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Expert Opinion on Drug Safety

Sarah Milliken, Ruridh M Allen, Ronald F Lamont
The use of antibiotics prenatally, during pregnancy, or neonatally may have adverse effects on the neonatal gut microbiome, and adversely affect the development of the infant immune system, leading to the development of childhood atopy, asthma, allergy and obesity. Areas covered: We reviewed new evidence about vaginal eubiosis and dysbiosis from molecular-based, cultivation-independent techniques, and how this affects the neonatal gut microbiome and early development of the immune system in infants. We have considered the association between maternal use of antibiotics and the potentially beneficial role of vitamin D in the development of atopy, asthma, allergy and obesity...
February 11, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Sebastiano Mercadante
In the last few decades, the consumption of opioid analgesics in many countries, particularly the US, has dramatically increased. This rise has been paralleled by a proportional number of opioid-related deaths. Areas covered: The development of opioid guidelines was a response to this health crisis with the intention of reducing the risk of harm related to opioid prescribing. These guidelines have received varying responses ranging from support to criticism. Pain physicians may often provide multidimensional management as the paradigm for responsible opioid treatment...
February 5, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Thomas Felix, John B Jordan, Catherine Akers, Bina Patel, Daniela Drago
Pharmacovigilance is essential to monitoring the safety profiles of authorized medicines. Compared with small-molecule drugs, biological drugs are more complex, more susceptible to structural variability due to manufacturing processes, and have the potential to induce immune-related reactions, underscoring the importance of safety monitoring for these products. Although highly similar to reference products, biosimilars are not expected to be structurally identical. For these reasons, proper reporting of potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs) using distinguishable names and batch numbers is essential for accurate tracing of all biological drugs...
February 4, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Kathleen Wyatt Chester, Megan Corrigan, J Megan Schoeffler, Michelle Shah, Florence Toy, Barbara Purdon, George M Dillon
Alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase are tissue plasminogen activators (TPA) approved for the management of acute myocardial infarction. Only alteplase is also approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The US Food and Drug Administration has received reports of accidental administration of tenecteplase or reteplase instead of alteplase in patients with AIS, which can result in failure to treat patients with the intended agent and lead to potential overdose. Areas covered: This review compares the molecular and clinical features of alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase (TNK), identifies factors contributing to medication errors among these agents, and provides steps to reduce medication errors...
February 4, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Ameenathul M Fawzy, Wang-Yang Yang, Gregory Yh Lip
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may be regarded as some of the most successful innovations in recent times. These drugs which were specifically developed to overcome the challenges posed by warfarin did just that and in the process, have changed the outlook towards stroke prevention with anticoagulation. The decade of experience with these drugs that has resulted in the availability of large scale data on their safety profile has aided this. Areas covered: This review examines existing real-world studies and their interpretation to better appreciate how they either complement or contradict findings from the hallmark trials...
February 2, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Giuseppe Murdaca, Simone Negrini, Marco Pellecchio, Monica Greco, Chiara Schiavi, Francesca Giusti, Francesco Puppo
TNF-α inhibitors can be administered either as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-inflammatory drugs or DMARDs in the treatment of chronic immune-mediated diseases. Areas covered: Patients receiving TNF-α inhibitors are at high risk of infections. An update is made on the risk of infection in patients receiving TNF-α inhibitors and the strategies for mitigating against the development of these serious adverse events. Expert opinion: Infliximab than etanercept appears to be responsible for the increased risk of infections...
January 31, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Chih-Hung Wang, Cheng-Han Li, Ronan Hsieh, Cheng-Yi Fan, Tze-Chun Hsu, Wei-Che Chang, Wan-Ting Hsu, Yu-Ya Lin, Chien-Chang Lee
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to summarize the current evidence regarding the risk of pneumonia associated with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) treatment. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL from the 1970 through December 2017. We included both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. We used random-effect model to calculate the summary effect estimates and quantified the heterogeneity by I2 statistics. RESULTS: A total of 7,643,982 patients from 10 RCTs and 48 observational studies were included in this meta-analysis...
January 31, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Massimo Morfini, Carlo Antonio Paolo Rapisarda
during the last decade, new FVIII/IX concentrates have been developed for the treatment of patients affected by hemophilia A/B. Significant progress has been achieved regarding their half-life, but the old issue of immunogenicity and new concerns about safety need to be addressed. Areas covered: after the implementation of virucidal methods, both plasma-derived and recombinant clotting factor concentrates achieved a very safe profile. The development of anti-FVIII antibodies is the major adverse event of replacement therapy with both FVIII concentrates...
January 25, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Robyn Rexwinkel, Judith Zeevenhooven, Faridi S van Etten-Jamaludin, Marc A Benninga, Merit M Tabbers
To systematically review the literature regarding the side effects of pharmacotherapy in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain - not otherwise specified (FAP-NOS). Areas covered: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched from inception to May 2018. The following inclusion criteria were applied: (1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies or case control studies; (2) in children aged 4 - 18 years, or adult studies if children are reported separately; (3) reporting a diagnosis of IBS or FAP-NOS as defined by the authors; and (4) reporting the occurrence of side effects of pharmacotherapy...
January 24, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Jamie J Coleman
Unintended harm from prescribing errors remains a prevalent concern in healthcare leading to significant morbidity and mortality around the world. Prescribers face new challenges to their practice in modern times such as increasingly complex healthcare systems, an aging population with increasing multimorbidity, and rapid growth in the number of novel medicines. Areas covered: Prescribing concerns in modern practice are outlined based on seminal literature in this area and the author's continual academic oversight of this topic...
January 18, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Jagroop M Parikh, Patricia Amolenda, Joseph Rutledge, Alexandra Szabova, Vidya Chidambaran
The opioid abuse epidemic and its toll on the adolescent population has heightened awareness for safer opioid prescribing practices in pediatric pain management. Opioids remain the mainstay of therapy for severe pain, although there is an emphasis on multimodal therapy. Areas covered: In this update, the authors present information on parenteral/oral opioids commonly used in pediatrics. Recommendations for opioid use in special circumstances including neonates and developmental pharmacokinetic concerns are discussed...
January 16, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Priya Patel, Edric Paw Cho Sing, L Lee Dupuis
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are among the most distressing and feared treatment-related adverse effects for cancer patients. Selection of antiemetic agents to prevent CINV should be based on an evaluation of their efficacy and safety. This systematic review and meta-analysis describes the adverse effects associated with antiemetic agents recommended for the prevention of acute CINV in children by clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Areas covered: A systematic literature search was conducted using four databases to identify papers describing adverse effects in pediatric patients receiving aprepitant, dexamethasone, granisetron, ondansetron, palonosetron, or tropisetron...
January 14, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Shahariar Mohammed Fahim, Ahmed Ullah Mishuk, Ning Cheng, Richard Hansen, Angela I Calderón, Jingjing Qian
BACKGROUND: To examine adverse event (AE) reporting patterns for concomitant Botanical Dietary Supplements (BDS) and anticancer drugs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the 2004-2015 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database, AEs involving commonly used BDS and anticancer drugs (categorized into CYP3A4 interactive and CYP3A4 non-interactive) were focused on. Disproportionality analyses using reporting odds ratios (RORs) assessed the relative reporting rates of 1) serious AEs (i...
December 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Ignacio Portales-Castillo, Daniela Kroshinksy, Cindy K Malhotra, Roberta Culbert-Costley, Mario Gennaro Cozzolino, Shelly Karparis, Charles L Halasz, Jeremy Goverman, Harold J Manley, Rajeev Malhotra, Sagar U Nigwekar
Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating disease with a mortality rate up to 50% in 1 year. It is characterized by profoundly painful ischemic skin lesions and vascular calcification that affects predominantly patients with end stage renal disease. The use of certain medications is an important modifiable risk factor in calciphylaxis and discontinuation of these is a mainstay of treatment. Areas Covered: This review will provide an overview of calciphylaxis and will focus on how certain therapeutic agents can affect the risk of calcification and associated thrombosis, key processes involved in the development of calciphylaxis...
December 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Rui Niu, Yufang Xiang, Tingting Wu, Zhi Zhang, Yue Chen, Bianling Feng
BACKGROUND: High-quality adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports are essential for conducting drug safety monitoring in pharmacovigilance. The study aim was to assess the current quality of ADR reports in western China, and to identify problems with ADR report quality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A sample of 1139 reports received by the Shaanxi ADR Monitoring Center from January 2015 to December 2017 was selected. ADR report quality was evaluated using an ADR report quality evaluation system...
December 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
In 1998, the first licensed rotavirus vaccine was associated with intussusception, an unexpected adverse event, following reports of this condition to an adverse event reporting system. This rotavirus vaccine was withdrawn from the market and newer rotavirus vaccines have been extensively evaluated for an association with intussusception. Areas Covered: We review the different study designs that have been used both pre- and post-licensure to evaluate the association of rotavirus vaccines with intussusception and discuss the pros and cons of each design...
December 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Amandeep Godara, Nauman S Siddiqui, Margaret M Byrne, Muhammad Wasif Saif
Lanreotide autogel is a synthetic somatostatin analogue which has been FDA and EMA approved for unresectable, well to moderately differentiated, locally advanced or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Its action is mediated by its affinity to somatostatin receptors, especially sst2 and sst5 receptors. Its longer half-life offers the convenience of 4-week dosing over the need for frequent injections of short-acting somatostatin analogues. Areas covered: Lanreotide ATG offers progression-free survival benefit in locally advanced or metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) compared to placebo, reflecting a strong antiproliferative signal...
December 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Fubin Feng, Fang Yin, Tingting Zhang, Cun Liu, Changgang Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Jonas W Wastesson, Lucas Morin, Edwin C K Tan, Kristina Johnell
Polypharmacy, the use of multiple medications by one individual, is increasingly common among older adults. Caring for the growing number of older people with complex drug regimens and multimorbidity presents an important challenge in the coming years. Areas covered: This article reviews the international trends in the prevalence of polypharmacy, summarizes the results from previous reviews on polypharmacy and negative health outcomes, and updates a previous review on the clinical consequences of polypharmacy by focusing on studies published after 2013...
December 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Arielle L Langer, Aaron Etra, Louis Aledort
Patients affected by hemophilia A often require frequent prophylactic and therapeutic self-infusion. For those who develop inhibitors, treatment options are limited and mortality is increased. Emicizumab, a bispecific antibody to Factors IXa and X that carries out the function of Factor VIII (FVIII), represents a novel therapeutic approach. Areas covered: We review the clinical trials and key laboratory assay research for emicizumab. Emicizumab reduced the annualized bleeding rate by 87% compared to placebo in patients with inhibitors...
December 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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