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Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

Qianqian Liu, Jialin Jin, Lingyun Shao, Shanshan Weng, Ju Zhou, Feng Li, Wenhong Zhang, Xinhua Weng, Yan Gao
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a rare but severe complication of valve replacement surgery, with an incidence rate of 0.3-1.2% per patient-year. At present, staphylococci are the predominant causative microorganism of PVE. Herein, we report a confirmed case of late PVE in a mechanical aortic valve caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old immunocompetent man with recurrent fever and 5-kg weight loss had a history of having undergone the Bentall procedure due to congenital heart disease...
March 28, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Mucheye Gizachew, Moges Tiruneh, Feleke Moges, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: Maternal rectovaginal colonization with Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus or GBS) is the most common route for the GBS disease in the perinatal period. The knowledge of maternal colonization, antibiotic resistance and serotype profiles is substantially needed to formulate the broad vaccine. However, it has not been estimated in Africa. This meta-analysis was aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of colonization, antibiotic resistance and serotype profiles of GBS reported in Africa...
March 28, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Mary Dias, Juveyriya Saleem
BACKGROUND: This study analyzes colonization of the neonates in a NICU and incidence of these colonized infants developing infections due to the colonizers. METHODS: Over a 12 month period, samples (surface swabs and rectal swabs) were obtained from all the infants admitted to NICU. The samples were cultured and examined for the presence of colonizers and especially for multi-drug resistant organisms. RESULTS: From the total 533 patients, 473 (89%) neonates acquired colonizers and 60 (11%) did not...
March 20, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Edward T Van Matre, Shelby L Evans, Scott W Mueller, Robert MacLaren, Douglas N Fish, Tyree H Kiser
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Newer antifungals may provide similar efficacy with improved safety compared to older more established treatments. This study aimed to compare clinically relevant safety and efficacy outcomes in real world patients treated with isavuconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole. METHODS: This single center retrospective matched cohort study evaluated adults between January 2015 and December 2017...
March 20, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Alfonso Calderón, Camilo Guzmán, Salim Mattar, Virginia Rodríguez, Arles Acosta, Caty Martínez
BACKGROUND: Bats are an important ecological group within ecosystems. The rabies virus is a Lyssavirus, and haematophagous bats are the principal reservoir; however, the virus has also been detected in non-haematophagous bats. The objective was to determine the rabies virus in non-haematophagous bats in the Colombian Caribbean region. METHODS: In 2017, a cross-sectional study was carried out with a base-risk sampling in twelve geographic zones of the Colombian Caribbean area that included the main ecosystems of two departments...
March 19, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong, Dao Huy Manh, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Shusaku Mizukami, Lan Nguyen Weiss, Nguyen Van Thuong, Tran Thi Ngoc Ha, Le Hong Phuc, Tran Van An, Thuan Minh Tieu, Mohamed Gomaa Kamel, Mostafa Ebraheem Morra, Vu Thi Que Huong, Nguyen Tien Huy, Kenji Hirayama
BACKGROUND: Considerable progress has been made in dengue management, however the lack of appropriate predictors of severity has led to huge number of unwanted admissions mostly decided on the grounds of warning signs. Apoptosis related mediators, among others, are known to correlate with severe dengue (SD) although no predictive validity is established. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) with SD, and evaluate its prognostic value in SD prediction at acute phase...
March 13, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales, D Katterine Bonilla-Aldana, Miguel Morales, José A Suárez, Ernesto Martínez-Buitrago
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Sonia Jain, Rukhsana Chowdhury, Mousumi Datta, Goutam Chowdhury, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: To analyze the molecular epidemiology and to compare between the major methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biotypes for association with patient characteristics who had an implant for closed fracture and developed early post-operative wound infections (POWI) in a tertiary care hospital of India. METHODS: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antimicrobial resistance, accessory gene regulator (agr) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types, Paton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, toxin gene profiling, biofilm formation and patient demographics were correlated with MLST clonal complexes (CC)...
February 13, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are among the most important pathogens isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and in hospital acquired infections (HAI). Accurate identification of Bcc is questionable by conventional biochemical methods. Clonal typing of Burkholderia is also limited due to the problem with identification. Phenotypic identification methods such as VITEK2, protein signature identification methods like VITEK MS, Bruker Biotyper, and molecular targets such as 16S rRNA, recA, hisA and rpsU were reported with varying level of discrimination to identify Bcc...
February 4, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh, Sayed Yousef Mojtahedi, Payman Sadeghi, Maryam Ghodsi, Sara Kianfar, Leila Khedmat, Saeedreza Jamali Moghadam Siyahkali, Mohammad Kaji Yazdi, Anahita Izadi
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is a distinguished method to improve the prescription and efficacy of antibiotics. AIM: The efficacy of ASP and conventional methods was compared to measure the effectiveness of meropenem (MPM) and vancomycin (VMN) antibiotics in pediatric patients. DESIGN: In an interventional quasi-experimental study, 135 children admitted in Children's Hospital affiliated to University of Medical Sciences in time periods of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 were assessed...
January 29, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Massa Dit Achille Bonko, Francois Kiemde, Marc Christian Tahita, Palpouguini Lompo, Athanase M Some, Halidou Tinto, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are widely used in endemic areas in order to comply with the recommendation that malaria treatment should only be given after the clinical diagnosis has been confirmed by RDT or microscopy. However, the overestimation of malaria infection with the use of PfHRP2 based RDT, makes the management of febrile illnesses more challenging. This study aimed to assess the effect of the use of malaria RDT on antimicrobial prescription practices. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among febrile children under-5 years of age attending four health facilities and the referral hospital in the Nanoro Health District (Burkina Faso)...
January 28, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Chao Liu, Jun Guo
BACKGROUND: The definition of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp), traditionally regarded as hypermucoviscosity, is controversial. However, data based on both phenotype (hypermucoviscous) and genetic (aerobactin) criteria are limited. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 175 geriatric patients between January 2008 and January 2014. The clinical and molecular data, including antimicrobial susceptibility testing, extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) production, virulence gene, and multilocus sequence typing of the hvKp-group (hypermucoviscosity and aerobactin positive) were compared with those of classic K...
January 21, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Mucheye Gizachew, Moges Tiruneh, Feleke Moges, Mulat Adefris, Zemene Tigabu, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: Maternal Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) colonization rates and its antibiotic resistance patterns provide important information useful in guiding prevention strategies. There is a paucity of evidence about GBS in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine colonization prevalence, associated risk factors, and antibiotics resistance including inducible clindamycin resistance patterns of GBS among Ethiopian pregnant women...
January 19, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Dae-Hyun Ko, Eun Jin Lee, Su-Kyung Lee, Han-Sung Kim, So Youn Shin, Jungwon Hyun, Jae-Seok Kim, Wonkeun Song, Hyun Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a major health issue worldwide. Recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has begun to be used to detect resistance genes of MTB. We aimed to assess the clinical usefulness of Ion S5 NGS TB research panel for detecting MTB resistance in Korean tuberculosis patients. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis with various drug resistance profiles including susceptible strains (N = 36) were isolated from clinical specimens...
January 3, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Mutasim E Ibrahim
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen due to its capabilities for developing mechanisms of resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including carbapenems. This review described the risk factors, antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii from different geographical regions of Saudi Arabia. Several factors including complexity of intensive care unit (ICU) environments, increased numbers of patients with serious diseases, wide spread gastrointestinal colonization and extensive use of antimicrobial drugs led to a wide prevalence of A...
January 3, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Thomas Kerz, Friederike D von Loewenich, Jason Roberts, Axel Neulen, Florian Ringel
BACKGROUND: Standard dosing of meropenem (2 g t.i.d.) produces CSF concentrations of only 1-2 mg/L which is inferior to the clinical breakpoint for most Gram-negative bacteria. There is therefore concern that dosing must be increased in order to achieve therapeutic CSF concentrations for bacteria with susceptibility close to clinical breakpoints. Yet, the effects of high-dose meropenem on CSF concentrations are not well described in literature. We therefore determined meropenem CSF-levels in a patient who was treated with 15 g/day of meropenem...
December 29, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Godday Anebow Lulu, Arunkumar Karunanidhi, Loqman Mohamad Yusof, Yusuf Abba, Fazlin Mohd Fauzi, Fauziah Othman
BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process of the bone following infection with pyogenic organisms like Staphylococcus aureus. Tobramycin (TOB) is a promising aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections, including S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of tobramycin-loaded calcium phosphate beads (CPB) in a rabbit osteomyelitis model. METHODS: Tobramycin (30 mg/mL) was incorporated into CPB by dipping method and the efficacy of TOB-loaded CPB was studied in a rabbit osteomyelitis model...
December 28, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Zhiliang Hu, Xing Weng, Chunhua Xu, Yang Lin, Cong Cheng, Hongxia Wei, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: More than 100 different pathogens can cause encephalitis. Testing of all the neurological pathogens by conventional methods can be difficult. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS) could identify the infectious agents in a target-independent manner. The role of this novel method in clinical diagnostic microbiology still needs to be evaluated. In present study, we used metagenomic NGS to search for an infectious etiology in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient with lethally diffuse brain lesions...
December 26, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Ken-Ichi Okuda, Yutaka Yoshii, Satomi Yamada, Akio Chiba, Ippei Hironaka, Seiji Hori, Katsuhiko Yanaga, Yoshimitsu Mizunoe
BACKGROUND: Catheter-related infection (CRI) is one of the serious challenges in clinical practice. This preliminary clinical study aimed to examine whether next-generation sequencing (NGS) targeting 16S rDNA, which was PCR-amplified directly from the tip of a central venous catheter (CVC), can be used to identify causative pathogens in CRI, compared to the culture method. METHODS: Hospitalized patients, from whom a CVC had just been removed, were prospectively enrolled and divided into the CRI-suspected and routine removal groups...
December 22, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Jun Cheng, Huan Hu, Yue Kang, Weizhi Chen, Wei Fang, Kaijuan Wang, Qian Zhang, Aisi Fu, Shuilian Zhou, Chen Cheng, Qingqing Cao, Feiyan Wang, Shela Lee, Zhou Zhou
BACKGROUND: Pathogens identification is critical for the proper diagnosis and precise treatment of infective endocarditis (IE). Although blood and valve cultures are the gold standard for IE pathogens detection, many cases are culture-negative, especially in patients who had received long-term antibiotic treatment, and precise diagnosis has therefore become a major challenge in the clinic. Metagenomic sequencing can provide both information on the pathogenic strain and the antibiotic susceptibility profile of patient samples without culturing, offering a powerful method to deal with culture-negative cases...
December 20, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
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