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Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E

Namya Mellouk, Christelle Ramé, Mélodie Diot, Eric Briant, Jean-Luc Touzé, Daniel Guillaume, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
BACKGROUND: In dairy cows, the energy cost of milk yield results in a negative energy balance (EB) and body fat mobilization that impairs reproductive efficiency. Emerging evidence suggests that the novel adipokines, Retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 (RARRES2), and its main receptor, Chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) are involved in the regulation of metabolic and ovarian functions. So, we investigated in a first experiment the plasma RARRES2, and RARRES2 and CMKLR1 mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and granulosa cells (GC) at different times of body fat mobilization in dairy cows (4, 8, 20 and 44 weeks postpartum, wk...
February 18, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Rahil Jannatifar, Kazem Parivar, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
BACKGROUND: Infertile men have higher levels of semen reactive oxygen species (ROS) than fertile men. High levels of semen ROS can cause sperm dysfunction, sperm DNA damage and reduced male reproductive potential. This study investigated the effects of supplementation with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) on the sperm quality, chromatin integrity and levels of oxidative stress in infertile men. METHODS: The study was carried out in the unit of ACECR Infertility Research Center, Qom, Iran...
February 16, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Nana Akino, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Wataru Isono, Hiromi Terao, Harunori Honjo, Yuichiro Miyamoto, Michihiro Tanikawa, Kenbun Sone, Mana Hirano, Miyuki Harada, Tetsuya Hirata, Yasushi Hirota, Kaori Koga, Katsutoshi Oda, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
BACKGROUND: Age-associated infertility is a problem worldwide, and management of oxidative stress is known to be essential. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway works as an essential defense mechanism against oxidative stress, and an oral drug Dimethylfumarate (DMF) is known to activate the pathway. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that oral DMF could alleviate oxidative stress in the ovary, resulting in salvation of age-associated infertility in a mouse model of reproductive age, and we examined the effects of DMF administration...
February 13, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Muzaffer A Bhat, Jai B Sharma, Kallol K Roy, Jayasree Sengupta, Debabrata Ghosh
BACKGROUND: Previous studies, which were primarily based on the fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) technique, revealed conflicting evidence regarding male foetal microchimerism in endometriosis. FISH is a relatively less sensitive technique, as it is performed on a small portion of the sample. Additionally, the probes used in the previous studies specifically detected centromeric and telomeric regions of Y chromosome, which are gene-sparse heterochromatised regions. In the present study, a panel of molecular biology tools such as qPCR, expression microarray, RNA-seq and qRT-PCR were employed to examine the Y chromosome microchimerism in the endometrium using secretory phase samples from fertile and infertile patients with severe (stage IV) ovarian endometriosis (OE) and without endometriosis...
February 13, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Puyu Yang, Yang Wang, Zhangxin Wu, Ningning Pan, Liying Yan, Caihong Ma
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is thought to affect the effectiveness of ART by an increased risk of miscarriage. We aimed to investigate the impact of endometriosis in women achieving singleton pregnancies through IVF fresh cycles and risk of miscarriage. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all women undergoing a first IVF cycle and achieving singleton pregnancies after fresh embryo transfer in a tertiary university hospital reproductive medical center between January 2008 and June 2016...
February 12, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Haroon Latif Khan, Shahzad Bhatti, Samina Suhail, Rohina Gul, Aisha Awais, Humaira Hamayun, Farah Enver, Sana Abbas, Zahira Hassan, Rameen Nisar, Saba Sardar, Warda Asif
BACKGROUND: Despite being born with a significant number of primordial cells which representing the ancestor cells of the germ-line, women experience a depletion of ovarian reserve and sub-fertility mid-way into their healthy lives. The poor ovarian response is a substantial limiting factor amplified with higher maternal age and associated with a considerably lower likelihood of pregnancy. METHODS: A present analytical prospective cross-sectional study was conducted to explore whether infertile women below the age of 40 years have low ovarian reserve than fertile women of same age, assessed by Antral follicle count (AFC) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), at tertiary care infertility center: Lahore Institute of Fertility and Endocrinology, Hameed Latif Hospital...
February 11, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Imran Tarique, Waseem Ali Vistro, Xuebing Bai, Ping Yang, Chen Hong, Yufei Huang, Abdul Haseeb, Enxue Liu, Noor Samad Gandahi, Mengdi Xu, Yifei Liu, Qiusheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Steroidogenesis is an indispensable process that is indirectly associated with spermatogenesis in the Leydig cell (LC) to utilize the lipid droplets (LDs) that are critical to maintaining normal testosterone synthesis. The regulation of LD mobilization, known as lipophagy, in the LC is still largely unknown. METHOD: In the present study, the LC of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle was investigated to identify the steroidogenic activity and lipophagy during the annual reproductive cycle by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
February 9, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Qiong Yu, Shifu Hu, Yingying Wang, Guiping Cheng, Wei Xia, Changhong Zhu
The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature and to compare the effectiveness of letrozole (LE) versus laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) for the induction of ovulation in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The PUBMED, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched systematically for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from English language articles published from database inception to September 2018. Data were independently extracted and analyzed using the fixed-effects model or random-effects model according to the heterogeneity of the data...
February 6, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Alessandro Conforti, Sandro C Esteves, Francesca Di Rella, Ida Strina, Pasquale De Rosa, Alessia Fiorenza, Fulvio Zullo, Giuseppe De Placido, Carlo Alviggi
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of recombinant human LH supplementation in women with hypo-response to ovarian stimulation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective clinical trials in which recombinant FSH monotherapy protocols were compared with LH-supplemented protocols in hypo-responders. A search was conducted of the Scopus, MEDLINE databases without time or language restrictions. Primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. RESULTS: Significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates (odds ratio: 2...
February 6, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Navid Esfandiari, Julia Litzky, Joshua Sayler, Pavel Zagadailov, Karen George, Leslie DeMars
BACKGROUND: Little is known about resident attitudes toward elective egg freezing (EF) or how educational exposure to EF affects residents' views and ability to counsel patients. This study aimed to evaluate US OB/GYN residents' views on elective EF, decisions regarding family planning, and whether education on EF affects these views and self-reported comfort discussing EF with patients. METHODS: A 32 question survey was emailed to program directors at all US residency programs for distribution to residents...
January 29, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Jing Zhao, Yi Yan, Xi Huang, Lunquan Sun, Yanping Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of each individual morphological parameter: blastocoele expansion degree, inner cell mass (ICM), and trophectoderm (TE) grades on the clinical pregnancy outcome in frozen-warmed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study, including 1154 FET cycles receiving vitrified-warmed one or two blastocysts transfer from August 2011 through to May 2018. The correlation between blastocyst morphology parameters and clinical outcome after FET was assessed...
January 23, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Yiwen Liu, Xiang Y Ye, Crystal Chan
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is the first-line treatment for non-tubal infertility. Injectable gonadotropins are often chosen as adjunctive stimulation to promote the growth of ovarian follicles in IUI cycles. The growing follicles produce estrogen, which induces endometrial proliferation and increased endometrial stripe thickness (EST). The association between EST and pregnancy outcome in gonadotropin stimulated IUI is not well studied. The objective of this study is to determine if EST can predict pregnancy outcome in gonadotropin-stimulated IUI cycles...
January 23, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Zhiyang Zhou, Qi Lin, Xinxin Xu, Gaby Sukma Illahi, Chenle Dong, Xueqing Wu
BACKGROUND: Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), which is associated with adverse long-term effects on the health of the offspring, has become a major clinical problem. Accumulating evidence indicates that the ovary kisspeptin/GPR54 system directly participates in a series of physiological activities. We used a model of high-fat diet (HFD) during gestational to investigate offspring's ovarian function and whether kisspeptin/GPR54 system is involved. METHODS: After introducing the male and confirmation of mating by checking a vaginal sperm plug, female rats were randomized into two groups: control diet called NCD group and high-fat diet called HFD group...
January 22, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Federica Cariati, Nadja D'Uonno, Francesca Borrillo, Stefania Iervolino, Giacomo Galdiero, Rossella Tomaiuolo
BACKGROUND: Among the factors causing male infertility, one of the most debated is the exposure to environmental contaminants. Recently, the chemical compound Bisphenol A (BPA) has drawn attention from the reproductive science community, due to its ubiquitous presence in day-to-day life. Its toxic action appears to mainly affect the male reproductive system, directly impacting male fertility. MAIN: The purpose of this review is to investigate current research data on BPA, providing an overview of the findings obtained from studies in animal and human models, as well as on its supposed mechanisms of action...
January 20, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Amy K Schutt, Chellakkan S Blesson, Jean W Hsu, Cecilia T Valdes, William E Gibbons, Farook Jahoor, Chandra Yallampalli
BACKGROUND: Detrimental exposures during pregnancy have been implicated in programming offspring to develop permanent changes in physiology and metabolism, increasing the risk for developing diseases in adulthood such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and obesity. This study investigated the effects of protein restriction on the metabolism of amino acids within the oocyte, liver, and whole organism in a rat model as well as effects on mitochondrial ultrastructure and function in the cumulus oocyte complex...
January 17, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Justin Rashtian, Diana E Chavkin, Zaher Merhi
A mounting body of the literature suggests that environmental chemicals found in food and water could affect female reproduction. Many worldwide daily-used products have been shown to contain chemicals that could incur adverse reproductive outcomes in the perinatal/neonatal periods, childhood, adolescence, and even adulthood. The potential impact of Bisphenol A (BPA), Phthalates and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) on female reproduction, in particular on puberty, PCOS pathogenesis, infertility, ovarian function, endometriosis, and recurrent pregnancy loss, in both humans and animals, will be discussed in this report in order to provide greater clinician and public awareness about the potential consequences of these chemicals...
January 13, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
A G Grynnerup, K Løssl, F Pilsgaard, S A Lunding, M Storgaard, J W Bogstad, L Prætorius, A Zedeler, L Bungum, A Nyboe Andersen, A Pinborg
BACKGROUND: In assisted reproductive technology, prediction of treatment failure remains a great challenge. The development of more sensitive assays for measuring anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has allowed for the possibility to investigate if a lower threshold of AMH can be established predicting very limited or no response to maximal ovarian stimulation. METHODS: A prospective observational multicenter study of 107 women, < 40 years of age with regular menstrual cycle and serum AMH levels ≤ 12 pmol/L, treated with 300 IU/day of HP-hMG in a GnRH-antagonist protocol...
January 11, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Jinbi Zhang, Yinxue Xu, Honglin Liu, Zengxiang Pan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. In the past decade, studies on miRNAs in ovaries have revealed the key roles of miRNAs in ovarian development and function. In this review, we first introduce the development of follicular atresia research and then summarize genome-wide studies on the ovarian miRNA profiles of different mammalian species. Differentially expressed miRNA profiles during atresia and other biological processes are herein compared. In addition, current knowledge on confirmed functional miRNAs during the follicular atresia process, which is mostly indicated by granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis, is presented...
January 10, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Valentina Pampanini, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Lena Sahlin, Daniela Germani, Antonella Puglianiello, Stefano Cianfarani, Olle Söder
BACKGROUND: A low oxygen supply to the fetus causes intrauterine growth restriction and can affect gonadal development of the offspring, having a potential impact on fertility. We investigated histology and gene expression in the postnatal rat ovary after fetal hypoxia induced by uterine artery ligation. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent uterine artery ligation at day 19 of gestation. Offspring were sacrificed at 5, 20 and 40 days post-partum. Follicles were counted and classified in hematoxylin-eosin stained sections...
January 10, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Andrea Di Nisio, Carlo Foresta
Over the past two decades, public health has focused on the identification of environmental chemical factors that are able to adversely affect hormonal function, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs). EDs mimic naturally occurring hormones like estrogens and androgens which can in turn interfere with the endocrine system. As a consequence, EDs affect human reproduction as well as post and pre-natal development. In fact, infants can be affected already at prenatal level due to maternal exposure to EDs. In particular, great attention has been given to those chemicals, or their metabolites, that have estrogenic properties or antagonistic effects on the activity of androgen or even inhibiting their production...
January 6, 2019: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
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