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Harm Reduction Journal

Soo Chan Carusone, Adrian Guta, Samantha Robinson, Darrell H Tan, Curtis Cooper, Bill O'Leary, Karen de Prinse, Grant Cobb, Ross Upshur, Carol Strike
BACKGROUND: Drug use is associated with increased morbidity and mortality but people who use drugs experience significant barriers to care. Data are needed about the care experiences of people who use drugs to inform interventions and quality improvement initiatives. The objective of this study is to describe and characterize the experience of acute care for people who use drugs. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study. We recruited people with a history of active drug use at the time of an admission to an acute care hospital, who were living with HIV or hepatitis C, in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada...
February 13, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
M Gogia, C Lawlor, N Shengelia, K Stvilia, H F Raymond
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in Georgia is increasing. Data shows that compared to previous years, Georgia has increasingly more HIV-infected individuals than previous assessments. Select client groups remain hard to reach by harm reduction programs. The need for innovative strategies to involve these individuals is imperative. METHODS: The following study examines demographics and risk factors of participants, previously known and not known to harm reduction services, for HIV and other infectious disease in towns across Georgia in 2015 and compares risk among different groups, while also assessing the rationale for implementing Peer-Driven Interventions in Georgian Harm Reduction activities...
February 12, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Candice Luo, Nitika Sanger, Laura Zielinski, Meha Bhatt, Hamnah Shahid, Ieta Shams, Natalia Mouravska, Sabrina Luetam, Jackie Hudson, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Ever-increasing numbers of opioid use disorder (OUD) in Canada has created the recent opioid crisis. One common treatment for OUD is methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Various factors, including being a parent which entails specific stressors, may increase susceptibility to negative treatment outcomes. This study aims to investigate differences between OUD patients with and without children in socio-demographic and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Data for this study are part of a larger program...
February 11, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Ellen Childs, Sabrina A Assoumou, Katie B Biello, Dea L Biancarelli, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Alberto Edeza, Peter Salhaney, Matthew J Mimiaga, Angela R Bazzi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the context of the current US opioid crisis. Although curative therapy is available and recommended as a public health strategy, few PWID have been treated. We explore PWID narratives that explain why they have not sought HCV treatment or decided against starting it. We then compare these narratives to evidence-based and guideline-concordant information to better enable health, social service, harm reduction providers, PWID, and other stakeholders to dispel misconceptions and improve HCV treatment uptake in this vulnerable population...
February 11, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
David G Baxter, Margo Hilbrecht, Cameron T J Wheaton
BACKGROUND: Harmful gambling is a complex issue with diverse antecedents and resulting harms that have been studied from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Although previous bibliometric reviews of gambling studies have found a dominance of judgement and decision-making research, no bibliometric review has examined the concept of "harm" in the gambling literature, and little work has quantitatively assessed how gambling research priorities differ between countries. METHODS: Guided by the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling (CFHG), an internationally relevant framework of antecedents to harmful gambling, we conducted a bibliometric analysis focusing on research outputs from three countries with different gambling regulatory environments: Canada, Australia, and New Zealand...
February 8, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Canh Dinh Hoang, Bach Xuan Tran, Manh Duc Pham, Long Hoang Nguyen, Ha Ngoc Do, Quan Hoang Vuong, Manh Tung Ho, Van Nhue Dam, Thu Trang Vuong, Hai Hong Nguyen, Vu Nguyen, Hai Quang Pham, Giang Hai Ha, Carl A Latkin, Cyrus S H Ho, Roger C M Ho
BACKGROUND: Residents in border areas are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS due to high rates of risk behaviors such as unprotected sexual practices or illicit drug use. Improving knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment are vital to diminish the burden of the HIV epidemic in this setting. However, evidence about this issue in Vietnam has been limited. This study aims to explore the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS among people in Vietnam border zones. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in three border communes in Thanh Hoa province with 600 HIV(-) residents...
February 7, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Gitau Mburu, Mark Limmer, Paula Holland
BACKGROUND: Injecting drug users are at high risk of HIV infection globally. Research related to female drug users is rare in Kenya, yet it is required to inform the development of gender-sensitive HIV prevention and harm reduction services in East Africa, where injecting drug use is on the rise. METHODS: This study aimed to document the nature of HIV risks encountered by women who inject drugs in the Mombasa and Kilifi, Kenya. Secondary data analysis was conducted on an existing dataset from a 2015 primary qualitative study involving 24 interviews and 3 focus group discussions with 45 women who inject drugs...
February 6, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Philippe Lucas, Eric P Baron, Nick Jikomes
BACKGROUND: A 239-question cross-sectional survey was sent out via email in January 2017 to gather comprehensive information on cannabis use from Canadian medical cannabis patients registered with a federally authorized licensed cannabis producer, resulting in 2032 complete surveys. METHODS: The survey gathered detailed demographic data and comprehensive information on patient patterns of medical cannabis use, including questions assessing the self-reported impact of cannabis on the use of prescription drugs, illicit substances, alcohol, and tobacco...
January 28, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Alexandra Dmitrieva, Vladimir Stepanov, Ievgeniia-Galyna Lukash, Anna Martynyuk
BACKGROUND: To improve healthcare entry and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for HIV-positive people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine, an intervention built upon a successful community-based harm reduction project and the existing best practices was developed. In this article, we present the results of the study conducted in collaboration with one of the recipient organizations of the intervention in Kyiv. The research question was formulated as follows: how does the interaction between different actors work to lead it to a positive outcome (initiation PWIDs into ART) within the limited period of the intervention implementation? METHODS: The central focus of the study was on the work activities of case managers...
January 28, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Siddharth Iyengar, Adam Kravietz, Tyler S Bartholomew, David Forrest, Hansel E Tookes
BACKGROUND: In March of 2016, Florida passed the Infection Disease Elimination Act (IDEA), legalizing the formation of the first syringe exchange program in Florida, which opened in December of 2016 at a fixed site in Overtown, Miami. Since that time, the exchange expanded in April of 2017 to include a mobile van unit that provides the same services at different locations throughout Miami-Dade County. METHODS: Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews from all first-time participants at the IDEA Exchange, both at the fixed site and the mobile van unit...
January 23, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Phung Quoc Tat Than, Bach Xuan Tran, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Nu Thi Truong, Thao Phuong Thi Thai, Carl A Latkin, Cyrus S H Ho, Roger C M Ho
BACKGROUND: Despite existing efforts to provide antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all HIV-diagnosed people, stigma deprives them of the highest attainable health status and challenges the effectiveness of ART program in Vietnam. This study aimed to assess five dimensions of HIV-related stigma and explore its associated factors among ART patients in a multisite survey. Implications of this study support the development of HIV policies to improve patients' access, utilization, and outcomes of ART program toward the 90-90-90 goal in Vietnam...
January 17, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Ide Delargy, Des Crowley, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence, characterised by socio economic disadvantage and significant morbidity and mortality, remains a major public health problem in Ireland. Through the methadone treatment protocol (MTP), Irish general practice has been a leader in the introduction and expansion of Irish harm reduction services, including opioid substitution treatment (OST), needle and syringe programs (NSP) and naloxone provision. These services have been effective in engaging opiate users in treatment, reducing human deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and reducing-drug related morbidities...
January 17, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Silvina C Mema, Gillian Frosst, Jessica Bridgeman, Hilary Drake, Corinne Dolman, Leslie Lappalainen, Trevor Corneil
BACKGROUND: In 2016, a public health emergency was declared in British Columbia due to an unprecedented number of illicit drug overdose deaths. Injection drug use was implicated in approximately one third of overdose deaths. An innovative delivery model using mobile supervised consumption services (SCS) was piloted in a rural health authority in BC with the goals of preventing overdose deaths, reducing public drug use, and connecting clients to health services. METHODS: Two mobile SCS created from retrofitted recreational vehicles were used to serve the populations of two mid-sized cities: Kelowna and Kamloops...
January 10, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Jacqueline E Goldman, Katherine M Waye, Kobe A Periera, Maxwell S Krieger, Jesse L Yedinak, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: In 2016, drug overdose deaths exceeded 64,000 in the United States, driven by a sixfold increase in deaths attributable to illicitly manufactured fentanyl. Rapid fentanyl test strips (FTS), used to detect fentanyl in illicit drugs, may help inform people who use drugs about their risk of fentanyl exposure prior to consumption. This qualitative study assessed perceptions of FTS among young adults. METHODS: From May to September 2017, we recruited a convenience sample of 93 young adults in Rhode Island (age 18-35 years) with self-reported drug use in the past 30 days to participate in a pilot study aimed at better understanding perspectives of using take-home FTS for personal use...
January 8, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Caitlin Notley, Sharon Cox, Sarah Jakes, Louise Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Anna P Deryabina, Padmaja Patnaik, Wafaa M El-Sadr
BACKGROUND: We conducted a cross-sectional integrated bio-behavioral survey among sex partners of persons who inject drugs (PWID) to explore reasons for reported increase in reporting of heterosexually transmitted HIV in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. METHODS: Sexual partners of PWID were recruited through PWID. Behavioral data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Dried blood spots were obtained and tested for HIV and hepatitis C virus antibodies (HCVAb)...
January 5, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Mai-Lei Woo Kinshella, Tim Gauthier, Mark Lysyshyn
OBJECTIVE: In midst of the overdose crisis, the clinical features of opioid overdoses seem to be changing. Understanding of the adverse effects of synthetic opioids such as fentanyl is currently limited to clinical settings. Insite, a supervised injection site in Vancouver, Canada, provides an opportunity to better understand illicit drug overdose presentations. METHODS: A review of clinical records at Insite for October 2016 to April 2017 was undertaken to quantify atypical overdose presentations...
December 22, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Philippe Chossegros, Fiorant Di Nino
BACKGROUND: To understand the limits of HCV screening programs to reach all drug users (DUs). METHOD: The association of the recruitment of a representative sample of a population of DUs in a specific area with the use of a questionnaire that included 250 items allowed the use of uni- and multifactorial analysis to explore the relationship between HCV screening and dimensions until now restricted to qualitative studies. RESULTS: We recruited, in less than 2 months, 327 DUs representing about 6% of the total population of DUs...
December 12, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Des Crowley, Marie Claire Van Hout, John S Lambert, Enda Kelly, Carol Murphy, Walter Cullen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global epidemic with an estimated 71 million people infected worldwide. People who inject drugs (PWID) are overrepresented in prison populations globally and have higher levels of HCV infection than the general population. Despite increased access to primary health care while in prison, many HCV infected prisoners do not engage with screening or treatment. With recent advances in treatment regimes, HCV in now a curable and preventable disease and prisons provide an ideal opportunity to engage this hard to reach population...
December 11, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Zachary L Mannes, Erin G Ferguson, Larry E Burrell, Robert L Cook, Nicole Ennis
BACKGROUND: Though marijuana use has previously been associated with risky alcohol use, studies often do not delineate between the effect of recreational versus therapeutic marijuana use, particularly among people living with HIV (PLWH). In this study, we examined the association between recreational versus therapeutic marijuana use to manage HIV symptoms (i.e., improve appetite/gain weight, induce sleep, relieve nausea/vomiting, relieve pain, relieve anxiety/depression/stress) on hazardous alcohol consumption and associated behavioral consequences among PLWH...
December 7, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
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