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Current HIV Research

Yiwen Qian, Xin Che, Jing Jiang, Zhiliang Wang
It has been found that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 RNA or antigens can be detected in the intraocular tissues of HIV-1 patients even under effective highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). In vivo, blood retinal barrier (BRB) establishes a critical, physiological guardian against microbial invasion of the eye, but may be compromised in the presence of HIV-1. Envelope glycoprotein gp120 is exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope, essential for virus entry into cells by attachment to specific cell surface receptors...
March 15, 2019: Current HIV Research
Jorge A Luján T, Maria T Rugeles, Natalia A Taborda
During HIV infection, massive destruction of CD4+ T cells ensues, preferentially depleting the Th17 subset at the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), leading to the loss of mucosal integrity and an increase in cell permeability. This process favors microbial translocation between the intestinal lumen and the circulatory system, contributing to the persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation characteristic of HIV infection. Thus, the gut microbiota plays an integral role in maintaining the structure and function of the mucosal barrier, a critical factor for immune homeostasis...
March 10, 2019: Current HIV Research
Javier Rodriguez, Signed Prieto, Catalina Correa, Martha Melo, Dario Dominguez, Nancy Olarte, Daniela Suárez, Laura Aragón, Fernando Torres, Fernando Santacruz
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have developed methodologies for predicting the number of CD4 cells from the total leukocyte and lymphocytes count based on mathematical methodologies, obtaining percentages of effectiveness prediction higher than 90% with a value of less than 5000 leukocytes. OBJECTIVE: To improve the methodology probabilities prediction in 5000-9000 leukocytes ranges. METHOD: from sets A, B, C and D defined in a previous study, and based on CD4 prediction established on the total number of leukocytes and lymphocytes, an induction was performed using data from 10 patients with HIV, redefining the sets A and C that describe the lymphocytes behavior relative to leukocytes...
March 6, 2019: Current HIV Research
Fatemeh Tohidi, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Azam Bolhassani, Ramin Yaghoubi, Mona Sadat Larijani
BACKGROUND: Several approaches have not been successful to suppress HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) infection among infected individuals or to prevent it yet. In order to expand strong HIV specific humoral and cellular responses, Virus-like particles (VLPs) as potential vaccines show significant increase in neutralizing antibodies secretion, T-cell count and also secretion of cytokines. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at immunological evaluation of VLPs harboring high copy of MPER-V3 in BALB/c mice...
March 6, 2019: Current HIV Research
Michele Smith, Jonathon Hoffman, Hakimuddin Sojar, Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Chiu-Bin Hsiao, Mark Daniel Hicar
BACKGROUND: During HIV infection, fusion of the viral and cellular membranes is dependent on folding of the gp41 trimer into a six-helix bundle. Fusion inhibitors, such as the antiretroviral Enfuvirtide (T20), interfere with the formation of the gp41 six-helix bundle. Recent in vitro studies reveal that the gp41 immunodominant region one targeting antibody 3D6 can block T20 interference, but the clinical and pathophysiologic significance of this finding is unclear. OBJECTIVE/METHOD: We have previously characterized a number of antibodies that target conformational epitopes on gp41and herein characterize their ability to interfere with T20 in multiple assays and assess their prevalence in HIV infected subjects...
February 28, 2019: Current HIV Research
Li Zhao, Mei Liu, Jiayue Ouyang, Zheming Zhu, Wenqing Geng, Jinxiu Dong, Ying Xiong, Shumei Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Ying Qiao, Haibo Ding, Hong Sun, Guoxin Liang, Hong Shang, Xiaoxu Han
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the restriction of HIV-1 transcription in resting CD4+ T-cells is critical to find a cure for AIDS. Although many negative factors causing HIV-1 transcription blockage in resting CD4+ T cells have been found, there are still unknown mechanisms to explore. OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism for the suppression of de novo HIV-1 transcription in resting CD4+ T-cells. METHODS: In this study, a short isoform of Per-1 expression plasmid was transfected into 293T cells with or without Tat's presence to identify Per-1 as a negative regulator for HIV-1 transcription...
February 18, 2019: Current HIV Research
Isaac Okoh Abah, Nondumiso Bq Ncube, Hazel A Bradley, Oche O AgbaJi, Phyllis Kanki
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) can rapidly reverse the gains of ART resulting in poor health outcomes. We need an improved understanding of specific ART-related ADRs that influence virologic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of clinical ADRs and assess their effect on virologic failure in patients on ART. METHOD: We described the prevalence of major clinical ADRs, and the association between specific ADRs and virologic failure in a clinic cohort of HIV-1 infected Nigerians aged ≥18 years, on first-line ART between June 2004 and February 2012...
February 14, 2019: Current HIV Research
Peter A Kessler
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 occurs in a minority of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs, even without any interventions. The mechanisms that protect the majority of HIV-exposed infants from infection are unclear. T regulatory cells (Treg) have important immunomodulatory functions, but their role in the fetus as well as in mother-to-child transmission of HIV is under-studied. METHODS: We studied available cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-exposed infants from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) Study cohort in Malawi: 64 infants were HIV-uninfected and 28 infants were HIV-infected at birth...
February 12, 2019: Current HIV Research
D Podzamczer, N Rozas, P Domingo, C Miralles, E Van den Eynde, A Romero, E Deig, H Knobel, J Pasquau, A Antela, B Clotet, P Geijo, E Rodríguez de Castro, M A Casado, A Muñoz, A Casado, For The Pro-Str Study Group
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of switching from stable Combined Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) to single-tablet regimen (RPV/FTC/TDF=EVIPLERA®/COMPLERA®) on patient-reported outcomes in HIV-infected adults who cannot tolerate previous cART, in a real-world setting. METHODS: PRO-STR is a 48-week observational, prospective, multicenter study. Presence and magnitude of symptoms (main end point), health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), adherence, satisfaction with treatment and patient preferences were assessed...
February 12, 2019: Current HIV Research
Nyoman Sri Budayanti, Tuti Parwati Merati, Budiman Bela, Gusti Ngurah Mahardika
BACKGROUND: Molecular epidemiological study of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistant (HIVDR) markers is challenging in areas where the dominant subtype is non-B. OBJECTIVE: Here we provide molecular data for HIVDR in the CRF01_AE subtype in Bali, Indonesia. METHOD: Seventy patients were enrolled in this study and grouped into treatment failure and treatment naïve groups. The full-length pol gene was amplified using nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and the product was than sequenced...
February 3, 2019: Current HIV Research
Ying Mu, Benjamin J Patters, Narasimha M Midde, Hui He, Santosh Kumar, Theodore J Cory
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases systemic oxidative stress, inflammation, and viral replication in individuals with HIV. Macrophages are infected during HIV infection and serve as an important reservoir throughout the process. Macrophages exist in two phenotypes, the classically activated M1 macrophage and alternatively activated M2 macrophage. The expression of drug efflux transporters and metabolic enzymes, which have direct effects on intracellular drug concentrations, differ between the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage and the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage...
January 29, 2019: Current HIV Research
Natalia A Taborda, Luis A Correa, Manuel Geronimo Feria, María T Rugeles
BACKGROUND: HIV infection induces alterations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) that constitutes the most important site for viral replication due to the extensive presence of effector memory T-cells. In the case of HIV-controllers, several studies have reported fewer peripheral alterations and conserved immune responses that correlate with viral control; however, the histopathological characterization of GALT in those patients is still missing. In this study, we evaluated pathological alterations in GALT, trying to associate them with clinical parameters of HIV infected patients with or without evidence of viral control...
January 29, 2019: Current HIV Research
Zhong-Lan Wu, Guang-Yu Guan, Jian-Hua Zhao, Xue-Min Ma, Xue-Min Wang, Dong-Zhi Yang, Min Cao, Daniel J Rawle
OBJECTIVES: Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, an important area for ethnic Hui settlement in Northwest China, is a low HIV prevalence region. However, HIV infection rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ningxia have increased to an alarming level, despite scale up of control measures in recent years. This study aimed to understand the demographical and sexual behavior dynamics of MSM, and to explore the factors associated with HIV infection. METHODS: Annual cross-sectional surveys were carried out among MSM during 2011~2017 in Yinchuan, the capital city of Ningxia...
January 18, 2019: Current HIV Research
Mona Sadat Larijani, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Azam Bolhassani, Mohammad Hassan Pouriayevali, Golnaz Bahramali, Amitis Ramezani
BACKGROUND: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has been a major global health concern for over 38 years. No safe and effective preventive or therapeutic vaccine has been developed although many products have been investigated. Computational methods have facilitated vaccine developments in recent decades. Among HIV-1 proteins, p24 and Nef are two suitable targets to provoke the cellular immune response. However, the fusion form of these two proteins has not been analyzed in silico yet...
January 2, 2019: Current HIV Research
Chinnambedu Ravichandran Swathirajan, Ramachandran Vignesh, Greer Waldrop, Uma Shanmugasundaram, Pannerselvam Nandagopal, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Amrose Pradeep, Shanmugam Saravanan, Kailapuri Gangatharan Murugavel
BACKGROUND: Anti-viral cytokine expressions by cytotoxic T-cells and lower activation rates have been reported to correlate with suppressed HIV replication in long-term non-progressors (LTNP). Immune mechanisms underlying disease non-progression in LTNP might vary with HIV-1 subtype and geographical locations. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates cytokine expression and T-cells activation in relation to disease non-progression in LTNP. METHODS: HIV-1 Subtype C infected LTNP (n=20) and progressors (n=15) were enrolled and flowcytometry assays were performed to study HIV-specific CD8 T-cells expressing IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and MIP-1β against gag and env peptides...
December 12, 2018: Current HIV Research
Prosanta Mondal, Hyun J Lim, Ohtn Cohort Study Team
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic is increasing among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) and the risk for AIDSdefining cancer (ADC) is higher among them. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of MSM and CD4+ count on time to cancer AIDS (ADC) and non-cancer AIDS in competing risks setting in the HAART era. METHOD: Using Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study data, HIV-positive adults diagnosed between January 1997 and October 2012 having baseline CD4+ counts ≤ 500 cells/mm3 were evaluated...
December 5, 2018: Current HIV Research
Bahareh Rostami, Shiva Irani, Azam Bolhassani, Reza Ahangari Cohan
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 Nef protein is a possible attractive target in development of therapeutic HIV vaccines including protein-based vaccines. The most important disadvantage of protein-based vaccines is their low immunogenicity which can be improved by heat shock proteins (Hsps) as an immunomodulator, and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as a carrier. METHODS: In this study, the HIV-1 Nef and Hsp20-Nef proteins were generated in E.coli expression system for delivery into the HEK-293T mammalian cell line using a novel cell penetrating peptide, M918, in a non-covalent fashion...
December 5, 2018: Current HIV Research
Sanjeev Sinha, Ashish Agarwal, Kartik Gupta, Dibyakanti Mandal, Mitul Jain, Roger Detels, Karabi Nandy, Michelle A DeVos, S K Sharma, N Manoharan, P K Julka, G K Rath, Richard F Ambinder, Ronald T Mitsuyasu
Background and objectives People living with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of developing cancer. The goals of this study were to obtain data on the prevalence of HIV in the cancer population and vice versa at a major tertiary care cancer and HIV center in North India. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted over a 3-year period from July 2013 to June 2016, wherein successive HIV positive patients from an anti-retroviral therapy (ART) center were screened for malignancy. Simultaneously, successive cancer patients at the cancer center were screened for HIV...
October 18, 2018: Current HIV Research
Khurshid Iqbal, Muhammad Imran, Shafi Ullah, Muhsin Jamal, Yasir Waheed, Qaisar Ali
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a global health burden which ultimately results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). There are multiple host factors which are capable of limiting HIV-1 replication. One of the most important host factors which inhibit HIV-1 DNA synthesis is apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G). Any genetic variation of this important host factor may influence host susceptibility to viral infection...
October 18, 2018: Current HIV Research
Lisa K Smith, Thomas B Kuhn, Jack Chen, James R Bamburg
The implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) as the primary means of treatment for HIV infection has achieved a dramatic decline in deaths attributed to AIDS and the reduced incidence of severe forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in infected individuals. Despite these advances, milder forms of HAND persist and prevalence of these forms of neurocognitive impairment are rising with the aging population of HIV infected individuals. HIV enters the CNS early in the pathophysiology establishing persistent infection in resident macrophages and glial cells...
October 3, 2018: Current HIV Research
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