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Nature Materials

Byoung-Hoon Lee, Sunghak Park, Minho Kim, Arun K Sinha, Seong Chan Lee, Euiyeon Jung, Woo Je Chang, Kug-Seung Lee, Jeong Hyun Kim, Sung-Pyo Cho, Hyungjun Kim, Ki Tae Nam, Taeghwan Hyeon
The reversible and cooperative activation process, which includes electron transfer from surrounding redox mediators, the reversible valence change of cofactors and macroscopic functional/structural change, is one of the most important characteristics of biological enzymes, and has frequently been used in the design of homogeneous catalysts. However, there are virtually no reports on industrially important heterogeneous catalysts with these enzyme-like characteristics. Here, we report on the design and synthesis of highly active TiO2 photocatalysts incorporating site-specific single copper atoms (Cu/TiO2 ) that exhibit a reversible and cooperative photoactivation process...
April 22, 2019: Nature Materials
Leo DeRita, Joaquin Resasco, Sheng Dai, Alexey Boubnov, Ho Viet Thang, Adam S Hoffman, Insoo Ro, George W Graham, Simon R Bare, Gianfranco Pacchioni, Xiaoqing Pan, Phillip Christopher
The use of oxide-supported isolated Pt-group metal atoms as catalytic active sites is of interest due to their unique reactivity and efficient metal utilization. However, relationships between the structure of these active sites, their dynamic response to environments and catalytic functionality have proved difficult to experimentally establish. Here, sinter-resistant catalysts where Pt was deposited uniformly as isolated atoms in well-defined locations on anatase TiO2 nanoparticle supports were used to develop such relationships...
April 22, 2019: Nature Materials
Guangzheng Zuo, Mathieu Linares, Tanvi Upreti, Martijn Kemerink
Charge carrier traps are generally highly detrimental for the performance of semiconductor devices. Unlike the situation for inorganic semiconductors, detailed knowledge about the characteristics and causes of traps in organic semiconductors is still very limited. Here, we accurately determine hole and electron trap energies for a wide range of organic semiconductors in thin-film form. We find that electron and hole trap energies follow a similar empirical rule and lie ~0.3-0.4 eV above the highest occupied molecular orbital and below the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, respectively...
April 22, 2019: Nature Materials
Jie Xu, Hung-Chin Wu, Chenxin Zhu, Anatol Ehrlich, Leo Shaw, Mark Nikolka, Sihong Wang, Francisco Molina-Lopez, Xiaodan Gu, Shaochuan Luo, Dongshan Zhou, Yun-Hi Kim, Ging-Ji Nathan Wang, Kevin Gu, Vivian Rachel Feig, Shucheng Chen, Yeongin Kim, Toru Katsumata, Yu-Qing Zheng, He Yan, Jong Won Chung, Jeffrey Lopez, Boris Murmann, Zhenan Bao
Stretchable semiconducting polymers have been developed as a key component to enable skin-like wearable electronics, but their electrical performance must be improved to enable more advanced functionalities. Here, we report a solution processing approach that can achieve multi-scale ordering and alignment of conjugated polymers in stretchable semiconductors to substantially improve their charge carrier mobility. Using solution shearing with a patterned microtrench coating blade, macroscale alignment of conjugated-polymer nanostructures was achieved along the charge transport direction...
April 15, 2019: Nature Materials
Hyobin Yoo, Rebecca Engelke, Stephen Carr, Shiang Fang, Kuan Zhang, Paul Cazeaux, Suk Hyun Sung, Robert Hovden, Adam W Tsen, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Gyu-Chul Yi, Miyoung Kim, Mitchell Luskin, Ellad B Tadmor, Efthimios Kaxiras, Philip Kim
Control of the interlayer twist angle in two-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures enables one to engineer a quasiperiodic moiré superlattice of tunable length scale1-8 . In twisted bilayer graphene, the simple moiré superlattice band description suggests that the electronic bandwidth can be tuned to be comparable to the vdW interlayer interaction at a 'magic angle'9 , exhibiting strongly correlated behaviour. However, the vdW interlayer interaction can also cause significant structural reconstruction at the interface by favouring interlayer commensurability, which competes with the intralayer lattice distortion10-16 ...
April 15, 2019: Nature Materials
Santu Bera, Sudipta Mondal, Bin Xue, Linda J W Shimon, Yi Cao, Ehud Gazit
The structural versatility, biocompatibility and dynamic range of the mechanical properties of protein materials have been explored in functional biomaterials for a wide array of biotechnology applications. Typically, such materials are made from self-assembled peptides with a predominant β-sheet structure, a common structural motif in silk and amyloid fibrils. However, collagen, the most abundant protein in mammals, is based on a helical arrangement. Here we show that Pro-Phe-Phe, the most aggregation-prone tripeptide of natural amino acids, assembles into a helical-like sheet that is stabilized by the dry hydrophobic interfaces of Phe residues...
April 15, 2019: Nature Materials
Wei-Chang D Yang, Canhui Wang, Lisa A Fredin, Pin Ann Lin, Lisa Shimomoto, Henri J Lezec, Renu Sharma
Recent reports of hot-electron-induced dissociation of small molecules, such as hydrogen, demonstrate the potential application of plasmonic nanostructures for harvesting light to initiate catalytic reactions. Theories have assumed that plasmonic catalysis is mediated by the energy transfer from nanoparticles to adsorbed molecules during the dephasing of localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes optically excited on plasmonic nanoparticles. However, LSP-induced chemical processes have not been resolved at a sub-nanoparticle scale to identify the active sites responsible for the energy transfer...
April 15, 2019: Nature Materials
P Merkl, F Mooshammer, P Steinleitner, A Girnghuber, K-Q Lin, P Nagler, J Holler, C Schüller, J M Lupton, T Korn, S Ovesen, S Brem, E Malic, R Huber
Heterostructures of atomically thin van der Waals bonded monolayers have opened a unique platform to engineer Coulomb correlations, shaping excitonic1-3 , Mott insulating4 or superconducting phases5,6 . In transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures7 , electrons and holes residing in different monolayers can bind into spatially indirect excitons1,3,8-11 with a strong potential for optoelectronics11,12 , valleytronics1,3,13 , Bose condensation14 , superfluidity14,15 and moiré-induced nanodot lattices16 ...
April 8, 2019: Nature Materials
Ş K Özdemir, S Rotter, F Nori, L Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 8, 2019: Nature Materials
Qiangfei Xia, J Joshua Yang
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
April 2, 2019: Nature Materials
Jeremy J Baumberg, Javier Aizpurua, Maiken H Mikkelsen, David R Smith
Ultrathin dielectric gaps between metals can trap plasmonic optical modes with surprisingly low loss and with volumes below 1 nm3 . We review the origin and subtle properties of these modes, and show how they can be well accounted for by simple models. Particularly important is the mixing between radiating antennas and confined nanogap modes, which is extremely sensitive to precise nanogeometry, right down to the single-atom level. Coupling nanogap plasmons to electronic and vibronic transitions yields a host of phenomena including single-molecule strong coupling and molecular optomechanics, opening access to atomic-scale chemistry and materials science, as well as quantum metamaterials...
April 1, 2019: Nature Materials
Ferry A A Nugroho, Iwan Darmadi, Lucy Cusinato, Arturo Susarrey-Arce, Herman Schreuders, Lars J Bannenberg, Alice Bastos da Silva Fanta, Shima Kadkhodazadeh, Jakob B Wagner, Tomasz J Antosiewicz, Anders Hellman, Vladimir P Zhdanov, Bernard Dam, Christoph Langhammer
Hydrogen-air mixtures are highly flammable. Hydrogen sensors are therefore of paramount importance for timely leak detection during handling. However, existing solutions do not meet the stringent performance targets set by stakeholders, while deactivation due to poisoning, for example by carbon monoxide, is a widely unsolved problem. Here we present a plasmonic metal-polymer hybrid nanomaterial concept, where the polymer coating reduces the apparent activation energy for hydrogen transport into and out of the plasmonic nanoparticles, while deactivation resistance is provided via a tailored tandem polymer membrane...
April 1, 2019: Nature Materials
Apurv Dash, Robert Vaßen, Olivier Guillon, Jesus Gonzalez-Julian
To prevent spontaneous oxidation during the high-temperature synthesis of non-oxide ceramics, an inert atmosphere is conventionally required1,2 . This, however, results in high energy demand and high production costs. Here, we present a process for the synthesis and consolidation of oxidation-prone materials, the 'molten salt shielded synthesis/sintering' process (MS3 ), which uses molten salts as a reaction medium and also to protect the ceramic powders from oxidation during high-temperature processing in air...
April 1, 2019: Nature Materials
Alexander H King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2019: Nature Materials
Sascha Ullbrich, Johannes Benduhn, Xiangkun Jia, Vasileios C Nikolis, Kristofer Tvingstedt, Fortunato Piersimoni, Steffen Roland, Yuan Liu, Jinhan Wu, Axel Fischer, Dieter Neher, Sebastian Reineke, Donato Spoltore, Koen Vandewal
Intermolecular charge-transfer states at the interface between electron donating (D) and accepting (A) materials are crucial for the operation of organic solar cells but can also be exploited for organic light-emitting diodes1,2 . Non-radiative charge-transfer state decay is dominant in state-of-the-art D-A-based organic solar cells and is responsible for large voltage losses and relatively low power-conversion efficiencies as well as electroluminescence external quantum yields in the 0.01-0.0001% range3,4 ...
April 1, 2019: Nature Materials
Wolfgang Brütting
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2019: Nature Materials
Tian Li, Xin Zhang, Steven D Lacey, Ruiyu Mi, Xinpeng Zhao, Feng Jiang, Jianwei Song, Zhongqi Liu, Guang Chen, Jiaqi Dai, Yonggang Yao, Siddhartha Das, Ronggui Yang, Robert M Briber, Liangbing Hu
Converting low-grade heat into useful electricity requires a technology that is efficient and cost effective. Here, we demonstrate a cellulosic membrane that relies on sub-nanoscale confinement of ions in oxidized and aligned cellulose molecular chains to enhance selective diffusion under a thermal gradient. After infiltrating electrolyte into the cellulosic membrane and applying an axial temperature gradient, the ionic conductor exhibits a thermal gradient ratio (analogous to the Seebeck coefficient in thermoelectrics) of 24 mV K-1 -more than twice the highest value reported until now...
March 25, 2019: Nature Materials
H Suzuki, H Gretarsson, H Ishikawa, K Ueda, Z Yang, H Liu, H Kim, D Kukusta, A Yaresko, M Minola, J A Sears, S Francoual, H-C Wille, J Nuss, H Takagi, B J Kim, G Khaliullin, H Yavaş, B Keimer
Ruthenium compounds serve as a platform for fundamental concepts such as spin-triplet superconductivity1 , Kitaev spin liquids2-5 and solid-state analogues of the Higgs mode in particle physics6,7 . However, basic questions about the electronic structure of ruthenates remain unanswered, because several key parameters (including Hund's coupling, spin-orbit coupling and exchange interactions) are comparable in magnitude and their interplay is poorly understood, partly due to difficulties in synthesizing large single crystals for spectroscopic experiments...
March 25, 2019: Nature Materials
Yunfeng Chen, Lining Arnold Ju, Fangyuan Zhou, Jiexi Liao, Lingzhou Xue, Qian Peter Su, Dayong Jin, Yuping Yuan, Hang Lu, Shaun P Jackson, Cheng Zhu
Integrins are membrane receptors that mediate cell adhesion and mechanosensing. The structure-function relationship of integrins remains incompletely understood, despite the extensive studies carried out because of its importance to basic cell biology and translational medicine. Using a fluorescence dual biomembrane force probe, microfluidics and cone-and-plate rheometry, we applied precisely controlled mechanical stimulations to platelets and identified an intermediate state of integrin αIIb β3 that is characterized by an ectodomain conformation, ligand affinity and bond lifetimes that are all intermediate between the well-known inactive and active states...
March 25, 2019: Nature Materials
V A Stoica, N Laanait, C Dai, Z Hong, Y Yuan, Z Zhang, S Lei, M R McCarter, A Yadav, A R Damodaran, S Das, G A Stone, J Karapetrova, D A Walko, X Zhang, L W Martin, R Ramesh, L-Q Chen, H Wen, V Gopalan, J W Freeland
Stimulation with ultrafast light pulses can realize and manipulate states of matter with emergent structural, electronic and magnetic phenomena. However, these non-equilibrium phases are often transient and the challenge is to stabilize them as persistent states. Here, we show that atomic-scale PbTiO3 /SrTiO3 superlattices, counterpoising strain and polarization states in alternate layers, are converted by sub-picosecond optical pulses to a supercrystal phase. This phase persists indefinitely under ambient conditions, has not been created via equilibrium routes, and can be erased by heating...
March 18, 2019: Nature Materials
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