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Research in Sports Medicine

Ivan Cuk, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
The main aim of the present study was to examine differences in pacing between half-marathon and marathon in men and women. A total of 17,525 finishers in the marathon (n = 4807 men; n = 1278 women) and half-marathon race (n = 7624 men; n = 3816 women) in Vienna 2017 were considered. Their pacing was assessed through five race segments (0-23.7%, 23.7-47.4%, 47.4-71.1%, 71.1-94.8% and 94.8-100%) of the race. Compared to marathon (where absolute average change of speed [ACS] was 5.46% and 4.12% in men and women, respectively), a more even pacing was observed in half-marathon in both sexes (ACS = 3...
March 21, 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
Avinash Chandran, Angelo Elmi, Heather Young, Loretta DiPietro
Determinants of concussion diagnosis, symptomology, and other sequelae have not been examined in high school soccer players. Using a sample of soccer-related head/neck injuries from the NATION Surveillance Program, we evaluated potential determinants (sex, injury history, injury mechanism, setting) of concussion characteristics. A total of 378 head/neck injuries were recorded, and 189 (50.0%) injuries from this sample, resulted in a concussion diagnosis. Odds of concussion diagnosis were 84% higher among female players compared with their male counterparts, and over two-fold higher in game settings compared with practice settings...
March 20, 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
Ambra Vitti, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Elias Villiger, Vincent Onywera, Beat Knechtle
The aim of the present study was to examine trends in participation, performance, age and nationality during a ~ 50-years period in the largest dataset ever studied in the "New York City Marathon". We analysed 1,174,331 finishers (women, n= 349,145, age 39.7 ± 8.7 years; men, n= 825,186, 41.7 ± 9.2 years). The overall participation increased across calendar years for all nationalities, and this increase was more pronounced in women, which resulted in a decreasing men-to-women ratio. Men were faster and older than women...
March 19, 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
Logan E Miller, Elizabeth K Pinkerton, Katie C Fabian, Lyndia C Wu, Mark A Espeland, Lindsey C Lamond, Christopher M Miles, David B Camarillo, Joel D Stitzel, Jillian E Urban
While many research efforts have focused on head impact exposure in professional soccer, there have been few studies characterizing exposure at the youth level. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new instrumentation approach and collect some of the first head impact exposure data for youth female soccer players. Athletes were instrumented with custom-fit mouthpieces that measure head impacts. Detailed video analysis was conducted to identify characteristics describing impact source (e.g., kick, header, throw)...
March 16, 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
Debbie I Craig, Monica R Lininger, Heidi A Wayment, Ann H Huffman
While research on sport-related concussion has increased dramatically over the past decade, research investigating concussion reporting is in its early stages. The purpose of this project was to assess concussion reporting and work with stakeholders to develop and assess strategies to improve reporting. We used a multi-site, repeated measures design with three NCAA Division I football programs, including 223 athlete participants. A modified community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to develop intervention strategies (Fall 2017 season) with stakeholders designed to increase concussion reporting intentions...
March 12, 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
S L Mosher, L A Gough, S Deb, B Saunders, L R Mc Naughton, D R Brown, S A Sparks
This study evaluated the chronic effects of nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion over three days, on 40 km TT performance in 11trained cyclists (VO2max : 60.8 ± 7.4 .min-1 ; age: 36 ± 9 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.06 m; body mass: 87.2 ± 12.0 kg). Utilising a double-blind randomised cross-over design, participants completed three 40 km TT on a Velotron® ergometer following the ingestion of either a 140 ml of "BEET It sport®" NO3 - shot containing 12.8 mmol or 800 mg of NO3 - , a placebo drink or nothing (control)...
March 8, 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
António J Figueiredo, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, Hugo Sarmento, José Moya, Robert M Malina
Adolescent characteristics of young adult soccer players (n = 35) were compared with those of youth teammates (n = 124) no longer involved in soccer. Former U-13 players active in soccer as young adults were slightly later in maturation and performed better in several functional and soccer skills than youth teammates. Former U-15 players active in soccer as young adults did not differ in maturity status from youth teammates but were chronologically older and performed better in agility and ball control. Young adult regional and national players in both age groups were rated significantly higher on the potential for success by their youth coaches, and national players were rated significantly higher than regional players...
March 6, 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
André L A Soares, Luísa D Kós, Roberto R Paes, Juarez V Nascimento, Dave Collins, Carlos E Gonçalves, Humberto M Carvalho
Using an interdisciplinary approach, we examined the baseline variation in biological maturity status, training experience, body size, functional capacities (Line Drill test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test) and motivation for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice of youth basketball players according to their participation status in the sport two years after assessment. Fifty-seven players were considered (10.5 to 15.5 years). Two years later we ascertained whether players discontinued participation (dropout), or remained playing engaged within a structured basketball training program...
March 5, 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
Sergej M Ostojic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
Jordan D Philpott, Oliver C Witard, Stuart D R Galloway
Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation has recently been proposed as an ergogenic aid for athletes. This claim is primarily based on mechanistic evidence that n-3PUFA's exert anti-inflammatory properties and act to change the functional capacity of the muscle cell by modifying the membrane fluidity of proteins and lipids within the cell membrane. In this review, we critically evaluate the scientific literature that examines the efficacy of n-3PUFA supplementation to improve athlete performance within the context of promoting muscle adaptation, energy metabolism, muscle recovery and injury prevention (e...
April 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
Conrad P Earnest, Jeff Rothschild, Christopher R Harnish, Alireza Naderi
Endurance performance is the result of optimal training targeting cardiovascular, metabolic, and peripheral muscular adaptations and is coupled to effective nutrition strategies via the use of macronutrient manipulations surrounding training and potential supplementation with ergogenic aids. It is important to note that training and nutrition may differ according to the individual needs of the athlete and can markedly impact the physiological response to training. Herein, we discuss various aspects of endurance training adaptations, nutritional strategies and their contributions to towards performance...
April 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
Filipe Manuel Clemente, Hugo Sarmento, Alireza Rabbani, Cornelis M I Niels Van Der Linden, Mehdi Kargarfard, Israel Teoldo Costa
This study compared the relative physical demands of official matches and sided games (medium and large) in professional soccer players by means of a global positioning system. Twenty-three professional male soccer players (24.63[Formula: see text]2.84 years old; 180.94[Formula: see text]6.49 cm; 77.19[Formula: see text]6.46 kg; 52.99[Formula: see text]5.01 VO2max ) participated in the study. Total distance, running distance, sprinting distance, number of sprints, and acceleration sum were quantified per minute to compare the different games...
January 2019: Research in Sports Medicine
Ambra Antonioni, Cristina Fantini, Ivan Dimauro, Daniela Caporossi
Supplementation with antioxidants received interest as suitable tool for preventing or reducing exercise-related oxidative stress possibly leading to improvement of sport performance in athletes. To date, it is difficult to reach a conclusion on the relevance of antioxidants supplementation in athletes and/or well-trained people. The general picture that emerges from the available data indicates that antioxidants requirement can be covered by dosage equal or close to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) provided by consumption of a balanced, well-diversified diet...
December 30, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Carlos Serrano, Víctor Paredes-Hernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jana Gallardo-Pérez, Ricardo Da Silva, David Porcel, Enrique Colino, Jorge García-Unanue, Leonor Gallardo
This study examined physical and technical demands and the influence of the team's level on elite goalkeepers' performance during six consecutive seasons in Spanish Professional Soccer League. The goalkeepers' performance data were obtained by analyzing a total of 3,874 matches using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system. The physical and technical match variables registered were: distance traveled; distance Sprinted and the number of sprints; total number of passes; successful passes; pass percentage; recovered balls; lost balls; ratio lost balls: recovered balls, and number of saves...
December 16, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Juan José Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Juan Del Coso
The aim of this investigation was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of the acute ingestion of caffeine (from 3 to 6 mg/kg) to increase performance on variables related to team sports. A systematic review was performed in scientific databases from January to April 2018. All studies included had cross-over experimental designs comparing caffeine to an identical placebo condition. A meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model and pooled standardized mean differences (Glass's Δ)...
December 5, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Emmanouil Smpokos, Christos Mourikis, Christos Theos, Manolis Linardakis
This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of injuries on a cohort of 123 Greek team's professional football players during three consecutive seasons, 2015/16-to-2017/18. Injuries were assessed and regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential risk factors. Three-quarters of the players were recorded as injured with 2.3 injuries/injured player, and the injury incidence was 55 injuries/1,000 match-playing-exposure-hours. The mean rehabilitation days were 29.3/injured player (95%CI 22.4-36...
November 30, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Seyed Majid Hosseini, Nasrin Salehi Dehno, Fateme Rezaiian, Khosro Khademi Kalantari, Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaee
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of direction of kinesio taping of wrist flexor muscles on force sense. Forty-five healthy women took part in this study, in three groups: kinesio taping application from origin to insertion (OI group) or from insertion to origin (IO group), and no kinesio taping (control group). Absolute and relative force sense errors were calculated with 50% maximal grip strength as the target force value. Absolute and relative force sense errors in the dominant hand were recorded before and 24 h after the application of kinesio tape to the forearm...
November 21, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
M Andrzejewski, B Pluta, M Konefał, J Konarski, J Chmura, P Chmura
The aim of the present study was to determine and characterize the activity of male Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-level matches, depending on playing position, activity intensity range, and match period. The study sample comprised 1178 players. Amisco Pro® was used to track the match activity players. Statistical analysis of the total distance covered by players revealed that the greatest distance was covered by central midfielders (11894 ± 765 m) and external midfielders (11751 ± 686 m)...
November 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Beat Knechtle, Ilja Käch, Thomas Rosemann, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sex, age and performance level on pacing of Ironman triathletes. Split times (i.e. swimming, cycling, and running) and overall race times of 343,345 athletes competing between 2002 and 2015 in 253 different Ironman triathlon races were analyzed. Participants were classified into nine performance groups according to their overall race time. Times in swimming, cycling, running and transition were expressed as percentage of the overall race time. Women spent relatively less time (%) in swimming, running and transition time, and more time (%) in cycling than men (p < 0...
November 11, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Filipe Manuel Clemente, Daniele Conte, Rita Sanches, Carlos Filipe Moleiro, Mónica Gomes, Ricardo Lima
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between anthropometric (height and weight), fitness status (aerobic capacity, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test - level 1, YYIRT-L1; countermovement jump performance, CMJ) and perceived exertion (RPE) of twenty youth (under-14 and under-16) male basketball players and their technical actions (attacking balls-AB, shots-S, received balls-RB, rebounds-R, conquered balls-CB, lost balls-LB) during five small-sided games (SSGs) formats (from 1v1 to 5v5). Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients tested the relationships between the anthropometric and fitness variables and the technical actions and perceived exertion during SSGs...
November 11, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
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