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Reproductive Biology

Panagiotis Drakopoulos, Annalisa Racca, Joaquín Errázuriz, Michel De Vos, Herman Tournaye, Christophe Blockeel, Nicola Pluchino, Samuel Santos-Ribeiro
Elevation of progesterone during the late follicular phase of stimulated in-vitro fertilization cycles is a frequent event, which negatively impacts the outcome. Over the years evidence has demonstrated a direct relationship between late-follicular elevated progesterone and endometrial receptivity. In this regard, elective cryopreservation of all good quality embryos and transfer in a subsequent frozen/thawed cycle is the most common strategy adopted by clinicians in case of elevated progesterone. Nonetheless, recent evidence suggests that elective cryopreservation might not entirely resolve the reduced pregnancy outcomes associated with the elevation of progesterone, considering that the increase may affect not only implantation, but also embryo quality...
February 15, 2019: Reproductive Biology
Miklos Szucs, Peter Osvath, Attila Jakab, Daniel Varga, Balazs Varga, Bela Juhasz
The relationship between overweight and male fertility is well studied, still the correlation of obesity and decreased sperm quality is a subject to debate. The widely used conventional spermatological examinations alone seem to be inadequate to assess fertilization potential. Hyaluronan Binding Assay (HBA® ) is one of the available validated tests that allows the functional examination of sperm. Data of 72 male patients (mean age 33.9 (24-43) years) from infertile couples were analysed. Body Mass Index (BMI) determination, conventional semen analysis and HBA were performed...
February 13, 2019: Reproductive Biology
Bianca Ferrarini Zanetti, Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira Braga, Amanda Souza Setti, Assumpto Iaconelli, Edson Borges
The aim of this study was to investigate which factors contribute to the incidence of biochemical pregnancy (BP) in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. This cohort study included cycles performed from June 2010 to September 2016 in a private, university-affiliated IVF centre. Cycles were split into four groups, depending on the pregnancy outcomes: Clinical Pregnancy (CP, n = 903), Biochemical Pregnancy (BP, n = 55), Miscarriage (MI, n = 142) and Negative Pregnancy (NP, n = 2034)...
February 8, 2019: Reproductive Biology
Savas Aktas, Ismail Un, Ibrahim Omer Barlas, Ayla Batu Ozturk, Meryem Ilkay Karagul
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of RhoA/Rho-kinase in the uterus and the effect of Rho-kinase inhibitors on uterine contractions of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats. Forty-four female Sprague-Dawley (21 days old) rats divided into three groups: The control group (n = 14, any procedure was not performed), vehicle group (n = 14, 0.2 ml of sesame oil, subcutaneous injection, 20 days) and PCOS group (n = 16, DHEA 6 mg/100 g in 0...
January 28, 2019: Reproductive Biology
Libby Ophir, Yuval Yung, Gil Mordechai Yerushalmi, Micha Baum, Ronit Machtinger, Ettie Maman, Ariel Hourvitz
Ovarian follicular development and ovulation in mammals is a highly-regulated process. Most of the current knowledge of ovarian processes was obtained from the studies of non-human models. Molecular studies on human ovarian processes suffer from lack of material and appropriate research tools. Mural granulosa cells (MGCs) culture is a major tool for studying the effect of different substances but a major problem for using these primary MGCs is their unresponsiveness to hCG stimulation at the time of oocyte retrieval...
January 17, 2019: Reproductive Biology
Rasoul Kowsar, Zohre Kowsar, Akio Miyamoto
Increased urea concentration is a major cause of low fertility in dairy cows fed high-protein diets. A strong correlation exists between the urea concentration in the blood and oviduct fluid of dairy cows. In this study, bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) were incubated with varying concentrations of urea (0, 20, 40, and 80 mg/dL) in the absence of ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and progesterone) and luteinizing hormone. The 80 mg/dL urea reduced the cell viability, and thus was excluded in further analysis...
January 6, 2019: Reproductive Biology
Diego Bucci, Marco Cunto, Beatrice Gadani, Marcella Spinaci, Daniele Zambelli, Giovanna Galeati
Dog sperm cryopreservation is gaining importance both in breeding dogs for commercial purposes and for pet animals. Anyway, cryopreservation of mammalian spermatozoa, including dog ones, induces some negative effect on sperm fertility, leading to a lower use of this technique and limiting its widespread use. Therefore, studies to improve the quality of canine semen after cryopreservation could have a relevant impact on both the scientific advancement and the clinical practice. The aim of the present work was to investigate the putative ameliorative effect of Epigallochatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) addition to post thawing medium on dog sperm motility, mitochondrial activity, acrosome integrity and on zona-binding ability (zona binding assay)...
December 20, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Dibyendu Dutta, In Park, Hiwot Guililat, Samuel Sang, Arpita Talapatra, Laura Hanson, Nathaniel Crain Mills
Sperm granuloma may develop in the epididymis following vasectomy or chemical insults. Inflammation due to sperm granuloma causes abdominal and scrotal pain. Prolonged and persistent inflammation in the epididymis due to sperm granuloma may lead to infertility. Extravasation of germ cells into the interstitium of epididymis following damage of the epididymal epithelium is one of the primary reasons for sperm granuloma-associated pathology. Since testosterone is vital for the maintenance of epididymal epithelium, we investigated the pathology of sperm granuloma and its relationship with testosterone...
December 5, 2018: Reproductive Biology
John Lui Yovich, Ian Logan Craft
In this 40th anniversary year of the first IVF live birth, it is pertinent to look at all those teams endeavouring to generate live births from this unique technology and who succeeded within 4 years of the first. There were 9 teams who achieved this and a further 3 who were successful soon after, by the end of 1982. This historical review is compiled by 2 authors who were actively engaged in the field of IVF at the time of the first birth and who have remained active in Reproductive Medicine throughout their professional lives...
November 30, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Uma Mariappen, Kevin N Keane, Peter M Hinchliffe, Satvinder S Dhaliwal, John L Yovich
Advanced age is an increasing trend for both males and females seeking in vitro fertilization (IVF). This retrospective cohort study investigated the outcomes of 1280 IVF-related treatment cycles, selecting the first treatment for couples utilizing autologous gametes and who underwent single fresh embryo transfer. Males aged 40-49 years had a 52% reduction in normal sperm motility, while it was markedly reduced by 79% at 50 years or older. However, neither semen parameters nor male age were predictive of clinical pregnancy or live birth chance...
December 2018: Reproductive Biology
Anna-Katharina Hankele, Stefan Bauersachs, Susanne E Ulbrich
Estrogen metabolism results in the formation of inactive estrogen sulphates and glucuronides. Despite the lack of receptor binding, circulating conjugated estrogens might serve as a reservoir for the active form through the involvement of specific cleaving enzymes. In order to elucidate the potential role that estrogen conjugates play in the regulation of the estrous cycle, we determined the concentration of progesterone, estrogen and estrogen conjugates in serum and endometrial homogenates of cycling gilts...
November 20, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Narges Kamkar, Fariba Ramezanali, Marjan Sabbaghian
More than two consecutive miscarriages in less than 20 weeks of gestation is defined as recurrent spontaneous miscarriage. Various causes such as uterine anatomical anomalies, genetic factors, and infectious and endocrine disorders have been reported for RPL. However, approximately 50% of the causes are unknown, which can be due to male factors. Several studies have been done on semen parameters to determine the unknown causes and risk factors for miscarriages, however, only studying common semen parameters have not been sufficient...
November 14, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Fang Xu, Hailun Zhu, Wenbing Zhu, Liqing Fan
The sperm acrosome reaction (AR) is a physiological secretory course of membrane fusion and hydrolytic enzymes, as well as matrix protein release, enabling spermatozoa to penetrate the egg surroundings. An instable acrosomal status before a specific stimulus, insufficient acrosomal responsiveness, or inadequate enzymatic activity of acrosomal content can be detrimental to male fertility. This prospective cohort study was designed to determine whether three human sperm acrosome evaluation parameters-including spontaneous AR rate, AR after calcium ionophore A23187 challenge (ARIC) rate, and modified Kennedy acrosin activity-can predict fertilization outcomes in vitro and are correlated with male characteristics...
November 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Muhamet Afsin, Birgul Otludil, Onur Dede, Murat Akkus
Varicocele is one of the main and surgically repairable causes of male infertility, which arises from dilatation and torsion of the testicular veins in the plexus pampiniformis. In this study, we examined semen samples from 40 patients diagnosed with varicocele between the ages of 15 and 30 years, according to WHO criteria (pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-operatively). The mean spermatozoa concentration was found to be 45.25 ± 34.83 million/ml pre-operatively, while the mean post-operative concentration was 48...
November 2, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Daniel Bodri, Robert Milewski, Jazmina Yao Serna, Takeshi Sugimoto, Ryutaro Kato, Tsunekazu Matsumoto, Satoshi Kawachiya
Prolonged embryo culture is increasingly used as a way of improving pregnancy rates, especially in the context of single embryo transfer. So far, only a handful of studies examined the relation between implantation potential and time-lapse parameters extracted from later stages (morula and blastocyst) of embryo development. For this retrospective study all 285 single vitrified-thawed blastocyst transfers (SVBT) from all consecutive unselected patients whose fertilized oocytes were submitted to time-lapse monitoring (TLM) from a two-year cohort were analysed...
October 30, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Vivian A P Alfradique, Ribrio I T P Batista, Joanna M G Souza-Fabjan, Luana R Côrtes, Gláucia M Bragança, Clara V de Souza, Lendel C da Costa, Felipe Z Brandão
This study investigated the effect that bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) and ovine spermatozoa co-culture exposed to different hormonal environments had on ram sperm function over the course of a 24-h incubation period. Ram cooled-stored spermatozoa were selected by swim-up and then co-cultured separately for 24 h at 38.5 °C under 5% CO2 with either: (1) Fert-TALP medium (positive control [POSControl]), (2) Fert-TALP medium supplemented with 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) at concentrations similar to follicular phase (Follicular NEGControl), (3) Fert-TALP medium supplemented with E2 and P4 concentrations similar to luteal phase (Luteal NEGControl), (4) BOEC cultured in the same medium as that of the Follicular NEGControl group (Follicular BOEC group), or (5) BOEC cultured in the same medium as that of the Luteal NEGControl group (Luteal BOEC group)...
October 20, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Ali Zeyad, Bandar Al-Abdulkareem, Mohamad Eid Hammadeh
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the gender of human embryos and chronological changes during the two pronuclear (2PN) embryonic stage and blastocyst formation on day five after injection using time-lapse imaging and preimplantation genetic testing. A total of 120 couples who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection with preimplantation genetic testing were included in the study. Only normal embryos (n = 416) were enrolled in this study. Time-lapse imaging data of male (n = 227) and female (n = 189) embryo progression was carried out to estimate the times of initial appearance of the 2PN stage, fading times and day five blastulation rates...
October 18, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Fatema B Almughlliq, Yong Q Koh, Hassendrini N Peiris, Kanchan Vaswani, Buddhika J Arachchige, Sarah Reed, Murray D Mitchell
During endometrial inflammation, bovine endometrium responds by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to establish and characterize an in vitro model of endometrial inflammation using bovine endometrial epithelial (bEEL) and stromal (bCSC) cell lines. We evaluated the effects of the infectious agent (bacterial lipopolysaccharide; LPS) and pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β and TNFα) on eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression and production by bEEL and bCSC cells...
October 18, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Sanjay Kumar Singh, Nitin Nage, Hitesh Jagani, Mukul Maiti, Ranjit Sudhakar Ranbhor
In humans, regulation of reproductive functions are carried out mainly by glycoprotein hormones namely follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Since glycans play an important role in binding of gonadotropins with their respective receptors, it is important to identify associated glycans and their pharmacological properties not only for the disease manipulation but also for making more efficacious and safer recombinant versions...
October 18, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Zhen Luo, Wenli Luo, Shaohua Li, Sen Zhao, Takami Sho, Xue Xu, Jing Zhang, Weina Xu, Jianxiong Xu
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a significant obstacle in pig production; however, information regarding the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced placental dysfunction and IUGR is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the placental redox status, mitochondrial content, cellular progression, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in IUGR. Placental tissues were collected from normal intrauterine gestation (NIUG) and IUGR fetuses at delivery. Compared with the NIUG, placental ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage were increased in IUGR...
October 6, 2018: Reproductive Biology
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