Sara Reis Moura, Maria João Fernandes, Susana G Santos, Maria Inês Almeida
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are RNA transcripts derived from fragments of pre-messenger RNAs through a back-splicing process. An advantage that rises from their circular covalently closed conformation is their high stability, when compared with their linear counterparts. The current review focuses on the emerging roles of circRNAs in osteoporosis, including in osteogenic differentiation and osteoclastogenesis. Their potential as osteoporosis biomarkers will also be discussed...
April 29, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Daniel Dapaah, Daniel R Martel, Faezeh Iranmanesh, Corin Seelemann, Andrew C Laing, Thomas Willett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review surveys recent literature related to cortical bone fracture mechanics and its application towards understanding bone fragility and hip fractures. RECENT FINDINGS: Current clinical tools for hip fracture risk assessment have been shown to be insensitive in some cases of elevated fracture risk leading to the question of what other factors account for fracture risk. The emergence of cortical bone fracture mechanics has thrown light on other factors at the tissue level that are important to bone fracture resistance and therefore assessment of fracture risk...
April 27, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Anika Shimonty, Lynda F Bonewald, Fabrizio Pin
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of the osteocyte in muscle atrophy in cancer patients, sarcopenia, spinal cord injury, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, and other conditions associated with muscle deterioration. RECENT FINDINGS: One type of bone cell, the osteocyte, appears to play a major role in muscle and bone crosstalk, whether physiological or pathological. Osteocytes are cells living within the bone-mineralized matrix...
April 21, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Hannah L Dailey, Mariana E Kersh, Caitlyn J Collins, Karen L Troy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize insights gained by finite element (FE) model-based mechanical biomarkers of bone for in vivo assessment of bone development and adaptation, fracture risk, and fracture healing. RECENT FINDINGS: Muscle-driven FE models have been used to establish correlations between prenatal strains and morphological development. Postnatal ontogenetic studies have identified potential origins of bone fracture risk and quantified the mechanical environment during stereotypical locomotion and in response to increased loading...
April 20, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Kat-Tik Lau, Suhas Krishnamoorthy, Chor-Wing Sing, Ching Lung Cheung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To systematically review recent studies investigating the association between metabolites and bone mineral density (BMD) in humans. METHODS: Using predefined keywords, we searched literature published from Jan 1, 2019 to Feb 20, 2022 in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus. Studies that met the predefined exclusion criteria were excluded. Among the included studies, we identified metabolites that were reported to be associated with BMD by at least three independent studies...
April 15, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Yan Wang, Chunyan Lu, Xiang Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a disorder caused by mutations and/or epigenetic changes at the complex GNAS locus. It is characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an elevated parathyroid hormone concentration secondary to the resistance of target tissues to the biological actions of parathyroid hormone. PHP is divided into several subtypes with different yet overlapping phenotypes. Research on the bone status in patients with PHP is sparse and has yielded inconsistent results...
April 4, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Elsa Dent, Robin M Daly, Emiel O Hoogendijk, David Scott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review identifies exercise-based recommendations to prevent and manage frailty and fragility fractures from current clinical practice guidelines. We also critically assess recently published literature in relation to exercise interventions to mitigate frailty and fragility fractures. RECENT FINDINGS: Most guidelines presented similar recommendations that included the prescription of individually tailored, multicomponent exercise programs, discouragement of prolonged sitting and inactivity, and combining exercise with optimal nutrition...
March 28, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Arianna Ericka Gómez, Sumaya Addish, Kurtis Alvarado, Priscilla Boatemaa, Anne C Onyali, Emily G Ramirez, Maria F Rojas, Jyoti Rai, Kiana A Reynolds, W Joyce Tang, Ronald Young Kwon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chromosome region 7q31.31, also known as the CPED1-WNT16 locus, is robustly associated with BMD and fracture risk. The aim of the review is to highlight experimental studies examining the function of genes at the CPED1-WNT16 locus. RECENT FINDINGS: Genes that reside at the CPED1-WNT16 locus include WNT16, FAM3C, ING3, CPED1, and TSPAN12. Experimental studies in mice strongly support the notion that Wnt16 is necessary for bone mass and strength...
March 21, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Jialiang S Wang, Nicha Tokavanich, Marc N Wein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the different roles of the transcription factor SP7 in regulating bone formation and remodeling, discuss current studies in investigating the causal relationship between SP7 mutations and human skeletal disease, and highlight potential therapeutic treatments that targeting SP7 and the gene networks that it controls. RECENT FINDINGS: Cell-type and stage-specific functions of SP7 have been identified during bone formation and remodeling...
March 7, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Bushra Alghamdi, Hyeran Helen Jeon, Jia Ni, Dongxu Qiu, Alyssia Liu, Julie J Hong, Mamoon Ali, Albert Wang, Michael Troka, Dana T Graves
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the role of the immune cells and their interaction with cells found in gingiva, periodontal ligament, and bone that leads to net bone loss in periodontitis or bone remodeling in orthodontic tooth movement. RECENT FINDINGS: Periodontal disease is one of the most common oral diseases causing inflammation in the soft and hard tissues of the periodontium and is initiated by bacteria that induce a host response. Although the innate and adaptive immune response function cooperatively to prevent bacterial dissemination, they also play a major role in gingival inflammation and destruction of the connective tissue, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone characteristic of periodontitis...
April 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell, David Karasik
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Herein, we report on the proceedings of the workshop entitled "Post-Genome analysis for musculoskeletal biology" that was held in July of 2022 in Safed, Galilee, Israel. Supported by the Israel Science Foundation, the goal of this workshop was to bring together established investigators and their trainees who were interested in understanding the etiology of musculoskeletal disease, from Israel and from around the world. RECENT FINDINGS: Presentations at this workshop spanned the spectrum from basic science to clinical studies...
March 4, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Vivian Szymczuk, Jocelyn Taylor, Alison M Boyce
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to review diagnosis, potential complications, and clinical management in craniofacial fibrous dysplasia. RECENT FINDINGS: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a rare mosaic disorder in which normal bone and marrow are replaced with expansile fibro-osseous lesions. Disease presents along a broad spectrum and may be associated with extraskeletal features as part of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). The craniofacial skeleton is one of the most commonly impacted areas in FD, and its functional and anatomical complexities create unique challenges for diagnosis and management...
February 28, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Julie Bernardor, Aurélie De Mul, Justine Bacchetta, Claus Peter Schmitt
PURPOSES OF REVIEW: With chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) and mineral and bone metabolism disease (MBD) almost inevitably develop and result in renal osteodystrophy and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Together with active vitamin D, calcimimetics are the main therapy for sHPT in CKD. This review provides an overview of the therapeutic effects of oral cinacalcet and intravenous etelcalcetide on CKD-MBD and vascular disease, with a focus on pediatric dialysis patients...
February 27, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Allison M May, Lena Batoon, Laurie K McCauley, Evan T Keller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently published findings regarding the role of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor progression, macrophages in the tumor microenvironment, and crosstalk that exists between tumor cells and macrophages. RECENT FINDINGS: EMT is a crucial process in tumor progression. In association with EMT changes, macrophage infiltration of tumors occurs frequently. A large body of evidence demonstrates that various mechanisms of crosstalk exist between macrophages and tumor cells that have undergone EMT resulting in a vicious cycle that promotes tumor invasion and metastasis...
February 27, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Pedro L Cuevas, Fabiana Aellos, Isaiah M Dawid, Jill A Helms
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a growing appreciation within the scientific community that cells exhibit regional variation. Whether the variation is attributable to differences in embryonic origin or anatomical location and mechanical loading has not been elucidated; what is clear, however, is that adult cells carry positional information that ultimately affects their functions. The purpose of this review is to highlight the functions of osteocytes in the craniomaxillofacial (CMF) skeleton as opposed to elsewhere in the body, and in doing so gain mechanistic insights into genetic conditions and chemically-induced diseases that particularly affect this region of our anatomy...
February 21, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Quentin A Meslier, Sandra J Shefelbine
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Bone adapts structure and material properties in response to its mechanical environment, a process called mechanoadpatation. For the past 50 years, finite element modeling has been used to investigate the relationships between bone geometry, material properties, and mechanical loading conditions. This review examines how we use finite element modeling in the context of bone mechanoadpatation. RECENT FINDINGS: Finite element models estimate complex mechanical stimuli at the tissue and cellular levels, help explain experimental results, and inform the design of loading protocols and prosthetics...
February 18, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Nika Lovšin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on copy number variations and susceptibility to osteoporosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Osteoporosis is highly influenced by genetic factors, including copy number variations (CNVs). The development and accessibility of whole genome sequencing methods has accelerated the study of CNVs and osteoporosis. Recent findings include mutations in novel genes and validation of previously known pathogenic CNVs in monogenic skeletal diseases...
February 16, 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
David C Ou-Yang, Christopher J Kleck, Cheryl L Ackert-Bicknell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intervertebral disc degeneration is a contributor to chronic back pain. While a part of the natural aging process, early or rapid intervertebral disc degeneration is highly heritable. In this review, we summarize recent progress towards unraveling the genetics associated with this degenerative process. RECENT FINDINGS: Use of large cohorts of patient data to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for intervertebral disc disease, and to lesser extent for aspects of this process, such as disc height, has resulted in a large increase in our understanding of the genetic etiology...
February 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Anne Sophie Sølling, Elena Tsourdi, Torben Harsløf, Bente L Langdahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the pathophysiology, the clinical consequences as well as way of mitigating the effects of denosumab discontinuation. RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment with denosumab (DMAB) is reversible and upon discontinuation there is a rapid increase in bone turnover and a subsequent bone loss. During this phase of high bone turnover, an increased risk of fractures has been reported. Therefore, treatment with DMAB could be considered life-long. However, side-effects may prompt the need for discontinuation and moreover, treatment with DMAB may have increased BMD to levels where continuing treatment does not provide further fracture risk reduction...
February 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Nina S Ma, S Mumm, S Takahashi, M A Levine
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis (MCTO) is an ultra-rare disorder characterized by osteolysis of the carpal and tarsal bones, subtle craniofacial deformities, and nephropathy. The molecular pathways underlying the pathophysiology are not well understood. RECENT FINDINGS: MCTO is caused by heterozygous mutations in MAFB, which encodes the widely expressed transcription factor MafB. All MAFB mutations in patients with MCTO result in replacement of amino acids that cluster in a phosphorylation region of the MafB transactivation domain and account for a presumed gain-of-function for the variant protein...
February 2023: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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