Satoru Muro, Keiichi Akita
The purpose of this review is to present our researches on the pelvic outlet muscles, including the pelvic floor and perineal muscles, which are responsible for urinary function, defecation, sexual function, and core stability, and to discuss the insights into the mechanism of pelvic floor stabilization based on the findings. Our studies are conducted using a combination of macroscopic examination, immunohistological analysis, 3D reconstruction, and imaging. Unlike most previous reports, this article describes not only on skeletal muscle but also on smooth muscle structures in the pelvic floor and perineum to encourage new understanding...
March 24, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Nihal Gurlek Celik, Saban Tiryaki
In recent years, with the development of technology, three-dimensional software has entered our lives. Volumetric measurements made with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are essential in the morphometry of the brain and subcortical structures. In this study, we aim to share the volume and asymmetry of the hippocampus, its sub-branches, and other subcortical structures and their interaction with age/sex using volBrain, a web-based automated software.1.5 T T1-weighted volumetric MRI, of 90 healthy individuals (51 females, 39 males) of both genders were included in our study...
March 22, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Marcos C De Almeida
Two groups of investigators investigated the heart pacemaker and its morphological basis in the early twentieth century. The first group was formed by Henrich Ewald Hering (physiologist), Sunao Tawara and Ludwig Aschoff (morphologists). The second group was composed of James Mackenzie (general practitioner and clinical investigator), Arthur Keith and Martin Flack (morphologists). These groups were formed almost at the same time in 1903. Their work resulted in the discovery of the atrioventricular node and Purkinje network (Sunao Tawara, in 1906), heart pacemaker (H E Hering, in 1907) and sinoatrial node (Keith and Flack, in 1907)...
March 22, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Kenji Emura, Eishi Hirasaki, Takamitsu Arakawa
Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) shows diverse muscle-tendon arrangements among primates. The intramuscular nerve distribution pattern is a criterion for discussing the homology of FDS. In this study, the muscle-tendon arrangement and intramuscular nerve distribution of FDS were examined in the siamang, western lowland gorilla, western chimpanzee, and Japanese macaques. The FDS had muscle bellies to digits II-V. FDS had proximal belly and intermediate tendon except for siamang. Distal belly to digit II (in the western lowland gorilla and western chimpanzees) or distal bellies to digits II and V (in Japanese macaque) originated from the intermediate tendon...
March 21, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Satoru Muro, Keiichi Akita
The present report presents details of the method for combining wide-range serial sectioning and 3D reconstruction using an adult cadaver. For several decades, anatomists have utilized a variety of non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization methods to complement gross anatomical analysis methods. These include vascular casting for the visualization of vascular morphology and micro-CT for the visualization of bone morphology. However, these conventional methods are restricted by the properties and sizes of the target structures...
March 7, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Juan J Cardona, Arada Chaiyamoon, Ana Carrera, Francisco Reina, Joe Iwanaga, R Shane Tubbs
Anatomical variations between the facial nerve and adjacent arteries are rare. However, knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to the surgeon who operates on or near the facial nerve. Herein, we report an unusual finding between the extracranial part of the facial nerve and a nearby artery. During routine dissection of the right facial nerve trunk, the posterior auricular artery was found to pierce the nerve effectively forming a nerve loop. The nerve was pierced by the artery soon after its exit from the stylomastoid foramen...
March 7, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Keiko Fukino, Kohsei Iida, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Joe Iwanaga, Keiichi Akita
The attachment of the palatopharyngeus extended from the posterior end of the thyroid cartilage to the posterior margin of the inferior constrictor attachment that might contribute to successive swallowing movements. Laryngeal elevation is essential for proper swallowing and breathing. Recently, clinical research has demonstrated that the palatopharyngeus, a longitudinal muscle of the pharynx, is involved in the elevation of the larynx. However, the morphological relationship between the larynx and palatopharyngeus remains unclear...
March 6, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Kateřina Vymazalová, Omar Šerý, Petr Králík, Radka Dziedzinská, Zuzana Musilová, Jan Frišhons, Tomáš Vojtíšek, Marek Joukal
With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a problem arose with classic body donation programmes for obtaining cadavers for anatomical dissections, science and research. The question has emerged whether bodies of individuals who died of COVID-19 or were infected by SARS-CoV-2 could be admitted to Departments of Anatomy. To determine the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to employees or students, the presence and stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in cadavers after fixation agents' application and subsequent post-fixation baths over time were examined...
March 4, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Yuki Tajika, Nobukazu Ishii, Yoshihiro Morimura, Kyosuke Fukuda, Mitsuaki Shikada, Tohru Murakami, Sotaro Ichinose, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Hirohide Iwasaki
Correlative microscopy and block-face imaging (CoMBI) is an imaging method, which is characterized by the ability to obtain both serial block-face images as a 3-dimentional (3D) dataset and sections for 2-dimentional (2D) light microscopic analysis. These 3D and 2D morphological data can be correlated with each other to facilitate data interpretation. CoMBI is an easy-to-install and low-cost 3D imaging method since its system can be assembled by the researcher using a regular microtome, consumer digital camera, and some self-made devices, and its installation and instruction manuals are open-source...
February 28, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Shinji Urata, Shigeo Okabe
The three-dimensional stria vascularis (SV) and cochlear blood vessel structure is essential for inner ear function. Here, modified Sca/eS, a sorbitol-based optical-clearing method, was reported to visualize SV and vascular structure in the intact mouse cochlea. Cochlear macrophages as well as perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes were detected as GFP-positive cells of the CX3CR1+/GFP mice. This study's method was effective in elucidating inner ear function under both physiological and pathological conditions...
February 11, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Alexander M Kerner, Andrea J Grisold, Freyja-Maria Smolle-Jüttner, Niels Hammer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Emily Deem, Nicholas Passalacqua, Diana Messer, Paige Sanseverino, Katie Zejdlik, Alexandra Klales
Anatomists have been attempting to standardize anatomical terminology of the human body and in doing so created the Terminologia Anatomica as a standard language of anatomy. Despite developments such as the Terminologia Anatomica, a lack of consistency of anatomical terminology is still seen across and within disciplines. This study explores the variation in terminology for the hip bone through a literature review. In total, ten terms used to describe the hip bone were searched in PubMed, JSTOR, and EBSCO databases: "coxal bone," "hip bone," "innominate bone," "os coxa," "os coxae," "ossa coxa," "ossa coxae," "os innominatum," "os pelvicum," and "pelvic bone...
January 24, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Siddhant Suri Dhawan, Vivek Yedavalli, Tarik F Massoud
Organisms may retain nonfunctional anatomical features as a consequence of evolutionary natural selection. Resultant atavistic and vestigial anatomical structures have long been a source of perplexity. Atavism is when an ancestral trait reappears after loss through an evolutionary change in previous generations, whereas vestigial structures are remnants that are largely or entirely functionless relative to their original roles. While physicians are cognizant of their existence, atavistic and vestigial structures are rarely emphasized in anatomical curricula and can, therefore, be puzzling when discovered incidentally...
January 21, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Kaoru Shinoda, Shun Otsuka, Kanae Umemoto, Kaori Fukushige, Masahiro Kurosawa, Munekazu Naito
In 2010, WHO published a "Framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice." Interprofessional education (IPE) is now being conducted in various ways. We have been holding cadaver dissection seminars to provide opportunities for medical students, nursing students, and nurse practitioner (NP) students to learn together. In this study, we investigated the effect of learning about IPE in cadaver dissection seminars. The seminars were held for 5 days each in 2021 and 2022 (the number of days of participation was arbitrary)...
January 10, 2023: Anatomical Science International
Yasunori Abe, Kensuke Toyama, Akio Shinohara, Goro A Nagura-Kato, Yuki Ikai, Chihiro Koshimoto, Joshua M Spin, Naohito Hato
The Mongolian gerbil has historically been useful for brain ischemia experiments, owing to the gerbil's uniquely underdeveloped circle of Willis (CoW). This led to a gerbil model of cochlear ischemia being generated in our unit. However, we have found that the usual severe hearing loss seen in this model was not being induced consistently in recent experiments using the MON/Jms/GbsSlc gerbil (the sole commercially available gerbil in Japan). We set out to evaluate the posterior communicating artery (PcomA) in MON/Jms/GbsSlc, to re-establish whether this strain is appropriate for ischemia models...
December 6, 2022: Anatomical Science International
Alexander M Kerner, Andrea J Grisold, Freyja-Maria Smolle-Jüttner, Niels Hammer
Post-mortem specimens used for anatomy teaching are commonly embalmed using compositions of chemicals, with the objective to maintain tissue quality and to avoid putrefaction. Monitoring for bacterial or fungal contamination is becoming increasingly important especially when measures are taken to minimize exposure by chemicals such as formaldehyde. In this case, random swabs were taken from six corpses embalmed with ethanol-glycerin and Thiel embalming. Cultures and MALDI-TOF analyses yielded four cases of Clostridium perfringens contamination...
December 5, 2022: Anatomical Science International
Juan Fernando Vélez-García, Maria Angélica Miglino
The procyonids (Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Potos flavus) are Neotropical carnivorans with the ability to climb trees; however, each one has different locomotor preferences. Thereby, P. flavus is highly arboreal, P. cancrivorus is mainly terrestrial with abilities to swim, and N. nasua is also fossorial. These activities not only require movements of the hands but stabilize the thoracic limb, an action performed by the extrinsic muscles. Besides, former descriptions performed in procyonid species have obsolete terms for these muscles, generating confusion about the comparison among species...
December 4, 2022: Anatomical Science International
Thavisouk Hatthakone, Sunti Oundavong, Yurie Soejima, Motoji Sawabe
Histological identification of the human sinoatrial node (SAN) remains a challenge. Conventional identification methods, such as Lev's method, have certain limitations. The aim of our study was to develop a new histological identification method that could properly identify the sinoatrial node, applicable to the immunohistochemical study of intra-nodal structures. Thirty-nine human autopsied hearts were included in this study. The cases included 23 men and 16 women ranging in age from 20 to 99 years. The sinoatrial area from eight control samples was cut in the vertical section using the conventional Lev's method...
November 24, 2022: Anatomical Science International
Ayşe Gülşen, Serhat Şibar, Bilge Kaan Ismail
This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the nasal profile and other craniofacial structures. Lateral cephalometric images of 124 adults were collected for this purpose. Statistical analyses such as regression analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were conducted on nasal and craniofacial anatomical parameters and their relationships. The regression analysis revealed that nasal length was related to maxillary height; nasal depth was related to the position of the maxilla and anterior cranial base length; and nasal base angle was related to upper dentoalveolar height...
November 17, 2022: Anatomical Science International
Ken Yoshimura, Kaori Ono, Junji Shindo, Tomoichiro Asami, Shin-Ichi Iwasaki, Ikuo Kageyama
The morphology of the lingual papillae (filiform, foliate, fungiform, and vallate papillae) and the underlying connective tissue core of the red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) of a strepsirrhines species were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae distributed at the root of the tongue were larger than the structures distributed at the body and apex. Six to eight vallate papillae were arranged in a Y-shape at the border between the lingual body and the lingual root. Foliate papillae were observed at the posterior lateral border of the tongue...
November 15, 2022: Anatomical Science International
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