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Anatomical Science International

Fengxia Liu, Abudureyimujiang Ruze, Siyiti Amuti, Shuiquan Wang, Shenguo Chen, Adilijiang Yiming, Kun Xiong
During an educational dissection of a 72-year-old Chinese male cadaver, the hemiazygos vein (HAV) coursing the left side that drains into the persistent left superior vena cava was observed. The HAV was formed at the junction of the 9th to 11th right posterior intercostal veins, right subcostal vein, 5th to 11th left posterior intercostal veins, and left subcostal vein; it then ascended posteriorly to the thoracic aorta. After collecting the accessory hemiazygos vein, it crossed over the aorta and the pedicle of the left lung via the hemiazygos arch, then converged with a communicative branch (vein of Marshall) that emerged from the left brachiocephalic vein to form the persistent left superior vena cava and entered the pericardium at the level of the sixth thoracic vertebra...
February 18, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Burin Boonsri, Tanita Pitakarnnop, Kittisak Buddhachat, Phanupong Changtor, Korakot Nganvongpanit
This study demonstrates sexual dimorphism in feline bones based on morphometric analysis of dried flat bones (scapula and os coxa) and long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and fibula) of 92 felines (50 male, 42 female). A total of 58 parameters (flat bones: scapula = 4 and os coxa = 7; long bones: humerus = 8, radius = 9, ulna = 10, femur = 9, tibia = 7, and fibula = 4) were measured using a digital vernier caliper. Twenty-three parameters were found to be significantly different between cats of different sexes and skull shapes...
February 15, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Ken Yoshimura, Kaori Ono, Junji Shindo, Shin-Ichi Iwasaki, Ikuo Kageyama
We observed the morphology of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, foliate, and vallate) and their underlying connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Abyssinian black-and-white colobus monkeys using light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongues of both juvenile and senescent individuals were relatively short in the rostro-caudal direction, with a rounded apex. Lingual tori were absent. Numerous filiform papillae were distributed over the entire tongue, except at the lingual root. A pair of foliate papillae was present on both the lateral and caudal margins of the corpus...
February 14, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Masahiro To, Chen-Yao Su, Kouki Hidaka, Toshimitsu Okudera, Masato Matsuo
Several methods have been developed to regenerate lost alveolar bone. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a useful adjunct for new bone formation in dentistry. To elucidate the effect of advanced PRF (A-PRF) on bone formation, we inserted A-PRF clots in sockets after tooth extraction. Premolars were extracted from beagle dogs, and A-PRF was applied to the socket. New bone formation was assessed using histological and immunofluorescence examinations, and the bone formation ratio was evaluated 14 and 30 days postoperatively...
February 12, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Joe Iwanaga, Shogo Kikuta, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It descends medial and anterior to the inferior alveolar nerve through the pterygomandibular space, runs by the lingual plate and lingual crest at the lower third molar closely, and supplies sensory fibers to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Therefore, injury of this nerve is occasionally induced by wisdom tooth extraction and could lead to paralysis of the tongue. The inferior alveolar nerve gives rise to the nerve to mylohyoid just before entering the mandibular foramen, which supplies the mylohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric muscle...
February 1, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Shallu Garg, Daisy Sahni, Hemanth Kumar, T D Yadav, Anjali Aggarwal, Tulika Gupta
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the sectorial and segmental arterial branching (second- and third-order branching) in the right and left hemilivers, as knowledge of this branching should lead to improved vascular mapping for various endovascular procedures in the liver. The study was conducted on 100 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric livers. The arterial anatomy of the liver was dissected from the origin of the hepatic arteries to their segmental branches. Conventional segmental branching of both the right and the left hepatic arteries was seen in only 25% of the livers...
January 7, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Shinichi Kawata, Eizo Marutani, Shuichi Hirai, Naoyuki Hatayama, Takuya Omotehara, Kenta Nagahori, Zhonglian Li, Hidenobu Miyaso, Philipp Pieroh, Munekazu Naito, Masahiro Itoh
Formaldehyde (FA) is frequently used to embalm human cadavers that are employed to teach gross anatomy to medical and dental students. However, exposure to FA is harmful to both students and educators. The aim of this study was to reduce the FA levels in the anatomy dissection hall by spraying an FA scavenger solution. We measured the changes in FA levels after administering FA scavenger solutions to liquid, wet paper towels, organs, and cadavers containing FA. Among L-cysteine, N-ethyl urea, and urea, the latter was found to have the strongest scavenging power towards the FA in the liquid...
January 2, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Yu Sato, Takeyuki Miyawaki, Ayako Ouchi, Asako Noguchi, Shun Yamaguchi, Yuji Ikegaya
Neurons are classified into several morphological types according to the locations of their somata and the branching patterns of their axons and dendrites. Recent studies suggest that these morphological features are related to their physiological properties, including firing characteristics, responses to neuromodulators, and wiring patterns. Therefore, rapid morphological identification of electrophysiologically recorded neurons promises to advance our understanding of neuronal circuits. One of the most common anatomical cell identification methods is neuronal reconstruction with biocytin delivered through whole-cell patch-clamp pipettes...
January 1, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Sara Jalali, Shahla Jamili, Mohammad Sayyad Bourani, Ehsan Ramezani-Fard, Abolfazl Sepahdari
In this study we examined the ontogenic development of the digestive tract of Vimba bream (Vimba vimba, Family: Cyprinidae) during the first 60 days of life (hatching to 60 days after hatching [DAH]). Samples of developing Vimba bream were randomly selected at various stages of development: 1-8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 60 DAH. For the histological and histochemical studies on the development of the alimentary canal, tissue sections prepared from the sampled hatchlings were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff and observed under a light microscope...
January 1, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Ya-Ru Dou, Nan Zheng, Jing Gong, Wei Tang, Chukwuemeka Samuel Okoye, Ying Zhang, Yu-Xiao Chen, Yu Zhang, Shi-Yi Pi, Lian-Cong Qu, Sheng-Bo Yu, Hong-Jin Sui
The myodural bridge (MDB) is a dense connective tissue that connects muscles with the cervical spinal dura mater via the posterior atlanto-occipital and atlato-axial interspaces. To date, the physiological function of the MDB has not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have identified the presence of the MDB in mammals, but very little information is available on the existence of the MDB in avifauna. We selected Gallus domesticus to explore the existence and the fiber property of the MDB in avifauna. We found that in this species, fibers originating from the ventral aspect of the rectus capitis dorsal minor are fused with the dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane and that numerous trabeculae connect the dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane with the cervical spinal dura mater...
December 14, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Shogo Kikuta, Joe Iwanaga, Jingo Kusukawa, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Isolated cleft palate without cleft lip is a rare deformity. Cleft lip and cleft palate can sometimes develop in combination with a syndrome due to genetic causes. Affected patients have morbidity through life from birth and experience comprehensive treatment for such clefts including surgery. It is extremely rare that the untreated clefts are found during routine cadaveric dissection, since many patients have treatment for clefts in developed countries. Herein, we present a case of an untreated incomplete isolated cleft palate on the right side of the maxilla...
November 30, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Rajendran Kanagasuntheram, Nigel Keong Teck Geh, Ching Chiuan Yen, S Thameem Dheen, Boon Huat Bay
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has recently been developed as a resource for teaching human anatomy through the accurate reproduction of anatomical specimens. Using a composite 3D printed model with the incorporation of metal and magnets, we were able to demonstrate and analyse movements at the midcarpal joint during the 'dart thrower's motion', which is an important motion in daily activities involving the use of the hand. The hand component with the distal row of carpal bones was subjected to flexion and extension at the midcarpal joint and observed for simultaneous abduction/adduction...
November 19, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Tadashi Sawai
Although its history is complicated, today's anatomical nomenclature, including muscle terminology, has acquired a system of naming using epithets. The objective of this literary research paper was to ascertain the founder of modern muscle terminology. The texts of four anatomists, Galen, Andreas Vesalius, Jacobus Sylvius, and Gaspard Bauhin, who have all been identified as being influential in the establishment of early modern anatomy and its nomenclature, were analyzed. Particular emphasis was given to the naming method, and to the consistency of that method...
November 7, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Yousuke Tsuneoka
The medial preoptic area (MPOA), an anterior part of the hypothalamus, is one of the most important areas for the regulation of instinctively motivated behaviors, such as parental behavior, mating behavior and aggression. Consistent with its role in reproductive behaviors, the MPOA abundantly expresses gonadal steroid hormone receptors and shows distinct sexual dimorphism in its morphology. Despite the functional importance of the MPOA, the anatomical demarcations of the mouse MPOA subregions have been confusing and remained undefined because of their heterogeneity and complexity...
November 3, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Matthew J Zdilla, Paula Pacurari, Tyler J Celuck, Reed C Andrews, H Wayne Lambert
Gantzer muscles are variant muscles in the anterior forearm inserting into the flexor pollicis longus or, less often, the flexor digitorum profundus. The presence of Gantzer muscles can cause a compressive neuropathy affecting the anterior interosseous nerve (Kiloh-Nevin syndrome). These muscles must also be considered when anterior forearm fasciotomies are performed for the management of acute compartment syndrome. In this case report, a novel Gantzer muscle originated from the flexor digitorum superficialis as well as the investing fascia of the brachialis muscle; the latter site is a novel proximal attachment not previously reported...
October 31, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Michał Grzegorczyk, Cristobal Krasucki, Bogdan Ciszek
The inner structure of the pons contains several layers of transverse and vertical fibers and many nuclei. The vertical bundles are described as fibers of the corticospinal tract, corticonuclear tract, frontopontine tract and parieto-temporopontine tract organized in three layers. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the vertical bundles in the ventral pons using the modified Klingler method. Ten brain stem specimens were investigated. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin, frozen for 24 h to separate nerve fibers by ice crystals, and then unfrozen again in 10% formalin solution...
October 28, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Katsutoshi Taguchi, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Atsushi Tsujimura, Masaki Tanaka
α-Synuclein, the major component of Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs), is expressed in presynapses under physiologically normal conditions and is involved in synaptic function. Abnormal intracellular aggregates of misfolded α-synuclein such as LBs and LNs are pathological hallmarks of synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). According to previous studies using pathological models overexpressing α-synuclein, high expression of this protein in neurons is a critical risk factor for neurodegeneration...
October 25, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Mohamed M A Abumandour, Mahmoud S Gewaily
The present study aimed to give full morphological insight into the oropharyngeal cavity of Eurasian hoopoe at the level of gross morphology in addition to ultrastructural inspection including light- and scanning electron microscopy. The oropharyngeal cavity has a triangular appearance with a very long rostrally located beak, helping the bird achieve its feeding mechanism. The floor of the oropharyngeal cavity is divided into three parts; a pre-lingual part with a pre-lingual fold, a lingual part containing a rudimentary triangular tongue, and a laryngeal part, which contains a small elevated laryngeal mound...
October 24, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Norio Kitagawa, Takahito Otani, Tetsuichiro Inai
Nisin is a food preservative produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Previous blood biochemical research revealed that nisin has physiological effects in mammals; although the site of action has yet to be identified, keratinocytes have been proposed as a possible target. In this study, we investigated whether nisin affects keratinocytes by examining the effects on eukaryotic intermediate filaments in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Treatment with 93 μg/ml nisin for 24 h decreased the localization of the intermediate filament proteins cytokeratin (CK)5 and CK17 at the cell periphery, which were distributed in a limited area in a ring- or net-like shape...
October 23, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Fang Yuan, Dalian Ding, Yitan Cao, Weidong Qi
A typical cochleogram was plotted to investigate hair cell densities as a percentage along the whole length of the basilar membrane (BM) of the rabbit, the length of the BM and the width of the organ of Corti. We generated surface preparations of cochlea from adult, healthy New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. The numbers of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) were counted from images acquired from a digital camera attached to an Olympus light microscope with a scale of 100 μm as a primary unit drawn continuously, and the numbers of IHCs and OHCs were converted to densities at 10% intervals along the length of the cochlea...
October 1, 2018: Anatomical Science International
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