathan J Pavlos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advancements in "omics" technologies and bioinformatics have afforded researchers new tools to study bone biology in an unbiased and holistic way. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies integrating multi-omics data gathered from multiple molecular layers (i.e.; trans-omics) to reveal new molecular mechanisms that regulate bone biology and underpin skeletal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Bone biologists have traditionally relied on single-omics technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) to profile measureable differences (both qualitative and quantitative) of individual molecular layers for biological discovery and to investigate mechanisms of disease...
July 6, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
M Carroll, T Alliston, N Dole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the fundamental role of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling in osteocytes and highlight the physiological and pathophysiological conditions stemming from the deregulation of this pathway in osteocytes. RECENT FINDINGS: Osteocytes perform a myriad of skeletal and extraskeletal functions, including mechanosensing, coordinating bone remodeling, local bone matrix turnover, and maintaining systemic mineral homeostasis and global energy balance...
July 3, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Mel Mupparapu, Sunday O Akintoye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoporosis ranks high among morbidities in the elderly as it is a natural process to lose bone, making them susceptible to fractures from minor falls. The cost of managing these patients is staggering. The fractures can be prevented with better care of the elderly, and by treating the major predisposing factor, osteoporosis. Clinicians and scientists, in general, constantly look for early diagnostic and prognostic indicators for osteopenia and osteoporosis to proactively prevent fractures...
June 29, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Derek T Schloemann, Benjamin F Ricciardi, Caroline P Thirukumaran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to synthesize the recently published scientific evidence on disparities in epidemiology and management of fragility hip fractures. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been a number of investigations focusing on the presence of disparities in the epidemiology and management of fragility hip fractures. Race-, sex-, geographic-, socioeconomic-, and comorbidity-based disparities have been the primary focus of these investigations...
June 26, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Janet Y Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the scientific evidence on bone health in transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth. RECENT FINDINGS: Gender-affirming medical therapies may be introduced during a key window of skeletal development in TGD adolescents. Before treatment, low bone density for age is more prevalent than expected in TGD youth. Bone mineral density Z-scores decrease with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and differentially respond to subsequent estradiol or testosterone...
August 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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