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International Journal of Health Geographics

Mohan Thanikachalam, Christina H Fuller, Kevin J Lane, Jahnavi Sunderarajan, Vijayakumar Harivanzan, Doug Brugge, Sadagopan Thanikachalam
BACKGROUND: Developing countries, such as India, are experiencing rapid urbanization, which may have a major impact on the environment: including worsening air and water quality, noise and the problems of waste disposal. We used health data from an ongoing cohort study based in southern India to examine the relationship between the urban environment and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). METHODS: We utilized three metrics of urbanization: distance from urban center; population density in the India Census; and satellite-based land cover...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Health Geographics
Hui Luan, Dana Ramsay, Daniel Fuller
BACKGROUND: Active travel for utilitarian purposes contributes to total physical activity and may help counter the obesity epidemic. However, the evidence linking active travel and individual-level body weight is equivocal. Statistical modeling that accounts for spatial autocorrelation and unmeasured spatial predictors has not yet used to explore whether the health benefits of active travel are shared equally across socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Bayesian hierarchical models with spatial random effects were developed using travel survey data from Saskatoon, Canada (N = 4625)...
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Health Geographics
Rosa de Groot, Jody C Hoenink, Joreintje D Mackenbach, Nicole R den Braver, Maria G M Pinho, Darshan Brassinga, Femmeke J Prinsze, Tiffany C Timmer, Wim L A M de Kort, Johannes Brug, Katja van den Hurk, Jeroen Lakerveld
BACKGROUND: In low and middle-income countries (LMIC), the total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels of residents of urban areas are reported to be higher than those of rural areas. This may be due to differences in lifestyle behaviors between residents of urban areas and rural areas in LMIC. In this study, our aims were to (1) examine whether or not LDL cholesterol, total/HDL ratios and triglyceride levels of individuals in densely populated areas are higher than those of individuals living in less-densely populated areas in a high-income country (HIC) and (2) investigate the potential mediating roles of physical activity and sedentary behavior...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Health Geographics
Laura Macdonald
BACKGROUND: Over a third of the Scottish population do not meet physical activity (PA) recommendations, with a greater proportion of those from disadvantaged areas not meeting recommended levels. There is a great need for detailed understanding of why some people are active while others are not. It has been established that features within home neighbourhoods are important for promoting PA, and although around 60% of time spent in exercise daily is undertaken outside the residential environment, relatively little research includes both home and workplace neighbourhood contexts...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Health Geographics
Renin Toms, Andrew Bonney, Darren J Mayne, Xiaoqi Feng, Ramya Walsan
INTRODUCTION: A growing number of publications report variation in the distribution of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) at different geographic scales. A review of these variations may help inform policy and health service organisation. AIM: To review studies reporting variation in the geographic distribution of CMRFs and its association with various proxy measures of area-level socioeconomic disadvantage (ASED) among the adult ( ≥ 18 years) population across the world...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Health Geographics
Stuart E Hamilton, John Talbot, Carl Flint
BACKGROUND: Waterborne diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality in developing countries, and diarrhea alone is responsible for over 1.5 million deaths annually. Such waterborne illnesses most often affect those in impoverished rural communities who rely on rivers for their supply of drinking water. Deaths are most common among infants and the elderly. Without knowledge of which communities are upstream of a community, upstream sanitary and bathing behaviors can never be directly linked to downstream health outcomes including disease outbreaks...
December 14, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Ludovico Pinzari, Soumya Mazumdar, Federico Girosi
BACKGROUND: Detecting the variation of health indicators across similar areas or peer geographies is often useful if the spatial units are socially and economically meaningful, so that there is a degree of homogeneity in each unit. Indices are frequently constructed to generate summaries of socioeconomic status or other measures in geographic small areas. Larger areas may be built to be homogenous using regionalization algorithms. However, there are no explicit guidelines in the literature for the grouping of peer geographies based on measures such as area level socioeconomic indices...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Leanne Cusack, Hind Sbihi, Andrew Larkin, Angela Chow, Jeffrey R Brook, Theo Moraes, Piush J Mandhane, Allan B Becker, Meghan B Azad, Padmaja Subbarao, Anita Kozyrskyj, Tim K Takaro, Malcolm R Sears, Stuart E Turvey, Perry Hystad
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies observe associations between the amount of green space around a mother's home and positive birth outcomes; however, the robustness of this association and potential pathways of action remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between mother's residential green space and term birth weight within the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study and examine specific hypothesized pathways. METHODS: We examined 2510 births located in Vancouver, Edmonton, Winnipeg, and Toronto Canada...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Agustín Estrada-Peña, Sally Cutler, Aleksandar Potkonjak, Muriel Vassier-Tussaut, Wim Van Bortel, Hervé Zeller, Natalia Fernández-Ruiz, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
BACKGROUND: The bacteria of the group Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis in humans, transmitted by bites of ticks. Improvement of control measures requires a solid framework of the environmental traits driving its prevalence in ticks. METHODS: We updated a previous meta-analysis of the reported prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in questing nymphs of Ixodes ricinus with a literature search from January 2010-June 2017. This resulted in 195 new papers providing the prevalence of Bb for 926 geo-referenced records...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Mingyu Kang, Anne V Moudon, Philip M Hurvitz, Brian E Saelens
BACKGROUND: Device-collected data from GPS and accelerometers for identifying active travel behaviors have dramatically changed research methods in transportation planning and public health. Automated algorithms have helped researchers to process large datasets with likely fewer errors than found in other collection methods (e.g., self-report travel diary). In this study, we compared travel modes identified by a commonly used automated algorithm (PALMS) that integrates GPS and accelerometer data with those obtained from travel diary estimates...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Akansha Singh, Bruno Masquelier
BACKGROUND: India has the largest number of under-five deaths globally, and large variations in under-five mortality persist between states and districts. Relationships between under-five mortality and numerous socioeconomic, development and environmental health factors have been explored at the national and state levels, but the possible spatial heterogeneity in these relationships has seldom been investigated at the district level. This study seeks to unravel local variation in key determinants of under-five mortality based on the 1991 and 2011 censuses...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Rachel Beard, Elizabeth Wentz, Matthew Scotch
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases account for a substantial portion of infectious disease outbreaks and burden on public health programs to maintain surveillance and preventative measures. Taking advantage of new modeling approaches and data sources have become necessary in an interconnected global community. To facilitate data collection, analysis, and decision-making, the number of spatial decision support systems reported in the last 10 years has increased. This systematic review aims to describe characteristics of spatial decision support systems developed to assist public health officials in the management of zoonotic disease outbreaks...
October 30, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Bradley H Wagenaar, Orvalho Augusto, Kristjana Ásbjörnsdóttir, Adam Akullian, Nelia Manaca, Falume Chale, Alberto Muanido, Alfredo Covele, Cathy Michel, Sarah Gimbel, Tyler Radford, Blake Girardot, Kenneth Sherr
BACKGROUND: Lack of accurate data on the distribution of sub-national populations in low- and middle-income countries impairs planning, monitoring, and evaluation of interventions. Novel, low-cost methods to develop unbiased survey sampling frames at sub-national, sub-provincial, and even sub-district levels are urgently needed. This article details our experience using remote satellite imagery to develop a provincial-level representative community survey sampling frame to evaluate the effects of a 7-year health system intervention in Sofala Province, Mozambique...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Dominique Mathon, Philippe Apparicio, Ugo Lachapelle
BACKGROUND: The geographical accessibility of health services is an important issue especially in developing countries and even more for those sharing a border as for Haiti and the Dominican Republic. During the last 2 decades, numerous studies have explored the potential spatial access to health services within a whole country or metropolitan area. However, the impacts of the border on the access to health resources between two countries have been less explored. The aim of this paper is to measure the impact of the border on the accessibility to health services for Haitian people living close to the Haitian-Dominican border...
October 25, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Yanchao Cheng, Nils Benjamin Tjaden, Anja Jaeschke, Renke Lühken, Ute Ziegler, Stephanie Margarete Thomas, Carl Beierkuhnlein
BACKGROUND: Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, reported in many countries of Africa and Europe, with an increasing spatial distribution and host range. Recent outbreaks leading to regional declines of European common blackbird (Turdus merula) populations and a rising number of human cases emphasize the need for increased awareness and spatial risk assessment. METHODS: Modelling approaches in ecology and epidemiology differ substantially in their algorithms, potentially resulting in diverging model outputs...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Juliano André Boquett, Marcelo Zagonel-Oliveira, Luis Fernando Jobim, Mariana Jobim, Luiz Gonzaga, Maurício Roberto Veronez, Nelson Jurandi Rosa Fagundes, Lavínia Schüler-Faccini
BACKGROUND: HLA genes are the most polymorphic of the human genome and have distinct allelic frequencies in populations of different geographical regions of the world, serving as genetic markers in ancestry studies. In addition, specific HLA alleles may be associated with various autoimmune and infectious diseases. The bone marrow donor registry in Brazil is the third largest in the world, and it counts with genetic typing of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1. Since 1991 Brazil has maintained the DATASUS database, a system fed with epidemiological and health data from compulsory registration throughout the country...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Yan Lin, Neng Wan, Sagert Sheets, Xi Gong, Angela Davies
Two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) methods that account for multiple transportation modes provide more realistic accessibility representation than single-mode methods. However, the use of the impedance coefficient in an impedance function (e.g., Gaussian function) introduces uncertainty to 2SFCA results. This paper proposes an enhancement to the multi-modal 2SFCA methods through incorporating the concept of a spatial access ratio (SPAR) for spatial access measurement. SPAR is the ratio of a given place's access score to the mean of all access scores in the study area...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Caglar Koylu, Selman Delil, Diansheng Guo, Rahmi Nurhan Celik
BACKGROUND: Patient mobility can be defined as a patient's movement or utilization of a health care service located in a place or region other than the patient's place of residence. Mobility provides freedom to patients to obtain health care from providers across regions and even countries. It is essential to monitor patient choices in order to maintain the quality standards and responsiveness of the health system, otherwise, the health system may suffer from geographic disparities in the accessibility to quality and responsive health care...
August 2, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Naci Dilekli, Amanda E Janitz, Janis E Campbell, Kirsten M de Beurs
BACKGROUND: Health data usually has missing or incomplete location information, which impacts the quality of research. Geoimputation methods are used by health professionals to increase the spatial resolution of address information for more accurate analyses. The objective of this study was to evaluate geo-imputation methods with respect to the demographic and spatial characteristics of the data. METHODS: We evaluated four geoimputation methods for increasing spatial resolution of records with known locational information at a coarse level...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Paul Brindley, Anna Jorgensen, Ravi Maheswaran
BACKGROUND: There is a growing recognition of the health benefits of the natural environment. Whilst domestic gardens account for a significant proportion of greenspace in urban areas, few studies, and no population level studies, have investigated their potential health benefits. With gardens offering immediate interaction with nature on our doorsteps, we hypothesise that garden size will affect general health-with smaller domestic gardens associated with poorer health. METHODS: A small area ecological design was undertaken using two separate analyses based on data from the 2001 and 2011 UK census...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
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