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Expert Review of Vaccines

Thomas Gerlach, Husni Elbahesh, Giulietta Saletti, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Various viruses, including poxviruses, adenoviruses and vesicular stomatitis virus, have been considered as vaccine vectors for the delivery of antigens of interest in the development of vaccines against newly emerging pathogens. Areas covered: Here, we review results that have been obtained with influenza A viruses (IAV) as vaccine vectors. With the advent of reverse genetics technology, IAV-based recombinant vaccine candidates have been constructed that induce protective immunity to a variety of different pathogens of interest, including West Nile virus, Plasmodium falciparum and respiratory syncytial virus...
February 19, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Alejandra Mantilla Galindo, Marisol Ocampo, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which is caused by bacilli from the M. tuberculosis complex. The Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is currently available as a prophylactic tool for preventing the disease; it has been shown to be efficient in preventing disseminated forms of tuberculosis during early ages, however, its efficiency is limited in areas where individuals have had prior exposure to environmental mycobacteria and its efficacy decreases with a host's age. Areas covered: Following a comprehensive search of the available literature, this review describes some of the most frequently used animal models, the most frequently used methods for evaluating efficacy in animal models and some in vitro strategies as alternatives for evaluating vaccines...
February 16, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Sayaka Ikeda, Yutaka Ueda, Asami Yagi, Shinya Matsuzaki, Eiji Kobayashi, Tadashi Kimura, Etsuko Miyagi, Masayuki Sekine, Takayuki Enomoto, Kazuya Kudoh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Andrew D Wiese, Marie R Griffin, Carlos G Grijalva
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children and older adults. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were introduced into the US routine infant vaccination schedule leading to substantial reductions of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD). PCVs introduction also led to reductions in all-cause pneumonia among US children, though the indirect impact of PCVs on pneumonia in adults is difficult to quantify, especially due to the recent US recommendation for direct PCV use in older adults...
February 13, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Philip S Watson, Patricia Novy, Rafik Bekkat-Berkani, Florence Strubbe, Angelika Banzhoff
Meningococcal disease has an incidence peak spread over several years during adolescence and young adulthood in the United States. Meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) vaccines have been introduced relatively recently and may help protect individuals in these age groups. Currently there is insufficient long-term experience to determine the duration of disease protection after any MenB vaccine. Understanding antibody persistence after primary vaccination and responses to booster can help inform MenB vaccination strategies and optimize disease prevention...
February 11, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Martin Ryser, Valérie Berlaimont, Naveen Karkada, Attila Mihalyi, Rino Rappuoli, Robbert van der Most
BACKGROUND: Substantial heterogeneity has been reported in efficacy against high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) irrespective of type in phase III results for bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines (AS04-HPV and qHPV). Real-world data recently confirmed very high overall impact of AS04-HPV, supporting the validity of the observed heterogeneity. To explore the reasons for heterogeneous efficacy, we assessed vaccine impact on high-grade lesions not caused by vaccine types...
February 11, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
James D Cherry
Today, in the developed world, virtually all deaths due to Bordetella pertussis illnesses occur in young infants. Therefore, it is important to discuss severe pertussis and its prevention. Areas Covered: These infant deaths are frequently misdiagnosed. Pertussis in young infants is characterized by an afebrile cough illness with coryza, apnea, seizures, cyanosis and emesis. Severe illness is associated with high leukocyte and lymphocyte counts, rapid respiratory and cardiac rates and pneumonia. The main treatment for severe pertussis in young infants is exchange blood transfusion...
February 8, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Martha M Cooper, Claire Loiseau, James S McCarthy, Denise L Doolan
Malaria challenge models, where healthy human volunteers are intentionally infected with Plasmodium species parasites under controlled conditions, can be undertaken in several well-defined ways. These challenge models enable evaluation of the kinetics of parasite growth and clearance, host-pathogen interactions and the host immune response. They can facilitate discovery of candidate diagnostic biomarkers and novel vaccine targets. As translational tools they can facilitate testing of candidate vaccines and drugs and evaluation of diagnostic tests...
February 7, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Hannah G Kelly, Stephen J Kent, Adam K Wheatley
Immunization has been a remarkably successful public health intervention, however new approaches to vaccine design are essential to counter existing and emerging infectious diseases which have defied traditional vaccination efforts to date. Nanoparticles (ordered structures with dimensions in the range of 1-1000nm) have great potential to supplement traditional vaccines based upon pathogen subunits, or killed or attenuated microorganisms, as exemplified by the successful licensure of virus-like particle vaccines for human papillomavirus and hepatitis B...
February 1, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Abdulmohammad Pezeshki, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Brett A McKinney, Gregory A Poland, Richard B Kennedy
Emerging infectious diseases are a major threat to public health, and while vaccines have proven to be one of the most effective preventive measures for infectious diseases, we still do not have safe and effective vaccines against many human pathogens, and emerging diseases continually pose new threats. The purpose of this review is to discuss how the creation of vaccines for these new threats has been hindered by limitations in the current approach to vaccine development. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled scientists to apply systems biology approaches to collect and integrate increasingly large datasets that capture comprehensive biological changes induced by vaccines, and then decipher the complex immune response to those vaccines...
January 31, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Adrienne Guignard, Nicolas Praet, Viviane Jusot, Marina Bakker, Laurence Baril
The number of new vaccine introductions (NVIs) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) has markedly increased since 2010, raising challenges to often overstretched and underfunded healthcare systems. Areas covered: We present an overview of some of these challenges, focusing on programmatic decisions, delivery strategy, information and communication, pharmacovigilance and post-licensure evaluation. We also highlight field-based initiatives that may facilitate NVI. Expert commentary: Some new vaccines targeting populations other than infants require alternative delivery strategies...
January 28, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Sandrine I Samson, Phillip S Leventhal, Camille Salamand, Ya Meng, Bruce T Seet, Victoria Landolfi, David Greenberg, Rosalind Hollingsworth
High-dose trivalent, inactivated, split-virus influenza vaccine (IIV3-HD) has been available in the US since 2009 for adults aged ≥ 65 years. To better understand how IIV3-HD provides improved protection against influenza, we systematically reviewed clinical studies comparing immune responses to IIV3-HD and standard-dose trivalent vaccine (IIV3-SD). Areas covered: The primary objective was to determine the relative hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody response of IIV3-HD vs. IIV3-SD in adults aged ≥ 65 years...
January 28, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Laura Lazo, Iris Valdes, Gerardo Guillén, Lisset Hermida, Lázaro Gil
Dengue fever remains a health problem worldwide. Although the vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur, Dengvaxia®, has been registered in several countries, the results following the immunization of thousands of people suggest an increased risk in non-immune persons and children younger than 9 years old. No other vaccine is registered so far, therefore the development of a safe and effective dengue vaccine continues to be a priority for the World Health Organization and the scientific community. Areas covered: This work reviews the main structural and antigenic properties of the capsid protein of dengue virus, along with the results of studies performed to assess the immunogenicity and protective capacity of vaccine candidates based on this viral protein in animals...
January 24, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Matti Lehtinen, Iacopo Baussano, Jorma Paavonen, Simopekka Vänskä, Joakim Dillner
Introduction Infections with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) globally cause about 9% of cancers in females and 1% of cancers in males. HPV disease burden can be effectively controlled by prophylactic HPV-vaccination provided it has high impact. Areas covered A unique series of biobank-based and health registry-based studies that exploit randomized intervention cohorts has provided data on population-level safety of HPV vaccination, duration of vaccine induced protection and impact of gender-neutral HPV vaccination, providing a scientific basis for policies to eradicate oncogenic HPV types and associated diseases worldwide...
January 18, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
K L Wilson, K L Flanagan, M D Prakash, M Plebanski
The challenge to eradicate malaria is an enormous task that will not be achieved by current control measures, thus an efficacious and long-lasting malaria vaccine is required. The licensing of RTS, S/AS01 is a step forward in providing some protection, but a malaria vaccine that protects across multiple transmission seasons is still needed. To achieve this, inducing beneficial immune responses while minimising deleterious non-targeted effects will be essential. Areas covered: This article discusses the current challenges and advances in malaria vaccine development and reviews recent human clinical trials for each stage of infection...
January 2, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Christiane Gerke, Phanramphoei N Frantz, Katrin Ramsauer, Frédéric Tangy
The large global burden of viral infections and especially the rapidly spreading vector-borne diseases and other emerging viral diseases show the need for new approaches in vaccine development. Several new vaccine technology platforms have been developed and are under evaluation. Areas covered: This article discusses the measles vector platform technology derived from the safe and highly efficacious measles virus vaccine. The pipeline of measles-vectored vaccine candidates against viral diseases is reviewed...
January 2, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Rahul Shukla, Viswanathan Ramasamy, Ravi Kant Rajpoot, Upasana Arora, Ankur Poddar, Richa Ahuja, Hemalatha Beesetti, Sathyamangalam Swaminathan, Navin Khanna
A safe and efficacious vaccine for dengue continues to be an unmet public health need. The recent licensing of a dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) developed by Sanofi has brought to the fore the safety issue of vaccine-induced infection-enhancement. Areas covered: This article focuses on two new yeast-produced tetravalent dengue envelope domain III-displaying virus-like particulate vaccine candidates reported in early 2018 and reviews the rationale underlying their design, and pre-clinical data which suggest that these may offer promising alternate options...
December 27, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Mallory K Ellingson, Matthew Z Dudley, Rupali J Limaye, Daniel A Salmon, Sean T O'Leary, Saad B Omer
Influenza vaccination during pregnancy can offer many benefits to both mother and infant. Despite recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, vaccine coverage rates among pregnant women during pregnancy are below 40% in the United States. There is a need for a greater understanding of what interventions can improve vaccine uptake among pregnant women. Areas covered: This review synthesizes the existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve maternal influenza vaccine uptake...
December 27, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Iana H Haralambieva, Richard B Kennedy, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Daniel J Schaid, Gregory A Poland
Repeated measles outbreaks in countries with relatively high vaccine coverage are mainly due to failure to vaccinate and importation; however, cases in immunized individuals exist raising questions about suboptimal measles vaccine-induced humoral immunity and/or waning immunity in a low measles-exposure environment. Areas covered: The plaque reduction neutralization measurement of functional measles-specific antibodies correlates with protection is the gold standard in measles serology, but it does not assess cellular-immune or other parameters that may be associated with durable and/or protective immunity after vaccination...
December 26, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Robert A Bednarczyk, Adrian R King, Ariana Lahijani, Saad B Omer
In the United States, high childhood vaccination coverage has reduced the morbidity and mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases. The success of vaccination programs in achieving this high coverage is due, in part, to vaccination mandates for school entry. All states have such mandates, but there is heterogeneity across the states in the allowance of non-medical exemptions (e.g. religious or personal belief exemptions) to these mandates. Areas covered: We examine historical trends in non-medical exemption prevalence in the US, discuss recent state-level policy changes that may impact non-medical exemption prevalence, and review recent studies on the association between non-medical exemptions and infectious disease outbreaks...
December 20, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
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