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African Health Sciences

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766597/interface-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-infections-in-africa
#1
EDITORIAL
James K Tumwine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766596/inhibition-of-cell-proliferation-migration-and-colony-formation-of-ls174t-cells-by-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitor
#2
Fuat Karakuş, Ergül Eyol, Kadir Yılmaz, Songül Ünüvar
Background: Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Migration of tumor cells is an important stage in metastasis. Therefore, recent studies have focused on clarifying migration and migration-dependent cell functions such as angiogenesis, wound healing, and invasion. Objectives: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of acetazolamide, which is a classical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, on the cell viability, migration, and colony forming capacity of human LS174T colorectal cancer cells...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766595/the-immunomodulatory-peptide-bursopentin-bp5-enhances-proliferation-and-induces-sigm-expression-in-dt40-cells
#3
Xiang-Bo Ji, Jun Luo, Xiu-Li Feng, Qiu-Liang Xu, Teng Man, Dong Zhao, Xin-Feng Li, Gai-Ping Zhang, Pu-Yan Chen
Background: In the recent past, many studies have been focused on extracts of BF and multiple biologically active factors and their effects on humoral immune system in chickens and birds. However, the mechanism of those immunomodulatory peptides on the B lineage cells proliferation and antibody production in chicken is fairly unknown. DT40 cell line, an avian leucosis virus-induced chicken pre-B cell line, expresses immunoglobulin M (IgM) isotype B cell reporter in the plasma membrane...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766594/dose-related-effects-of-oral-clonidine-pre-medication-on-bupivacaine-spinal-anaesthesia
#4
M B Adegboye, I K Kolawole, B O Bolaji
Introduction: The duration of action of sub-arachnoid block is short, and one of the ways to overcome this is the use of oral clonidine. Methods: 108 patients of ASA I and II, aged 18 to 65 years undergoing lower abdominal surgeries under spinal anaesthesia were randomized into three groups.. Control group A (n=36) no oral clonidine pre-medication, Group B (n=36) and group C (n=36) received 100 µg and 200 µg of oral clonidine pre-medication respectively, 1hr before spinal anaesthesia...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766593/a-comparison-of-risk-of-hypotension-using-standard-doses-of-remifentanil-versus-dexmedetomidine-infusions-in-adult-patients-undergoing-surgery-under-general-anaesthesia-at-the-aga-khan-university-hospital-nairobi
#5
Maxine Onyango Okello, Vitalis Mung'ayi, Rodney Adam, Jimmie Kabugi
Background: Remifentanil and dexmedetomidine are common agents used in general anaesthesia, monitored anaesthesia care and critical care. When combined with inhaled or intravenous anaesthetic agents intra-operatively, they provide analgesia, lower general anaesthetic requirements and provide sedation and analgesia in the peri-operative period if indicated. Pharmacodynamically, they cause hypotension and bradycardia which are reversible if well managed. Past studies of these drugs have shown a significant proportion of patients with hypotension when compared with similar agents or in isolation...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766592/women-s-attitude-and-reasons-toward-justifying-domestic-violence-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Yonas Deressa Guracho, Berhanu Boru Bifftu
Background: Domestic violence (DV) is a global public problem that touches all levels of society and socio-economic status. Identifying women's attitudes towards domestic violence is an important first step in the prevention and control of its consequence. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed: (i) to synthesize women's reasons for justifying domestic violence and (ii) to determine the pooled prevalence of women's attitude towards domestic violence in Ethiopia. Methods: Pub-Med and google scholar data bases searched for quantitative cross-sectional studies...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766591/geophagia-nutrition-and-health-of-women-with-pregnancy-induced-hypertension
#7
Deborah Sakua Sackey, Christopher Larbie, Faustina O Mensah
Background: Calcium is a major nutrient implicated in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Aside dietary sources, geophagia has been reported to provide calcium needed to prevent PIH. These soils are shown to contain significant amount of heavy metals which have been associated with hypertension. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between geophagia and PIH, assess the dietary intakes and health of participants. Methods: This study was a case-control involving 30 women with PIH and 70 normotensive pregnant women...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766590/exercise-capacity-and-muscle-fatiguability-alterations-following-a-progressive-maximal-exercise-of-lower-extremities-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Walid K Abdelbasset, Gaber S Soliman, Ahmed A Elshehawy, Saud M Alrawaili
Background: Impairment of peripheral skeletal muscle function is a common phenomenon in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in addition to great clinical connotations, such as lack of exercise tolerance and decrease of health-related quality of life. There is very limited data on the effects of maximal exercise on muscle fatiguability and exercise capacity in children with cystic fibrosis. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of progressive maximal exercise training of the lower extremities on exercise capacity and muscle fatiguability in children with cystic fibrosis...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766589/levels-of-heavy-metals-in-urine-samples-of-school-children-from-selected-industrial-and-non-industrial-areas-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#9
John Am Mahugija, Zainab S Kasenya, Kessy F Kilulya
Objectives: The levels of lead, zinc, iron, copper and cadmium metals in the urine samples of selected school children in industrial and non-industrial areas in Dar es Salaam were investigated. Methods: Urine samples were collected from 120 children in industrial areas and 120 children in non-industrial areas then digested in concentrated acids and analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: The concentrations of the heavy metals in the urine samples ranged from below detection limit/non-detectable (ND) to 1...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766588/predictor-variables-for-post-discharge-mortality-modelling-in-infants-a-protocol-development-project
#10
Brooklyn R Nemetchek, Li Danny Liang, Niranjan Kissoon, J Mark Ansermino, Jerome Kabakyenga, Pascal M Lavoie, Susan Fowler-Kerry, Matthew O Wiens
Background: Over two-thirds of the five million annual deaths in children under five occur in infants, mostly in developing countries and many after hospital discharge. However, there is a lack of understanding of which children are at higher risk based on early clinical predictors. Early identification of vulnerable infants at high-risk for death post-discharge is important in order to craft interventional programs. Objectives: To determine potential predictor variables for post-discharge mortality in infants less than one year of age who are likely to die after discharge from health facilities in the developing world...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766587/low-birth-weight-and-associated-factors-among-singleton-neonates-born-at-felege-hiwot-referral-hospital-north-west-ethiopia
#11
Teje Adane, Berihun Assefa Dachew
Background: Low birth weight is one of the public health problems in the globe and it is an indicator of the health of the newborn survival and the mother's nutrition and health status. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of low birth weight and its associated factors among mothers who gave birth at Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot referral hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional facility based study was conducted from March 18 to May 18 / 2015. A total of 662 mothers were included in the study...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766586/tunisian-antibiotic-resistance-problems-three-contexts-but-one-health
#12
Wejdene Mansour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766585/evaluation-of-antibiotic-prescriptions-and-use-in-under-five-children-in-ibadan-southwestern-nigeria
#13
Rasaq Adisa, Ochuko M Orherhe, Titilayo O Fakeye
Background: Irrational antibiotic prescriptions for children is a global concern requiring periodic evaluation and monitoring. Objectives: To assess appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for under-five children, as well as evaluating mothers' usage of antibiotics for their under-five and reason(s) for use. Method: Cross-sectional review of out-patient case-notes of under-five using principles of antibiotic prescribing and a questionnaire-guided interaction with under-five mothers...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766584/resistance-status-to-deltamethrin-pyrethroid-of-culex-pipiens-pipiens-diptera-culicidae-collected-from-three-districts-of-tunisia
#14
Ahmed Tabbabi, Jabeur Daaboub, Raja Ben Cheikh, Ali Laamari, Mohamed Feriani, Chokri Boubaker, Ibtissem Ben Jha, Hassen Ben Cheikh
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the susceptibility status of Culex pipiens pipiens populations against deltamehtrin insecticide. Methods: Larvae of Culex pipiens pipiens were collected from three breeding places in Northern and Southern Tunisia between 2003 and 2005. Early third and late fourth instars were tested against deltamethrin pyrethroid insecticide. Cross-resistance with DDT resistance was evaluated in studied samples to estimate the role of target site insensitivity and two synergists including piperonyl butoxide (Pb) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) were used to estimate the role of detoxification enzymes...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766583/resistance-development-and-insecticide-susceptibility-in-culex-pipiens-pipiens-an-important-vector-of-human-diseases-against-selection-pressure-of-temephos-and-its-relationship-to-cross-resistance-towards-organophosphates-and-pyrethroids-insecticides
#15
Ahmed Tabbabi, Ali Laamari, Raja Ben Cheikh, Ibtissem Ben Jha, Jabeur Daaboub, Hassen Ben Cheikh
Background: Culex pipiens pipiens is an important vector of human diseases. Objective: To determine the insecticide resistance development in Culex pipiens pipiens against selection pressure of temephos.. Methods: A field population of Culex pipiens pipiens was collected from Northwestern Tunisia with a medium level of temephos resistance (LC50 = 0.0069). It was subjected to six generations of temephos pressure selection to evaluate its relationship to cross-resistance towards organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids (PYR) insecticides...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766582/relationship-between-sap-prevalence-and-biofilm-formation-among-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-candida-albicans
#16
Ashraf A Kadry, Amira M El-Ganiny, Ahmed M El-Baz
Background: Fungal infections represent a serious health problem especially in immunocompromised individuals. Candida albicans is the most common fungi that cause superficial and systemic infections with high mortality rates. Anti-fungal resistance of C. albicans may be attributed to its virulence. Biofilm formation and proteolytic activity are major virulence determents that may influence both pathogenicity and anti-fungal resistance of Candida albicans . Objective: This work studied the relation between biofilm formation, proteolytic activity and prevalence of some Sap genes with reduced susceptibility of C...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766581/interferon-%C3%AE-receptor-1-gene-promoter-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-for-brucellosis-in-makkah-region
#17
A B Ismael, A Mergani, A Salim, S Mostafa, I Alkafaween
Background: Genetic polymorphisms that affect the production levels of certain cytokines and/or their receptors may determine the risk, severity or protection in some infectious diseases like brucellosis. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of certain known Interferon-γ Receptor-1 (IFN-γ R1) gene promoter polymorphisms and the susceptibility to infection with Brucellosis in Saudi population. Methods: A cases-control association study was conducted in 69 individuals with human brucellosis and 94 healthy individuals...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766580/integrated-approach-to-malaria-prevention-at-household-level-in-rural-communities-in-wakiso-district-uganda-impact-evaluation-of-a-pilot-project
#18
David Musoke, George Karani, Keith Morris, Rawlance Ndejjo, Edwinah Atusingwize, David Guwatudde, Miph Boses Musoke
Background: The integrated approach to malaria prevention, which advocates for the use of several malaria prevention methods at households, is being explored to complement other existing strategies. We implemented a pilot project that promoted the integrated approach to malaria prevention in two rural communities in Wakiso district, Uganda. Objectives: This paper presents the impact evaluation findings of the project carried out 2 years after implementation with a focus on changes in knowledge and practices on malaria prevention...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766579/influenza-virus-a-h1-and-h3-and-b-co-circulation-among-patient-presenting-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infection-in-ibadan-nigeria
#19
Frederick Odun-Ayo, Georgina Odaibo, David Olaleye
Background: Influenza is an acute respiratory disease that continues to cause global epidemics and pandemics in human with significant mortality and morbidity. Objectives: This study was designed to identify the circulating influenza virus in Ibadan, Nigeria during the 2006/2007 season. Methods: Throat swab samples were collected from patients presenting with acute respiratory tract infection at the Out-Patient Departments of major hospitals in Ibadan over a period of seven months from November 2006 to May 2007...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766578/genetic-diversity-of-hepatitis-b-co-infection-with-hepatitis-c-d-and-e-viruses-among-malaysian-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#20
Shuaibu Abdullahi Hudu, Mohd Taib Niazlin, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Soek Siam Tan, Haniza Omar, Hamiza Shahar, Noor Aliza Mutalib, Zamberi Sekawi
Background: Hepatitis B virus co-infection with other strains of viral hepatitis is associated with increased risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation. Objectives: This is a prevalence study that assessed the genetic diversity of chronic hepatitis B patients and coinfection. Methods: Chronic hepatitis B patients enrolled in this study were tested for antibodies of other hepatitis viruses using ELISA kits. Patient clinical profiles were collected and partial genes of HBV, HCV, and HEV were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed using phylogenetic analysis...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
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