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Journal of Pharmacological Sciences

Youyi Xiong, Lili Zhou, Xingtao Qiu, Chenggui Miao
OBJECTIVES: The therapeutic potentiality of Bazhengsan on the chronic nonbacterial prostatitis was investigated. METHODS: Prostatitis was induced by subcutaneous injection of the 17-beta-estradiol (E2 ) and dihydrotestosterone in male rat, and treated with Bazhengsan. After 8 weeks, prostatic fluid was collected for counting lecithin corpuscle density (LCD) and the organs were removed from animals and used for measuring prostate viscera coefficient (PVC). Then, prostate histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and masson staining, and expression levels of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators were detected by the technologies of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or western blot...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Tatsuya Yoshihara, Masayoshi Zaitsu, Fumie Shiraishi, Hisatomi Arima, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Masaki Arioka, Shunichi Kajioka, Toshiyuki Sasaguri
The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of gene polymorphisms, in combination with habitual caffeine consumption, to the effect of caffeine intake on hemodynamic and psychoactive parameters. A double-blind, prospective study was conducted with 201 healthy volunteers randomly allocated 2:1 to the caffeinated group (150 mL decaffeinated coffee with additional 200 mg caffeine) or decaffeinated group (150 mL decaffeinated coffee). We measured the changes in blood pressure (BP) and calculation speed upon coffee intake, stratifying with gene polymorphisms, e...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Xiaoying Wang, Dandan Xiao, Cui Ma, Lixin Zhang, Qingya Duan, Xiaodong Zheng, Min Mao, Daling Zhu, Qian Li
Abnormal autophagy plays critical roles in the structure and function of the pulmonary vasculature. Cyclophilin A (CyPA) can be secreted from cells in response to hypoxia and oxidative stress, which are involved in inducing autophagy and regulating the function of endothelial cells in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Honokiol is a small molecule natural compound; it has many bioactivities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties, but how honokiol mediates autophagy in pulmonary arterial hypertension is unclear...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Atsushi Sugiyama, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Ryuichi Kambayashi, Ai Goto, Koki Chiba, Kentaro Ando, Atsuhiko T Naito, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko
We analyzed how the enhancement of net sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ uptake may affect cardiac electrophysiological properties in vivo by using caldaret which can decrease SR diastolic Ca2+ leak, enhance SR Ca2+ reuptake and inhibit reverse-mode Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger. Caldaret in doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 μg/kg was intravenously administered over 10 min to the halothane-anesthetized beagle dogs (n = 5), attaining pharmacologically active plasma concentration. The low and middle doses of caldaret increased the ventricular contraction, which could be explained by its on-target pharmacological activities...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Zejun Mo, Linghuan Li, Haiwen Yu, Yingqi Wu, Hanbing Li
Glucocorticoids are widely prescribed for lots of pathological conditions, however, can produce 'Cushingoid' side effects including central obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and so forth. Our study is intended to investigate the improving effects of coumarins on diabetogenic action of dexamethasone in vivo and in vitro and elucidate potential mechanisms. ICR mice treated with dexamethasone for 21 days exhibited decreased body weight, increased blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, which were prevented by fraxetin (40 mg/kg/day), esculin (40 mg/kg/day) and osthole (20 mg/kg/day), respectively...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Zixiu Zeng, Yunling Zhang, Xiao Liang, Fengli Wang, Jiayi Zhao, Zhenmin Xu, Xiaohan Liu, Xuemei Liu
The aim of the present study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of Qingnao dripping pills (QNDP), especially the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, as well as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: sham, MCAO, and QNDP. After 24 h of ischemia and reperfusion, neurological deficit scores and infarct volume were measured. Macrophages and neutrophil infiltration in the ischemic brain were respectively determined with CD68 and MPO immunofluorescence and western blot...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Xin Hu, Yuanyuan Liang, Bo Zhao, Yongyi Wang
Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) triggers human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) apoptosis and initiates cataract formation. Oxyresveratrol (Oxy) was reported to possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Herein, we investigated the effects of Oxy on H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in HLECs and the associated mechanisms. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay. The oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the activities of superoxide dismutases-1 (SOD-1), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Azusa Sugiyama, Misa Yamada, Hiroki Furuie, Leo Gotoh, Akiyoshi Saitoh, Hiroshi Nagase, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Mitsuhiko Yamada
Strategies to facilitate extinction of fear memory have attracted increasing attention for enhancing the effectiveness of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. Previously, we demonstrated that systemic administration of a delta opioid receptor agonist, KNT-127, has clear anxiolytic-like effects in rats, without impairing memory. These observations led us to hypothesize that KNT-127 might be an appropriate therapeutic agent for anxiety disorders when combined with exposure therapy. In the present study, we demonstrate that KNT-127 (3 mg/kg) facilitates extinction learning of fear memory using the contextual fear conditioning test...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Takaomi Shimokawa, Hidenobu Tsutsui, Takeshi Miura, Masashi Takama, Kohei Hayashi, Toru Nishinaka, Tomoyuki Terada, Kozo Yoneda, Masayo Yamagata, Tokihito Yukimura
Ischemia/reperfusion injury is the most common cause of acute kidney injury. We previously revealed that pre-treatment with yohimbine or JP-1302 attenuated renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of post-treatment with JP-1302 on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation, ischemia/reperfusion, pre-treatment with JP-1302 (3.0 mg/kg) and post-treatment with JP-1302 groups...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Yunjung Choi, Hyunju Kim, Moonseok Choi, Eun-Jeong Yang, Toru Takumi, Hye-Sun Kim
The duplication of human chromosome 15q11-13 is known to be associated with an estimated 1.1% of autism cases. Here, we investigated whether differentiation into neurons and astrocytes is altered in fetal neural stem cells (FNSCs) isolated from the mouse model of 15q11-13 duplication syndrome (patDp/+ mice). In patDp/+ mice-derived FNSCs, multipotency was maintained for a longer period, the population of neurons was downregulated, and that of astrocytes was upregulated significantly after differentiation induction...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Pan Jiang, Lei Chen, Jing Sun, Jingsong Li, Jian Xu, Wenyuan Liu, Feng Feng, Wei Qu
Recent studies suggested that Chotosan has ameliorative effects on vascular dementia through antioxidative pathways. Nevertheless, no systematic pharmacological research was conducted to evaluate the contribution of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a crucial regulator of antioxidative system, on Chotosan-induced neuroprotection invascular dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Chotosan on vascular dementia and reveal the possible molecular mechanism involving Nrf2...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Ruhui Yang, Zhiyong Hu, Pengyong Zhang, Songquan Wu, Zhaoxia Song, Xiangchun Shen, Zhe Wei
Probucol has antioxidant effects and inhibits inflammation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates autophagy, which is regarded as the key cause of the activation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC). In this study, the effects of probucol on HSC activation and autophagy in vitro and vivo and the role of FXR in this progress were investigated. Results showed that probucol ameliorated hepatic fibrosis and autophagy, and increased the expression of FXR in liver in a mouse model of fibrosis induced by CCl4 ...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Takehiro Yamaguchi, Ayano Watanabe, Masako Tanaka, Masayuki Shiota, Mayuko Osada-Oka, Soichi Sano, Minoru Yoshiyama, Katsuyuki Miura, Shojiro Kitajima, Shinji Matsunaga, Shuhei Tomita, Hiroshi Iwao, Yasukatsu Izumi
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors not only improve impaired glucose tolerance in diabetes, but also have pleiotropic extra-pancreatic effects such as preconditioning effect for myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we investigated the anti-remodeling effects of linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, by use of DPP-4-deficient rats. After the induction of myocardial infarction (MI), Fischer 344 rats with inactivating mutation of DPP-4 were orally administrated with a DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin (5 mg kg-1 ·day-1 ), or vehicle in drinking water for 4 weeks...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Radhika Sudhir Joshi, Shishu Pal Singh, Mitradas M Panicker
Clozapine is an antipsychotic known for its superior efficacy in treating drug-resistant Schizophrenia. However, Clozapine induces various side effects such as hyperglycemia, agranulocytosis, weight gain etc. The mechanisms of these Clozapine-induced side effects have remained largely elusive though an important role is ascribed to 5-HT2A (Serotonin receptor subtype-2A). In this pilot study, we report for the first time that the 5-HT2A 'global' knockout mice (Htr2a-/- ) are resistant to the Clozapine-induced hyperglycemia...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Kohji Fukunaga, Hisanao Izumi, Yasushi Yabuki, Yasuharu Shinoda, Norifumi Shioda, Feng Han
Low-threshold Ca2+ spikes are mediated by T-type Ca2+ channels, which have electrophysiological properties of fast inactivation and slow deactivation kinetics. A low membrane potential of approximately -60 mV is sufficient to trigger channel opening. We recently introduced a novel T-type Ca2+ channel enhancer that improves cognition and inhibits amyloid beta aggregation in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. The enhancer stimulates ACh release, Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Ryota Eguchi, Soichiro Yamaguchi, Ken-Ichi Otsuguro
Purinergic signaling via ATP and adenosine produced by astrocytes is one pathway underlying neuron-glia interactions in the central nervous system (CNS). In production of purines, extracellular metabolism of released purines via ecto-enzymes is important. The expression and activities of these enzymes are altered under pathological conditions. Production of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is increased under pathological conditions, and this has various effects on astrocytes. Here, we investigated the effects of FGF2 on purine metabolism in cultured rat spinal cord astrocytes...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Kyo Won Lee, Tae Hwan Kim, Jong Bong Lee, Kyeong Sik Kim, Jae Berm Park, Pavel Gershkovich, Sun Dong Yoo, Soyoung Shin, Beom Soo Shin, Sung Joo Kim
Tacrolimus is one of the most commonly used immunosuppressive agents in animal models of transplantation. However, in these models, oral administration is often problematic due to the lowered compliance associated with highly invasive surgery and due to malabsorption in the intestinal tract. Therefore, we carried out a study to determine the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus after intramuscular (IM) injection and to determine the optimal IM dosing regimens in primate models. Six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were used in the study...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Type IV collagen is a main component of basement membrane extracellular matrix. Canstatin, a non-collagenous C-terminal fragment of type IV collagen α2 chain, was firstly identified as an endogenous anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor factor, which also has an anti-lymphangiogenic effect. Then, canstatin has been widely investigated as a novel target molecule for cancer therapy. The anti-angiogenic effect of canstatin may be also useful for the treatment of ocular neovascularization. Recently, we have demonstrated that canstatin, which is abundantly expressed in the heart tissue, exerts various biological activities in cardiac cells...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Ke Xu, Liqin Guo, Haixia Bu, Huan Wang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Oxidative stress and inflammation have been documented to play important roles in the pathogenesis of DN. Daphnetin, a natural coumarin compound, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the role of daphnetin in DN has not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study was to explore the function of daphnetin in DN and the underlying mechanism in vitro. Our results demonstrated that daphnetin alleviated cell proliferation induced by high glucose (HG) in human mesangial cells (MCs)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Masato Matsuo, Yoshiki Kuse, Kei Takahashi, Keiichi Kuwahara, Masaki Tanito, Sachiko Kaidzu, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara, Akihiro Ohira
The purpose of this study was to determine whether carteolol eye drops, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist used as an intraocular hypotensive agent, has protective effects against the light-induced oxidative stress in retina. Dark-adapted pigmented rats were pre-treated with topical carteolol ophthalmic solution or saline and then exposed to visible light. The effects on electroretinogram (ERG), morphology, oxidative stress, and expression of mRNAs in the retinas were determined. The l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO)/glutamate-induced oxidative stress in 661 W cells, a murine photoreceptor cell line, was evaluated by cell death assays, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of caspase...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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