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Sports Biomechanics

Lin-Hwa Wang, Kuo-Cheng Lo, Fong-Chin Su
This study determined the effect of skill level (ITN 3 vs. ITN 8) on the tennis serve biomechanics and analysed the impact of forearm fatigue on dominant arm mechanisms between the two groups (expert vs. non-expert tennis players). The motion capture system with 17 reflective markers attached on anatomic landmarks of the participant was used for data collection. A total of 12 expert and 11 non-expert tennis players performed the required serving tasks. The ball speed of the expert group was significantly faster than that of the non-expert group during non-fatigued and fatigued states (p < 0...
February 7, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Tom Outram, Jon Wheat
Analyses of segment kinetic energy (KE) can provide the most appropriate means of exploring sequential movements. As the reliability associated with its measurement has not been reported, the aim of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of segment KE measures in the golf swing. On two occasions, seven male golfers hit five shots with three different clubs. Body segment inertia parameters were estimated for 17 rigid bodies and 3D kinematic data were collected during each swing. The magnitude and timing of peak total, linear and angular kinetic energies were then calculated for each rigid body and for four segment groups...
February 1, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Matthew J Solomito, Erin J Garibay, Elan Golan, Carl W Nissen
The association between breaking pitches and elbow injury remains nebulous. Biomechanical studies have shown that throwing a fastball rather than a curveball results in greater elbow moments, despite some epidemiological studies and pitcher self-report indicating the opposite. This leads to the following question: Are biomechanical studies missing something that could explain this discrepancy? This study evaluated the association between elbow kinematics of baseball pitchers during the deceleration phase of the pitch and the elbow varus moment...
February 1, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Jessica Aquino, Tal Amasay, Sue Shapiro, Yi-Tzu Kuo, Jatin P Ambegaonkar
The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity (LE) biomechanics and muscle activity between 'new' and 'dead' pointe shoes in professional female ballet dancers performing relevé and arabesque. We compared sway area, peak ankle moments, and tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscle activation amplitudes. Nine ballet dancers participated (age = 22.2 ± 2.2 years, height = 163.2 ± 6.3 cm, body mass = 50.8 ± 6.5 kg) executed three trials of relevé and arabesque on pointe shoes under two conditions: 'dead' (108-144 training hours) and 'new' (3-36 training hours)...
January 31, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Sara Garner, Jason Wicke, Samantha Legreaux, Ben Chianchiano
This study examined the effects of deceleration-focused exercises on shoulder range of motion and throwing velocity in both softball and baseball players. Volunteers included 28 Division III William Paterson University baseball and softball athletes (18 females and 10 males), who were evenly distributed across two groups both undertaking 14 sessions of either resistance band or handheld medicine ball exercises (band vs. ball group). A pre-test and post-test measured participants' best active internal/external shoulder rotation and best throwing velocity at a target 40 ft away...
January 31, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Anna C Severin, Sally G Barnes, Stewart A Tackett, C Lowry Barnes, Erin M Mannen
The increasing interest in the biomechanical analysis of the golf swing warrants establishing the minimum number of trials required to obtain reliable data. Several such methods have been suggested previously for other movement tasks, and it has been shown that the number of required trials depends on the method used and on the task examined. This study aimed to compare three methods of reliability: a sequential average, intraclass correlations, and a modified version of the standard error of measurement (SEMind )...
January 30, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Emily Nicol, Kevin Ball, Elaine Tor
The swimming turn significantly contributes to overall race performance. Whilst the importance of the turn is well established within the literature, the biomechanical parameters that are most important to turn performance remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the key biomechanical parameters that influence freestyle and butterfly turn time within an elite population. An elite population was defined to include athletes who had represented Australia at a minimum of one international competition...
January 29, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Norio Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Nunome, Takamasa Mizuno, Koichiro Inoue, Kazuhiro Matsui, Ryo Matsugi, Yasuo Ikegami
This study aimed to identify the primary factors that induce rearfoot external eversion moments due to ground reaction force (GRF) in non-rearfoot strikers. The data were compared with those of rearfoot strikers. Totally, 11 healthy males who were habitually non-rearfoot strikers ran barefoot. Rearfoot external eversion/inversion moments due to GRF (Mtot) were decomposed into two components based on mediolateral (Mxy) and vertical (Mz) GRFs. The height of the ankle joint centre and the mediolateral distance from the centre of pressure (COP) to the ankle joint centre (a_cop) were calculated as the lever arms to the Mxy and Mz components...
January 29, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Yuji Ohshima, Neil E Bezodis, Ryu Nagahara
We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a new method to calculate the centre of pressure (COP) on a starting block above a force platform, and to examine how this method affected lower extremity joint torques during the block clearance phase compared against a previously used method which projects the COP from the metatarsophalangeal (MP) joint. To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, one experimenter applied force at 18 known locations on a starting block (under six block position and orientation conditions), during which ground reaction force was recorded underneath using a force platform...
January 29, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Ana Paula Silva Azevedo, Katia Brandina, Juliana Pennone, Alberto Carlos Amadio, Júlio Cerca Serrão
Perception of external loads may be a central topic to understand adjustments to the mechanical demands during movement. Nevertheless, the association between the perceived and the real load received is still controversial. This study aimed to correlate vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) to the perception of impact in different regimens of stimulus application. Ten physically active men performed drop jumps from four different heights (0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80 m). A force plate measured the vGRF, while perception of impact was evaluated through Borg's Ratings of Perceived Exertion...
January 29, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
François Tubez, Cédric Schwartz, Jean-Louis Croisier, Olivier Brüls, Vincent Denoël, Julien Paulus, Bénédicte Forthomme
The trophy position is a coaching cue for the tennis serve that usually corresponds to the racquet high point (RHP) during the preparatory action for the stroke. Mastering this position and its time of occurrence seems essential in overarm movements like in the tennis serve. Clinicians and coaches have a real interest in understanding the trophy position and its evolution during the development of the elite players at different ages. A 3D motion system was used to measure the kinematics of the serve. A group of high-level tennis players were selected for three different age groups: 8 adults (ITN 1), 8 teenagers (ITN 3) and 8 children (ITN 5-6)...
January 28, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Geoffrey Millour, Sebastien Duc, Frederic Puel, William Bertucci
Methods based on inseam length (IL) for saddle height adjustment in cycling are frequently employed. However, these methods were designed for medium-sized people. The aim of this study was to evaluate knee angle during pedalling by 2D video analysis and perceived comfort using a subjective scale under three saddle height conditions: (1) self-selected saddle height, (2) Genzling method (0.885 × IL) and (3) Hamley method (1.09 × IL minus crank arm length). Twenty-six cyclists of heterogeneous morphology were recruited...
January 28, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Mikko Virmavirta, Juha Kivekäs
In ski jumping low body weight development resulted in some serious underweight problems and therefore the International Ski Federation (FIS) decided to solve the problem by relating maximum ski length to Body Mass Index (BMI) in 2004. The present study examined the current relationship between body weight, ski length and performance (jumping distance) in ski jumping. By adopting the BMI regulation to specifications for competition equipment, the FIS succeeded in stopping the alarming development of underweight problems in ski jumping...
January 28, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Thomas Provot, Xavier Chiementin, Fabrice Bolaers, Marcela Munera
Defining relationships between running mechanisms and fatigue can be a major asset for optimising training. This article proposes a biomechanical model of time to exhaustion according to indicators derived from accelerometry data collected from the body. Ten volunteers were recruited for this study. The participants were equipped with 3 accelerometers: on the right foot, at the tibia and at the L4-L5 lumbar spine. A running test was performed on a treadmill at 13.5 km/h until exhaustion. Thirty-one variables were deployed during the test...
January 25, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Ryu Nagahara, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akifumi Matsuo, Tetsuo Fukunaga
This study aimed to elucidate whether the peak (maximum) ground reaction force (GRF) can be used as an indicator of better sprint acceleration performance. Eighteen male sprinters performed 60-m maximal effort sprints, during which GRF for a 50-m distance was collected using a long force platform system. Then, step-to-step relationships of running acceleration with mean and peak GRFs were examined. In the anteroposterior direction, while the mean propulsive force was correlated with acceleration during the initial acceleration phase (to the 5th step) (r = 0...
January 24, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Guy Gregory Haff, Amador García-Ramos
This study aimed to compare the between-session reliability of three typically measured velocity variables (mean velocity [MV], mean propulsive velocity [MPV], and maximum velocity [Vmax]) to assess vertical jump performance. Totally, 23 men had their squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tested against five different loading conditions (17, 30, 45, 60 and 75 kg) during two consecutive weeks. The two sessions of each jump type were performed within the same week separated by 48-72 h. The main finding was a significant difference in reliability between the variables, which were ranked from the highest to the lowest reliable as follows (median coefficient of variation [CV] and range): Vmax (CV = 2...
January 15, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2019: Sports Biomechanics
Emma L Millett, Mark P Moresi, Mark L Watsford, Paul G Taylor, David A Greene
The present study aimed to assess the differences in leg stiffness and the associated performance variables between athletes from various training backgrounds during tasks relevant to athletic training. Forty-seven female participants (20 nationally identified netballers, 13 high-level endurance athletes and 14 age-matched controls) completed a sprint, anticipated sidestep change of direction and unilateral repetitive hopping task to assess leg stiffness and the relationship of stiffness between the different tasks...
December 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Slobodan Jaric
This study aimed to compare the reliability and validity of the force-velocity (F-V) relationship parameters obtained from two-point methods differing in the distance between experimental points, and to evaluate the acute change in unloaded jump height after a vertical jump testing procedure based on multiple loads. Totally, 18 men randomly performed two sessions of the squat jump (SJ) and two sessions of the countermovement jump (CMJ) exercises against five external loads (17, 30, 45, 60 and 75 kg). The unloaded jump height was evaluated before and after each testing procedure...
December 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Eliza M Keaney, Machar Reid
The non-invasive measurement of movement through sensor technologies is common in elite sport, yet only recently become possible in tennis. This study validated two commercial tennis racquet sensors compared to gold standards in VICON and expert notational analysis. One national-level male tennis player hit 24 shots (9 forehands and 9 backhands, hit with heavy topspin, flat and slice; 6 serves) using a Babolat Play racket with a Zepp sensor. Measures of shot type, impact location and racket speed were compared against those captured by a 500-Hz 12 camera VICON system...
December 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
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