Annika Vom Scheidt, Johannes Krug, Patricia Goggin, Astrid Diana Bakker, Björn Busse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Quantification of the morphology of osteocyte lacunae has become a powerful tool to investigate bone metabolism, pathologies and aging. This review will provide a brief overview of 2D and 3D imaging methods for the determination of lacunar shape, orientation, density, and volume. Deviations between 2D-based and 3D-based lacunar volume estimations are often not sufficiently addressed and may give rise to contradictory findings. Thus, the systematic error arising from 2D-based estimations of lacunar volume will be discussed, and an alternative calculation proposed...
July 9, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Drenka Trivanović, Marko Vujačić, Rossella Labella, Ivana Okić Djordjević, Marija Ćazić, Brian Chernak, Aleksandra Jauković
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Along with a strong impact on skeletal integrity, bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is an important modulator of the adult hematopoietic system. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the causal relationship between bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis and the development and progression of hematologic malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: BM adipocytes (BMAds) support a number of processes promoting oncogenesis, including the evolution of clonal hematopoiesis, malignant cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, and chemoresistance...
June 26, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Lena Batoon, John R Hawse, Laurie K McCauley, Megan M Weivoda, Hernan Roca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the recently published scientific evidence regarding the role of efferocytosis in bone dynamics and skeletal health. RECENT FINDINGS: Several types of efferocytes have been identified within the skeleton, with macrophages being the most extensively studied. Efferocytosis is not merely a 'clean-up' process vital for maintaining skeletal homeostasis; it also plays a crucial role in promoting resolution pathways and orchestrating bone dynamics, such as osteoblast-osteoclast coupling during bone remodeling...
June 24, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Jilmen Quintiens, G Harry van Lenthe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, photon-counting computed tomography (PCCT) has been introduced in clinical research and diagnostics. This review describes the technological advances and provides an overview of recent applications with a focus on imaging of bone. RECENT FINDINGS: PCCT is a full-body scanner with short scanning times that provides better spatial and spectral resolution than conventional energy-integrating-detector CT (EID-CT), along with an up to 50% reduced radiation dose...
June 4, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Mitchell N Froemming, Sundeep Khosla, Joshua N Farr
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Beyond aging, senescent cells accumulate during multiple pathological conditions, including chemotherapy, radiation, glucocorticoids, obesity, and diabetes, even earlier in life. Therefore, cellular senescence represents a unifying pathogenic mechanism driving skeletal and metabolic disorders. However, whether senescent bone marrow adipocytes (BMAds) are causal in mediating skeletal dysfunction has only recently been evaluated. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite evidence of BMAd senescence following glucocorticoid therapy, additional evidence for BMAd senescence in other conditions has thus far been limited...
June 3, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Emily R Quarato, Noah A Salama, Laura M Calvi
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: In this review, we discuss the most recent scientific advances on the reciprocal regulatory interactions between the skeletal and hematopoietic stem cell niche, focusing on immunomodulation and its interplay with the cell's mitochondrial function, and how this impacts osteoimmune health during aging and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Osteoimmunology investigates interactions between cells that make up the skeletal stem cell niche and immune system...
May 23, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Rachel Pereur, Emilie Dambroise
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To illustrate the value of using zebrafish to understand the role of the Fgf signaling pathway during craniofacial skeletal development under normal and pathological conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data obtained from studies on zebrafish have demonstrated the genetic redundancy of Fgf signaling pathway and have identified new molecular partners of this signaling during the early stages of craniofacial skeletal development. Studies on zebrafish models demonstrate the involvement of the Fgf signaling pathway at every stage of craniofacial development...
May 13, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Yanchen Feng, Xue Dang, Pan Zheng, Yali Liu, Diyan Liu, Zhiying Che, Jianping Yao, Zixuan Lin, Ziyun Liao, Xingyuan Nie, Feixiang Liu, Yunke Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a theoretical basis and insights for quercetin's clinical application in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis (OP), analyzing its roles in bone formation promotion, bone resorption inhibition, anti-inflammation, antioxidant effects, and potential mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: OP, a prevalent bone disorder, is marked by reduced bone mineral density and impaired bone architecture, elevating the risk of fractures in patients...
April 23, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Fabiola Galiana-Melendez, Joshua R Huot
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the musculoskeletal consequences of cancer, including those that occur in the absence of bone metastases. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer patients frequently develop cachexia, a debilitating condition reflected by weight loss and skeletal muscle wasting. The negative effects that tumors exert on bone health represents a growing interest amongst cachexia researchers. Recent clinical and pre-clinical evidence demonstrates cancer-induced bone loss, even in the absence of skeletal metastases...
April 22, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Beata Lecka-Czernik, Mohd Parvez Khan, Joshua Letson, Sudipta Baroi, Amit Chougule
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes evidence on osteocyte support of extramedullary and bone marrow adipocyte development and discusses the role of endogenous osteocyte activities of nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and alpha (PPARA) in this support. RECENT FINDINGS: PPARG and PPARA proteins, key regulators of glucose and fatty acid metabolism, are highly expressed in osteocytes. They play significant roles in the regulation of osteocyte secretome and osteocyte bioenergetics; both activities contributing to the levels of systemic energy metabolism in part through an effect on metabolic function of extramedullary and bone marrow adipocytes...
April 16, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Kristin Happ Molitoris, Mingjian Huang, Gurpreet Singh Baht
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize what is known in the literature about the role inflammation plays during bone fracture healing. Bone fracture healing progresses through four distinct yet overlapping phases: formation of the hematoma, development of the cartilaginous callus, development of the bony callus, and finally remodeling of the fracture callus. Throughout this process, inflammation plays a critical role in robust bone fracture healing. RECENT FINDINGS: At the onset of injury, vessel and matrix disruption lead to the generation of an inflammatory response: inflammatory cells are recruited to the injury site where they differentiate, activate, and/or polarize to secrete cytokines for the purposes of cell signaling and cell recruitment...
April 15, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Emily Busse, Brendan Lee, Sandesh C S Nagamani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline the principles of clinical genetic testing and to provide practical guidance to clinicians in navigating genetic testing for patients with suspected monogenic forms of osteoporosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Heritability assessments and genome-wide association studies have clearly shown the significant contributions of genetic variations to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Currently, over 50 monogenic disorders that present primarily with low bone mass and increased risk of fractures have been described...
April 11, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Inge Agnete Gerlach Brandt, Jakob Starup-Linde, Sally Søgaard Andersen, Rikke Viggers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, the American Diabetes Association updated the 2024 guidelines for Standards of Care in Diabetes and recommend that a T-score of - 2.0 in patients with diabetes should be interpreted as equivalent to - 2.5 in people without diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the most recent findings concerning the bone mineral density (BMD)-derived T-score and risk of fractures related to osteoporosis in subjects with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: The dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan is the golden standard for evaluating BMD...
April 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Seiji Fukumoto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: FGF23 is a bone-derived hormone working to reduce serum phosphate level. This review focuses on recent findings regarding regulatory mechanisms of FGF23 expression in osteocytes, FGF23 levels, and activities. RECENT FINDINGS: Circulatory FGF23 levels reflecting FGF23 biological activities can be regulated by both FGF23 expression and posttranslational modification of FGF23 protein. O-linked glycosylation and phosphorylation of FGF23 protein as well as enzymes that can cleave FGF23 protein are involved in the posttranslational modification...
April 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Hirofumi Tenshin, Jesus Delgado-Calle, Jolene J Windle, G David Roodman, John M Chirgwin, Noriyoshi Kurihara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the contributions of osteocytes to the lesions in Paget's disease, which are characterized by locally overactive bone resorption and formation. RECENT FINDINGS: Osteocytes, the most abundant cells in bone, are altered in Paget's disease lesions, displaying increased size, decreased canalicular length, incomplete differentiation, and less sclerostin expression compared to controls in both patients and mouse models. Pagetic lesions show increased senescent osteocytes that express RANK ligand, which drives osteoclastic bone resorption...
March 8, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Fabio Penna, Lorena Garcia-Castillo, Paola Costelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review will highlight recent reports supporting the relevance of extracellular vesicles to the musculoskeletal system in health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Preserving the health of the musculoskeletal system is important to maintain a good quality of life, and the bone-muscle crosstalk is crucial in this regard. This latter is largely mediated by extracellular vesicles released by the different cell populations residing in muscle and bone, which deliver cargoes, microRNAs, and proteins being the most relevant ones, to target cells...
March 1, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Mariana J Kaplan, Liam J O'Neil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize the current evidence that suggests that neutrophils play a key role in facilitating damage to local bone structures. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil infiltration is a hallmark of inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis disease (PD). Both of these human diseases are marked by an imbalance in bone homeostasis, favoring the degradation of local bone which ultimately leads to erosions...
February 29, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Elodie Gruneisen, Richard Kremer, Gustavo Duque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to summarize the literature on the prevalence and diagnosis of obesity and its metabolic profile, including bone metabolism, focusing on the main inflammatory and turnover bone mediators that better characterize metabolically healthy obesity phenotype, and to summarize the therapeutic interventions for obesity with their effects on bone health. RECENT FINDINGS: Osteoporosis and fracture risk not only increase with age and menopause but also with metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus...
February 28, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Hiroyuki Okada, Ung-Il Chung, Hironori Hojo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Stephanie S Steltzer, Adam C Abraham, Megan L Killian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interfacial tissue exists throughout the body at cartilage-to-bone (osteochondral interface) and tendon-to-bone (enthesis) interfaces. Healing of interfacial tissues is a current challenge in regenerative approaches because the interface plays a critical role in stabilizing and distributing the mechanical stress between soft tissues (e.g., cartilage and tendon) and bone. The purpose of this review is to identify new directions in the field of interfacial tissue development and physiology that can guide future regenerative strategies for improving post-injury healing...
February 15, 2024: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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