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Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR

A K Maitlo, J A Ujan, S A Ujjan, M Ruk, B A Memon, A A Mahar, A A Ujjan
Goats are the Pakistan's fastest growing ruminants, and Pakistan is the third largest goat producer in the world after India and China. Goat meat preference is the main reason for its increased demand. In the country, there are 25 goat breeds and two wild relatives such as Mark and Goats. At present, Pakistan has 53.8 million goats, according to the 2006 GOP report, and their population growth rate was more than 3% per year (37, 23, 22, and 18% of the goat population in Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and NWFP, respectively)...
September 28, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
L R L Lima, K J Damasceno-Silva, M A Noronha, D A Schurt, M M Rocha
This study aimed at identifying and selecting through partial diallel analysis, segregating populations of cowpea resistant to Macrophomina phaseolina and Thanatephorus cucumeris, based on the evaluation of general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA), involved in the genetic control of resistance. For this reason, 19 grouped cowpea genotypes, considering the resistance to these pathogens, were crossed in partial diallel scheme 14 x 5, during 2013 and 2014. The 70 F2 populations and the 19 parents were evaluated in a greenhouse as the reaction to pathogens, separately...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
D A Rossi, R F Daher, T C Barbé, R S N Lima, A F Costa, L P Ribeiro, P E Teodoro, L L Bhering
Elephant grass is a perennial tropical grass with great potential for energy generation from biomass. The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among elephant grass accessions based on morpho-agronomic and biomass quality traits and to identify promising genotypes for obtaining hybrids with high energetic biomass production capacity. The experiment was installed at experimental area of the State Agricultural College Antônio Sarlo, in Campos dos Goytacazes. Fifty-two elephant grass genotypes were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replicates...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
P A S V Carvalho, A C Brasileiro, S Leal-Bertioli, D J Bertioli, J P Silva, T S Agostini-Costa, M A Gimenes
Resveratrol is an antioxidant that is a promising antitumoral, cardioprotective and neuroprotective agent. It has been found in a restricted number of plants including peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and its wild relatives. The objective of this study was to understand the relationship between resveratrol content and the expression of putative resveratrol synthase genes in four Arachis genotypes. Two diploids and two tetraploid were analyzed. Contents of resveratrol on non- and UV-treated leaves were estimated using HPLC...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
E V Zambiazzi, A T Bruzi, S R Guilherme, D R Pereira, J G Lima, A M Zuffo, F O Ribeiro, A E S Mendes, S H M Godinho, M L M Carvalho
Estimating genotype x environment (GxE) parameters for quality and yield in soybean seed grown in different environments in Minas Gerais State was the goal of this study, as well as to evaluate interaction effects of GxE for soybean seeds yield and quality. Seeds were produced in three locations in Minas Gerais State (Lavras, Inconfidentes, and Patos de Minas) in 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons. Field experiments were conducted in randomized blocks in a factorial 17 x 6 (GxE), and three replications. Seed yield and quality were evaluated for germination in substrates paper and sand, seedling emergence, speed emergency index, mechanical damage by sodium hypochlorite, electrical conductivity, speed aging, vigor and viability of seeds by tetrazolium test in laboratory using completely randomized design...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
X Q Fu, F X Yang, X K Lu, X G Wang, B X Yang, F J Liu, Y Liu, J Peng
Molecular identification of hybrid purity is difficult in regional trials of cotton varieties and hybrid trials. In particular, the molecular detection of hybrid purity has not yet been reported in the case of unknown parentage. In this study, we screened 5000 pairs of primers and chose 17 pairs of core simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers to determine the F1 purity of Han6402. The results showed that the purity based on SSR markers reached 100%. Twelve of the 17 pairs of primers exhibited co-dominant banding patterns, and 5 showed non-co-dominant banding patterns...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
E G Silva Júnior, D B O Cardoso, M C Reis, A F O Nascimento, D I Bortolin, M R Martins, L B Sousa
Breeding programs currently use statistical analysis to assist in the identification of superior genotypes at various stages of a cultivar's development. Differently from these analyses, the computational intelligence approach has been little explored in genetic improvement of cotton. Thus, this study was carried out with the objective of presenting the use of artificial neural networks as auxiliary tools in the improvement of the cotton to improve fiber quality. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, this research was carried out using the evaluation data of 40 genotypes...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
P P Orellana, C F Andrade, C L Arciniegas, G C Iannacone
One hundred and eighty-two samples of unrelated people who requested the paternity test at the Molecular Biology and Genetics Laboratory of the Catholic University of Cuenca-Ecuador in the province of Azuay were studied, except for the D1S1656 (180 samples) and SE33 (89 samples) markers. The STRs D22S1045, D3S1358, VWA, D16S539, D2S1338, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D19S433, TH01, FGA, D1S1656, D12S391, D10S1248, D2S441, and SE33 were typed from blood samples, amplifying the DNA by polymerase chain reactions and electrophoresis...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
M V A Chaves, N S Silva, R H O Silva, G L Jorge, I C Silveira, L A Medeiros, R L Hamawaki, O T Hamawaki, A P O Nogueira, C D L Hamawaki
In order to obtain the certificate of cultivar protection, it is necessary to prove its distinctiveness, homogeneity, and stability. Currently, there are 37 descriptors for differentiating soybeans cultivars. However, they are still not enough and, as a result, it is necessary to create, identify, and evaluate new descriptors. This study was aimed at evaluating the genotypic and environment interaction (GxE) and determining the stability of eight soybean cultivars for five vegetative-stage descriptors. The research was done in a greenhouse of the Soybean Breeding and Genetic Studies Program of Universidade Federal de Uberlândia...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
C S Bento, A G de Souza, C P Sudré, S Pimenta, R Rodrigues
This study aimed to identify Capsicum genotypes with resistance to bacterial spot (BS), anthracnose and Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Fifty-four genotypes of Capsicum spp were evaluated. Resistance reaction against BS was evaluated using three replicates, testing hypersensitivity and quantitative resistance in leaves. After evaluation, inoculated leaves were detached from the plants, being then cultivated until reproductive stage for evaluations anthracnose resistance in immature and mature fruit, totalizing 18 fruits per genotype...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
E U Ramos Junior, R L Brogin, V P C Godinho, F J E Botelho, F D Tardin, P E Teodoro
Biplot analysis has often been used to recommend genotypes from different crops in the presence of the genotype x environment interaction (GxE). The objective of this study was to verify the association between the AMMI and GGE biplot methods and to select soybean genotypes that simultaneously meet high grain yield and stability to the environments belonging to the Edaphoclimatic Region 402, from Soybean Cultivation Region 4 (Mid-West), which comprises the Center North and West of Mato Grosso, and the southern region of Rondônia...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
I V Almeida, E Düsman, G I Mattge, F Toledo, A F Reusing, V E P Vicentini
Complementary and alternative therapies, including the use of medicinal plants, have become almost standard among the world's population. Pfaffia glomerata (PG), popularly known as Brazilian ginseng, is widely used as a restorer of vital functions, increasing mental balance, and is used for the treatment of diabetes and rheumatism. Ginkgo biloba (GB) is one of the oldest known gymnosperms, whose leaves are widely used for its potentiating action on the nervous system. The biological activities of these plants were determined on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
V M Marcelino, M V P C Espinola, V Serrano-Solis, S T Farias
The natural history of mimiviruses (i.e., viruses that are members of the Mimivirus genus) is a challenge for modern biology. A new domain of life to include these organisms has been proposed from analysis of gene conservation. We analyzed the evolutionary relationship of proteins involved in the translation system, and our data show that mimiviruses are a sister group of Eukarya. New data about the origins of Eukarya, in which Eukarya appears as a branch derived from the Archaea domain, were discussed, and we suggest that the mimiviruses emerged from the initial population that gave origin to Eukarya and that, in this way are not part of a new domain of life...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
A B Baldoni, H Tonini, F D Tardin, S C C Botelho, P E Teodoro
Repeatability studies on fruit species are of great importance to identify the minimum number of measurements necessary to accurately select superior genotypes. This study aimed to identify the most efficient method to estimate the repeatability coefficient (r) and predict the minimum number of measurements needed for a more accurate evaluation of Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) genotypes based on fruit yield. For this, we assessed the number of fruits and dry mass of seeds of 75 Brazil nut genotypes, from native forest, located in the municipality of Itaúba, MT, for 5 years...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
I V Almeida, L C Soares, F T Lucio, L B Cantagalli, A F Reusing, V E P Vicentini
The use of medicinal plants dates back to the beginning of humanity, and today their application as complementary therapy has been widely disseminated as an alternative to conventional therapy. The medicinal plant named Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (known as cat's claw) is a common woody vine of the Amazon forest that has traditionally been used in the treatment of arthritis because of its anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic potentials of this medicinal plant...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
V B Silva, R F Daher, M S B Araújo, Y P Souza, S Cassaro, B R S Menezes, L M Gravina, A A C Novo, F D Tardin, A T Amaral Júnior
Genetically improved cultivars of elephant grass need to be adapted to different ecosystems with a faster growth speed and lower seasonality of biomass production over the year. This study aimed to use selection indices using mixed models (REML/BLUP) for selecting families and progenies within full-sib families of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for biomass production. One hundred and twenty full-sib progenies were assessed from 2014 to 2015 in a randomized block design with three replications. During this period, the traits dry matter production, the number of tillers, plant height, stem diameter, and neutral detergent fiber were assessed...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
M A Rodrigues, L F Morgade, L F A Dias, R V Moreira, P D Maia, A F H Sales, P D Ribeiro
Double aneuploidy is considered a rare phenomenon. Herein, we describe a case of double aneuploidy 48,XXY,+21 in a neonate with congenital heart defects. The 28-day-old neonate male (23-year-old mother and 24-year-old father) was admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit owing to congenital heart disease. Echocardiography showed a complete atrioventricular septal defect with Rastelli type B and significant left ventricular failure, moderate atrioventricular valve regurgitation, right-sided heart failure, and preserved systolic function...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
A Valdez-Haro, Y Valle, E Valdes-Alvarado, F Casillas-Muñoz, J F Muñoz-Valle, G L Reynoso-Villalpando, H E Flores-Salinas, J R Padilla-Gutiérrez
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is considered one of the main causes of death worldwide. Contradictory findings concerning the impact of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene on cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Previous conclusions point out that the variability in results depends on ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms to determine the association of rs4340 polymorphisms of the ACE gene and ACE circulating levels in ACS. Genotyping of rs4340 polymorphisms was performed in a total of 600 individuals from Western Mexico divided into two groups: the ACS and the control group (CG)...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
L G Cota, P A Moreira, M M Brandão, V A Royo, A F Melo Junior, E V Menezes, D A Oliveira
Anacardium humile Saint Hilaire is a tropical shrub native to the Cerrado biome. It is a fruiting species with biological, medicinal, and socioeconomic significance. Thus, knowing how the genetic variability of natural populations is organized allows for the establishment of strategies for conservation and the sustainable use of the species and its biome. Six microsatellite loci previously developed from Anacardium occidentale were used to investigate the spatial genetic structure and genetic diversity of eight natural A...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
T B Queiroz, G F Santos, S C Ventura, C A Hiruma-Lima, I O M Gaivão, E L Maistro
Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol present in the essential oil of many aromatic plants and is one of the most frequently used molecules by the flavor and fragrance industries. The literature also reports its therapeutic potential, highlighting itself especially as a likely molecule for the development of drugs against cancer. In view of these considerations, this study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of geraniol, in an in vitro protocol, using two types of human cells: one without the ability to metabolize (peripheral blood mononuclear cells - PBMC), and the other with this capability (human hepatoma cell line - HepG2) through the comet assay and the micronucleus test...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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