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Current Neuropharmacology

Gabriele Sani, Ida Gualtieri, Marco Paolini, Luca Bonanni, Edoardo Spinazzola, Matteo Maggiora, Vito Pinzone, Roberto Brugnoli, Gloria Angeletti, Paolo Girardi, Chiara Rapinesi, Georgios D Kotzalidis
BACKGROUND: Trichotillomania (TTM), excoriation (or skin-picking) disorder and some severe forms of onychophagia are classified under obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. There are different interacting neurotransmitter systems involved in the pathophysiology of impulse-control disorders, implicating noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, opioid peptides and glutamate, hence investigators focused on drugs able to act on these transmitters. Our aim was to critically review the efficacy of the drugs employed in impulse-control disorders...
March 20, 2019: Current Neuropharmacology
Naveen Sharma, Eun-Joo Shin, Nam Hun Kim, Eun-Hee Cho, Bao Trong Nguyen, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon Gon Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Far-infrared ray (FIR) is an electromagnetic wave that produces various health benefits against pathophysiological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, renocardiovascular disorders, stress, and depression etc. However, the therapeutic application on the FIR-mediated protective potentials remains to be further extended. To achieve the better understanding on FIR-mediated therapeutic potentials, we summarized additional findings in the present study that exposure to FIR ameliorates stressful condition, memory impairments, drug dependence, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the central nervous system...
February 27, 2019: Current Neuropharmacology
David D Kim, Alasdair M Barr, Diane H Fredrikson, William G Honer, Ric M Procyshyn
Metabolic abnormalities are serious health problems in individuals with schizophrenia. Paradoxically, studies have noted an association where individuals who gained body weight or who have increases in their serum lipids demonstrated better antipsychotic response. As serum lipids serve as more specific physiological markers than body weight, the objective of this study was to review studies that examined the association between changes in serum lipids and changes in symptoms during antipsychotic treatment in individuals with schizophrenia...
February 27, 2019: Current Neuropharmacology
Michel Baudry
While the calpain system has now been discovered for over 50 years, there is still a paucity of information regarding the organization and functions of the signaling pathways regulated by these proteases, although calpains play critical roles in many cell functions. Moreover, calpain overactivation has been shown to be involved in numerous diseases. Among the 15 calpain isoforms identified, calpain-1 (aka µ-calpain) and calpain-2 (aka m-calpain) are ubiquitously distributed in most tissues and organs, including the brain...
February 27, 2019: Current Neuropharmacology
Daria Piacentino, Massimo Pasquini, Gabriele Sani, Chiara Chetoni, Simone Cappelletti, Georgios D Kotzalidis
This brief review deals with the various issues that contributed to the creation of the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual condition of hoarding disorder (HD) and attempts at reviewing its pharmacotherapy. It appears that after the newly founded diagnosis appeared in the literature as an autonomous entity, distinct from obsessive-compulsive disorder, drug trials are not being conducted and the disorder is left in the hands of psychotherapists, who on their part, report fair results in some core dimensions of HD...
January 24, 2019: Current Neuropharmacology
Estefania Gastaldello Moreira, Karine Maria Boll, Dalmo Guilherme Correia, Janaina Favaro Soares, Camila Rigobello, Michael Maesd
BACKGROUND: Nitro-oxidative stress (NOS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. The activity of the polymorphic antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is altered in diseases where NOS is involved. PON1 activity may be estimated using different substrates some of which are influenced by PON1 polymorphisms. OBJECTIVES: 1) to review the association between PON1 activities and psychiatric diseases using a standardized PON1 substrate terminology in order to offer a state-of-the-art review; 2) to review the efficacy of different strategies (nutrition, drugs, lifestyle) to enhance PON1 activities...
December 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Yujie Luo, Cesar Reis, Sheng Chen
Hemorrhagic stroke is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. There is still a lack of effective therapeutic approach. The recent studies have shown that the innate immune system plays a significant role in hemorrhagic stroke. Microglia, as major components in innate immune system, are activated and then can release cytokines and chemokines in response to hemorrhagic stroke, and ultimately led to neuroinflammation and brain injury. The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is predominantly released by microglia and is believed as the main contributor of neuroinflammation...
December 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Gjumrakch Aliev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Michele Romoli, Petra Mazzocchetti, Renato D'Alonzo, Sabrina Siliquini, Victoria Elisa Rinaldi, Alberto Verrotti, Paolo Calabresi, Cinzia Costa
After more than a century from its discovery, valproic acid (VPA) still represents one of the most efficient antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Pre and post-synaptic effects of VPA depend on a very broad spectrum of actions, including the regulation of ionic currents and the facilitation of GABAergic over glutamatergic transmission. As a result, VPA indirectly modulates neurotransmitter release and strengthens the threshold for seizure activity. However, even though participating to the anticonvulsant action, such mechanisms seem to have minor impact on epileptogenesis...
December 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto
Major advances in our understanding of the neurology/pathology, anatomy/physiology, and molecular biology of the cerebellum have opened a new door for cerebellar ataxias (CAs). We have now entered in the 'era of therapies'. Cures are knocking at the door. We discuss the hot topics in the therapeutic protocols available for CAs, including aminopyridines, noninvasive cerebellar stimulation, anti-oxidant drugs and therapies for immune-mediated cerbellar ataxias (IMCAs), topics emphasized in this issue. The history of the cerebellum is a typical example of the importance of apparently divergent and multi-disciplinary approaches...
2019: Current Neuropharmacology
Thomas E Salt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Current Neuropharmacology
Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto, Christiane S Hampe
Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias (IMCAs), a clinical entity reported for the first time in the 1980s, include gluten ataxia (GA), paraneoplastic cerebellar degenerations (PCDs), antiglutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD) antibody-associated cerebellar ataxia, post-infectious cerebellitis, and opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS). These IMCAs share common features with regard to therapeutic approaches. When certain factors trigger immune processes, elimination of the antigen( s) becomes a priority: e.g., gluten-free diet in GA and surgical excision of the primary tumor in PCDs...
2019: Current Neuropharmacology
Jonathan Hamill, Jaime Hallak, Serdar M Dursun, Glen Baker
BACKGROUND: Ayahuasca, a traditional Amazonian decoction with psychoactive properties, is made from bark of the Banisteriopsis caapi vine (containing beta-carboline alkaloids) and leaves of the Psychotria viridis bush (supplying the hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine, DMT). Originally used by indigenous shamans for the purposes of spirit communication, magical experiences, healing, and religious rituals across several South American countries, ayahuasca has been incorporated into folk medicine and spiritual healing, and several Brazilian churches use it routinely to foster a spiritual experience...
2019: Current Neuropharmacology
Anju Sharma, Rajnish Kumar, Imlimaong Aier, Rahul Semwal, Pankaj Tyagi, Pritish Varadwaj
Olfaction, the sense of smell detects and discriminate odors as well as social cues which influence our innate responses. The olfactory system in human beings is found to be weak as compare to other animals; however, it seems to be very precise. It can detect and discriminate millions of chemical moieties (odorants) even in minuscule quantities. The process initiates with the binding of odorants to specialized olfactory receptors, encoded by a large family of Olfactory Receptor (OR) genes belonging to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily...
December 5, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Nicolás Toro-Urrego, Diego Julián Vesga-Jiménez, María Inés Herrera, Juan Pablo Luaces, Francisco Capani
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a complex network of factors, which is mainly characterized by a decrease in levels of oxygen concentration and blood flow, which lead to an inefficient supply of nutrients to the brain. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury can be found in perinatal asphyxia and ischemic-stroke, which represent one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in children and adults worldwide. Therefore, knowledge on underlying mechanisms triggering these insults may help establish neuroprotective treatments...
December 5, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Allison L Germann, Joe Henry Steinbach, Gustav Akk
The co-agonist concerted transition model is a simple and practical solution to analyzing various aspects of GABAA receptor function. Several model-based predictions have been verified experimentally in previous reports. We review here the practical implications of the model and demonstrate how it enables simplification of the experimental procedure and data analysis to characterize the effects of mutations or properties of novel ligands. Specifically, we show that the value of EC50 and the magnitude of current response are directly affected by basal activity, and that coapplication of a background agonist acting at a distinct site or use of a gain-of-function mutation can be employed to enable studies of weak activators or mutated receptors with impaired gating...
December 5, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Iván Carrera, Ramón Cacabelos
The research progress of understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has yet lead to the development of some clinical approaches intended to treat cognitive and behavioral symptoms, such as memory and perception disorders. Despite the major advances in different genetic causes and risk factors for PD, which share common pathways to cell dysfunction and death, there is not yet a complete model of PD that can be used to accurately predict the effect of drugs on disease progression...
November 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Maxime Lévesque, David Ragsdale, Massimo Avoli
The synchronized activity of neuronal networks under physiological conditions is mirrored by specific oscillatory patterns of the EEG that are associated with different behavioral states and cognitive functions. Excessive synchronization can however lead to focal epileptiform activity characterized by interictal and ictal discharges in epileptic patients and animal models. This review focusses on studies that have addressed epileptiform synchronization in temporal lobe regions by employing in vitro and in vivo recording techniques...
November 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Louise Penzenstadler, Carina Soares, Laurent Karila, Yasser Khazaal
The concept of food addiction attracts much interest by the scientific community. Research is mainly based on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), a tool developed to assess food addiction. Substance use disorder criteria have been used to develop this scale. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the clinical significance of food addiction diagnoses made with the YFAS and to discuss the results in light of the current debate on behavioral addictions. Method We performed a systematic review of the studies that assessed food addiction with the YFAS published between January 2014 and July 2017 by searching the electronic databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES...
November 7, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Georgios D Kotzalidis, Antonio Del Casale, Maurizio Simmaco, Lucia Pancheri, Roberto Brugnoli, Marco Paolini, Ida Gualtieri, Stefano Ferracuti, Valeria Savoja, Ilaria Cuomo, Lavinia De Chiara, Alessio Mosca, Gabriele Sani, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Pompili, Chiara Rapinesi, On Behalf Of The Sapienza Group For The Study Of The Placebo Effect In Psychiatric Disorders
BACKGROUND: Placebo response appears to be increasing in antidepressant, antipsychotic and various internal medicine trials. A similar trend has been reported for OCD during 1989-1999. Placebo response is generally considered as the extent to which placebo treatment is associated with core symptom improvement. In this analysis we used Joinpoint regression to assess the time trend of both placebo response and placebo responder rates according to year of publication with no time restriction in OCD drug trials...
October 26, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
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