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Ocular Surface

Swapna S Shanbhag, James Chodosh, Hajirah N Saeed
Amniotic membrane (AM) transplantation, when performed in the acute phase in Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) for patients with ocular complications, is known to reduce the morbidity of ocular complications in the chronic phase. In conditions such as SJS/TEN, AM needs to be secured to the ocular surface as well as the eyelids. Previously, techniques of securing a large sheet of AM with fibrin glue to the ocular surface and with sutures and bolsters to the eyelids have been described in the acute phase of SJS/TEN...
March 11, 2019: Ocular Surface
Edward J Holland, Mahshad Darvish, Kelly K Nichol, Lyndon Jones, Paul M Karpecki
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial and complex disease of the ocular surface, with a high prevalence in adults. We systematically reviewed efficacy and safety data from published articles reporting results from prospective, controlled trials of topical ophthalmic drugs for DED. PubMed was searched from January 1997 to October 2017. Twenty-six unique trials investigating 13 ophthalmic drugs were identified, including trials of the approved drugs cyclosporine A, cyclosporine A cationic emulsion, diquafosol, rebamipide and lifitegrast...
March 4, 2019: Ocular Surface
Priyanka Agarwal, Darina Khun, Sonja Krösser, Kirsten Eickhoff, Frederick S Wells, Geoff R Willmott, Jennifer P Craig, Ilva D Rupenthal
PURPOSE: Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most prevalent ocular surface disorders that presents clinically. Recently, the semifluorinated alkane (SFA) perfluorohexyloctane (NovaTears® ; EvoTears® ) entered the market for the management of evaporative DED, while perfluorobutylpentane has been used as a vehicle to enhance ocular drug delivery. This study evaluated the mechanisms by which SFAs might improve therapeutic outcomes in DED. METHODS: Interactions of both SFAs with the corneal surface were evaluated ex vivo using high-speed photography...
March 1, 2019: Ocular Surface
Charles W McMonnies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: Ocular Surface
Barbara Caffery, Sruthi Srinivasan, Christopher J Reaume, Aren Fischer, David Cappadocia, Csaba Siffel, Clara C Chan
PURPOSE: Population-based cross-sectional survey in Ontario to estimate the 2016 prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) and associated risk factors among adults in Canada. METHODS: We emailed the 5-Item Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ-5) to 124,469 Ontario adults (age ≥18 years) in the IQVIA E360 database, March-April 2017. Inclusion criteria were: ≥2 visits to an Ontario based clinic, ≥1 visits in the 1 year before the study; database record with email. DED was defined as a DEQ-5 score of >6/22...
February 27, 2019: Ocular Surface
Ben J Glasgow
PURPOSE: The outer surface layer tears is presumably composed of lipid. The thickness of this layer is considered critical to retard evaporation. Prior thickness measurements differ widely. Advances in ellipsometry have availed more precise and accurate measurements for thin films. The range in thickness of the surface layer of tears was studied by ellipsometry to uncover the source of prior discrepancies. METHODS: Tear surface layers of normal and dry eye subjects were measured by in-vitro ellipsometry...
February 25, 2019: Ocular Surface
Jianzhong Chen, Kelly K Nichols, Landon Wilson, Stephen Barnes, Jason J Nichols
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to optimize methodology to analyze the human tear film lipids by using untargeted, direct infusion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to establish the analytical approach for a large-scale clinical translational study of tear film lipids in ocular surface disease, particularly associated with the O-acyl-omega hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs). METHODS: Meibum and tear samples were collected from both eyes of five normal subjects without ocular disease using two different microcapillary collection tubes, glass and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)...
February 25, 2019: Ocular Surface
Agnė Žiniauskaitė, Symantas Ragauskas, Anita K Ghosh, Rubina Thapa, Anne E Roessler, Peter Koulen, Giedrius Kalesnykas, Jenni J Hakkarainen, Simon Kaja
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of the superoxide dismutase mimetic, manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (Mn-TM-2-PyP), in vitro in human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells and in vivo in a preclinical mouse model for dry-eye disease (DED). METHODS: In vitro, HCE-T cultures were exposed either to tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) to generate oxidative stress or to hyperosmolar conditions modeling cellular stress during DED. Cells were pre-treated with Mn-TM-2-PyP or vehicle...
February 23, 2019: Ocular Surface
Pragnya Rao Donthineni, Priyanka Kammari, Swapna S Shanbhag, Vivek Singh, Anthony Vipin Das, Sayan Basu
PURPOSE: To describe the incidence, demographics, types and risk-factors of dry eye disease (DED) in patients presenting to a multi-tier ophthalmology hospital network in India. METHODS: This was an observational hospital-based study of 1,458,830 new patients presenting between 2010 and 2018. Patients with recent onset of both symptoms and signs, as defined by the tear film and ocular surface society dry eye work shop (TFOS DEWS) II guidelines, were considered as DED subjects...
February 22, 2019: Ocular Surface
Douglas Borchman
PURPOSE: Numerous devices have been developed to warm the eyelid as a therapy for Meibomian gland dysfunction. The optimum temperature for such therapy was determined. METHODS: Meibum lipid disorder versus temperature was calculated from previously published phase transition parameters measured using infrared spectroscopy. Phase transitions parameters were calculated from meibum obtained from donors with Meibomian gland dysfunction (MMGD ), donors who were susceptible to dry eye after hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (MHSCT ) and meibum from donors without dry eye (Mn)...
February 19, 2019: Ocular Surface
Geetha Iyer, Bhaskar Srinivasan, Shweta Agarwal
Ocular chemical injuries are associated with significant morbidity leading to vision loss and ocular surface damage. Appropriate management and intervention in the acute stage dictates the final outcome as well as the prognosis for visual rehabilitative procedures in chronic stage. Classifying the parameters to be addressed in the acute stage and providing an algorithmic approach for managing the alterations in each of them will facilitate the primary goal of ensuring epithelialisation of the ocular surface...
February 8, 2019: Ocular Surface
Sun Woong Kim, Donald J Brown, James V Jester
PURPOSE: PPARγ plays a critical role in the maturation of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells (hMGEC). To further understand the molecular changes associated with meibocyte differentiation, we analyzed transcriptome profiles from hMGEC after PPARγ activation. METHODS: Three sets of cultivated hMGEC with or without exposure to PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone were used for RNA-seq analysis. RNA was isolated and processed to generate 6 libraries. The libraries were then sequenced and mapped to the human reference genome, and the expression results were gathered as reads per length of transcript in kilobases per million mapped reads (RPKM) values...
February 8, 2019: Ocular Surface
Eisuke Shimizu, Yoko Ogawa, Yumiko Saijo, Mio Yamane, Miki Uchino, Mizuka Kamoi, Masaki Fukui, Fan Yang, Jingliang He, Shin Mukai, Kazuo Tsubota
PURPOSE: To investigate the transformation in the composition of ocular surface microflora. Evidence shows that microbial diversity correlates with autoimmune disorders. Chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the lethal complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) which influences patients' quality of life. It has a similar pathophysiology to autoimmune disorders but the relation of the microbial status especially in the ocular surface and chronic ocular GVHD is still unknown...
February 8, 2019: Ocular Surface
Maria S Cortina, Faris I Karas, Charles Bouchard, Ahmad A Aref, Ali Djalilian, Thasarat S Vajaranant
PURPOSE: Glaucoma is the leading cause of vision loss in eyes with Boston Keratoprosthesis (KPro). Glaucoma drainage devices (GDDs) have been shown to be effective in controlling glaucoma with KPro. Cicatricial conjunctival disease with forniceal shortening is a major challenge and limitation to the use of GDD. In our series, we report the success of fornix reconstruction in cicatricial ocular surface disease as a staged procedure prior to a combined KPro/GDD surgery. METHODS: Retrospective case series involving 4 eyes with surface cicatricization...
February 8, 2019: Ocular Surface
Anuradha Sahu, William Foulsham, Afsaneh Amouzegar, Sharad K Mittal, Sunil K Chauhan
The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been heralded by their multipotentiality and immunomodulatory capacity. MSCs migrate toward sites of tissue damage, where specific pro-inflammatory factors 'license' their immunosuppressive functions. Recent studies in animal models of ocular surface disease have demonstrated the potential of MSC-derived therapies to limit inflammation and promote tissue repair. Herein, we review the immunoregulatory mechanisms of MSCs, as well as strategies to harness their regenerative function at the cornea...
January 26, 2019: Ocular Surface
Lynn M Martin, Nallathambi Jeyabalan, Ratnakar Tripathi, Trailokyanath Panigrahi, Philip J Johnson, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R Mohan
Autophagy is a well-conserved self-eating mechanism of cell survival during periods of nutrient deprivation, stress and injury. Autophagy is implicated in many pathophysiological conditions across all organ systems. The cornea is an avascular transparent tissue that is prone to damage by trauma, injury and infection. Following insult, the cornea undergoes a complex wound healing process, which is regulated by multiple factors including autophagy. The involvement of autophagy in keratoconus and HSV-1 infection has been demonstrated, underlining the importance of this mechanism in corneal disorders...
January 25, 2019: Ocular Surface
Chi Hoang Viet Vu, Miki Uchino, Motoko Kawashima, Akihiro Nishi, Christopher A German, Kenya Yuki, Norie Sawada, Shoichiro Tsugane, Kazuo Tsubota
PURPOSE: To investigate whether social support and social trust are associated with DED. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) were used. Subjects are 96,227 Japanese men and women aged 40 to 74. Data from respondents included information on DED, social support and social trust. DED was defined as the presence of clinically diagnosed DED or severe symptoms. Social support was measured by emotional support and tangible support...
January 24, 2019: Ocular Surface
János Almássy, Gyula Diszházi, Marianna Skaliczki, Ildikó Márton, Zsuzsanna Édua Magyar, Péter P Nánási, David I Yule
PURPOSE: Primary fluid secretion in secretory epithelia relies on the unidirectional transport of ions and water across a single cell layer. This mechanism requires the asymmetric apico-basal distribution of ion transporters and intracellular Ca2+ signaling. The primary aim of the present study was to verify the localization and the identity of Ca2+ -dependent ion channels in acinar cells of the mouse lacrimal gland. METHODS: Whole-cell patch-clamp-electrophysiology, spatially localized flash-photolysis of Ca2+ and temporally resolved digital Ca2+ -imaging was combined...
January 24, 2019: Ocular Surface
Shruti Aggarwal, Clara Colon, Ahmad Kheirkhah, Pedram Hamrah
OBJECTIVE: Corneal nerve damage may result in neuropathic corneal pain (NCP). Autologous serum tears (AST) have been shown to results in nerve regeneration and may help alleviate corneal pain. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of AST in the treatment of NCP. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study. Sixteen patients suffering from severe NCP and no current ocular surface disease were compared to 12 controls. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) (HRT3/RCM; Heidelberg, Germany) of the central corneas was performed bilaterally...
January 24, 2019: Ocular Surface
Carolyn Begley, Barbara Caffery, Robin Chalmers, Ping Situ, Trefford Simpson, J Daniel Nelson
Vital dye staining has been used for over a century to assess the severity of ocular surface disease. However, despite common usage, a universally accepted "gold standard" grading scale does not exist for corneal and conjunctival staining, which can impact the ability to diagnose and monitor ocular surface conditions such as dry eye. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other international regulatory agencies rely on ocular surface staining as a primary endpoint for new drug approvals, so that absence of a "gold standard" scale may affect approval of new drug treatments...
January 14, 2019: Ocular Surface
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