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Plant Biology

Bruno G Ferreira, Mariana S C Freitas, Gracielle P Bragança, Ana S F P Moreira, Renê G S Carneiro, Rosy M S Isaias
(1) The galls induced by Ditylenchus gallaeformans (Nematoda) on leaves of Miconia albicans have unique features when compared to other galls. The nematode colonies are surrounded by nutritive tissues with promeristematic cells, capable of originating new emergences facing the larval chamber, and providing indeterminate growth to these galls. Considering enzyme activity as essential for the translocation of energetic molecules from the common storage tissue (CST) to the typical nutritive tissue (TNT), and the major occurrence of carbohydrates in nematode galls, it was expected that hormones mediate sink-strength relationships by activating enzymes in indeterminate-growth regions of the galls...
May 18, 2019: Plant Biology
Ye Zhang, Suhua Shi, Fengli Li, Chuanzhi Zhao, Aiqin Li, Lei Hou, Han Xia, Baoshan Wang, Javier Lopez Baltazar, Xingjun Wang, Shuzhen Zhao
Thellungiella salsuginea is highly tolerant to abiotic stresses, while its close relative Arabidopsis thaliana is sensitive to stresses. The characteristic makes T. salsuginea as an excellent model for uncovering the mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays essential roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. To test the changes of gene expression of T. salsuginea under ABA-treatment, in this study, the transcriptomes of T. salsuginea roots and leaves were compared in response to exogenously application of ABA...
May 13, 2019: Plant Biology
Markus Müller, Oliver Gailing
Fagaceae can be found in tropical and temperate regions and contain species of major ecological and economical importance. In times of global climate change, tree populations need to adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions. The predicted warmer and drier conditions are potentially resulting in locally maladapted populations. There is evidence, that major genera of the Fagaceae are already negatively affected by climate change-related factors such as drought and associated biotic stressors. Therefore, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying adaptation is of great interest...
May 13, 2019: Plant Biology
Cecilia Primo, Gaston A Pizzio, Jian Yang, Roberto A Gaxiola, Joachim Scholz-Starke, Kendal D Hirschi
Cellular pyrophosphate (PPi) homeostasis is vital for normal plant growth and development. Plant proton-pumping pyrophosphatases (H+ -PPases) are enzymes with different tissue-specific functions related to the regulation of PPi homeostasis. Enhanced expression of plant H+ -PPases increases biomass and yield in different crop species. Here, we emphasize emerging studies utilizing heterologous expression in yeast and plant vacuole electrophysiology approaches, as well as phylogenetic relationships and structural analysis, to showcase that the H+ -PPases possess a PPi synthesis function...
May 12, 2019: Plant Biology
Leran Wang, Xiaoni Yang, Yinsi Gao, Xinyue Zhang, Wei Hu, Zhiguo Zhou, Yali Meng
The dormancy of upland cottonseed can be broken during dry after-ripening, but the mechanism of its dormancy release remains unclear. Freshly harvested cottonseeds were subjected to after-ripening for 180 days. Cottonseeds at different days of after-ripening (DAR) were sampled for dynamic physiological determination and germination test. The intact seeds and isolated embryos were germinated contrastively for assessing the effects of seed coat on embryo germination. Contents of H2 O2 and phytohormones and the activities of antioxidases and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were measured during after-ripening and germination...
May 11, 2019: Plant Biology
Claudia Giuliani, Lorenzo Lastrucci, Leonardo Cresti, Giacomo Santini, Bruno Foggi, Marta Mariotti Lippi
RESEARCH AND METHODS APPLIED: Reynoutria x bohemica is an invasive species, causing significant damages to native ecosystems in North America and Europe. In this work, we performed an in-depth micromorphological characterization of the extrafloral nectaries (EFN), during their secretory and post-secretory phases, in combination with field monitoring on their activity over time and the qualitative pool of insect visitors. KEY RESULTS: EFN consist of secretory trichomes and vascularized parenchyma...
May 7, 2019: Plant Biology
Bi-Cheng Dong, Jiao Meng, Fei-Hai Yu
● Environments experienced by parent ramets of clonal plants can potentially influence fitness of clonal offspring ramets. Such clonal parental effects may result from heritable epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, which can be removed by application of DNA de-methylation agents such as 5-azacytidine. ● To test whether parental shading effects occur via clonal generation and whether DNA methylation plays a role in such effects, parent plants of the clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were first subjected to two levels of light intensity (high vs...
May 4, 2019: Plant Biology
Yun Wu, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Qing-Jun Li
1.The trait-fitness relationship influences the strength and direction of floral evolution. To fully understand and predict the evolutionary trajectories of floral traits, it is critical to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of floral traits on plant fitness in natural populations. 2. In the present study, we experimentally quantified phenotypic selection on floral traits through female fitness and estimated the casual effects of nectar robbing with different nectar robbing intensities on trait-fitness relationships in both the L- (long-style and short-anther phenotype) and S-morph (short-style and long-anther phenotype) flowers among Primula secundiflora populations...
May 3, 2019: Plant Biology
Teresa Quijano-Medina, Felisa Covelo, Xoaquín Moreira, Luis Abdala-Roberts
Identifying the mechanisms of compensation to insect herbivory remains a major challenge in plant biology and evolutionary ecology. Most previous studies have addressed plant compensatory responses to one or two levels of insect herbivory, and the underlying traits mediating such responses remain elusive in many cases. We evaluated responses associated with compensation to multiple intensities of leaf damage (0% control, and 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% of leaf area removed) by means of mechanical removal of foliar tissue and the application of caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua) oral secretions in three month-old wild cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)...
May 3, 2019: Plant Biology
Bingde Wu, Shu Wang, Mei Wei, Jiawei Zhou, Kun Jiang, Daoli Du, Congyan Wang
Soil N2 -fixing bacterial communities (SNB) can enhance soil N availability and the invasiveness of invaders. Some invaders can display different invasion degrees across different climatic regions. Given that bacterial communities may change with different climatic regions, it is important to understand the soil micro-ecological mechanisms driving the successful invasion of invaders across different climatic regions. This study performed cross-site comparisons to comprehensively analyze the effects of invasive tree staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina L...
May 3, 2019: Plant Biology
Mehreen Gul, Abdul Wakeel, Diedrich Steffens, Sylvia Lindberg
Accumulation of NaCl in soil causes osmotic stress in plants, and sodium (Na+ ) and chloride (Cl- ) cause ion toxicity, but also reduces the potassium (K+ ) uptake by plant roots and stimulates the K+ efflux through the cell membrane. Thus, decreased K+ /Na+ ratio in plant tissue leaded to hypothesize that elevated level of K+ in nutrient medium enhances this ratio in plant tissue and cytosol to improve enzyme activation, osmoregulation and charge balance. In this study, the wheat was cultivated at different concentrations of K+ (2...
April 29, 2019: Plant Biology
Giuseppe Chichiriccò, Ettore Pacini, Barbara Lanza
The composition of pollenkitt and its role in the progamic phase of reproduction are little known. With the aim of extending knowledge on these topics, we chose for the study two monocotyledons rich in pollenkitt, with bicelled and long-lived pollen and dry type stigma, Crocus vernus Hill ssp. vernus and Narcissus poeticus L. Fatty acids of pollenkitt were assayed with a gas chromatography system. Germination tests were performed in vivo by pollinating the stigmas with a beard hair under a stereomicroscope, and in vitro in liquid culture medium, using pollen either treated or not with carbon disulfide to remove pollenkitt...
April 29, 2019: Plant Biology
Caixia Sun, Liying Hao, Dan Wang, Chenchen Li, Chunyan Zhang, Xing Chen, Junming Fu, Yulan Zhang
Biochar (BC) application could improve plant nitrogen (N) utilization and potentially reduce N fertilizer requirements. However, the fate of N in crop-soil systems and the metabolic responses of crops under the condition of BC coapplied with reduced N are not well understood. The urea-15 N isotope and pot experiments with three BC rates (0%, 5% and 15%; w/w) combined with three N fertilizer levels (100%-N, 85%-N and 55%-N) were conducted for maize. The metabolome, 15 N abundance and gene expression in plants were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance, gas isotope mass and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, respectively...
April 19, 2019: Plant Biology
Belén Moncalvillo, Marcos Méndez, José Maria Iriondo
Crop wild relatives can be a useful source of genotypes that maximize crop survival and yield in specific habitats. Lupinus angustifolius is an annual forb with crop varieties derived from a narrow genetic basis but that are cultivated worldwide. Its seeds have a high nutritional value, but they naturally contain alkaloids with anti-nutritive factors. The study of its wild populations can be useful to find genotypes that contribute to higher climate resilience and greater yield under stressing environmental conditions...
April 13, 2019: Plant Biology
Tong Si, Xiao Wang, Mei Huang, Jian Cai, Qin Zhou, Tingbo Dai, Dong Jiang
Chilling and lodging are major threats to wheat production. However, strategies that can be used to effectively mitigate the adverse effects of these threats are still far from clear. Mechanical wounding is one of the traditional agronomic measures whereas information about the role it plays in wheat chilling and lodging is scanty. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective roles of mechanical wounding in alleviating the damages from chilling at jointing stage and enhancing the lodging resistance after anthesis of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
April 12, 2019: Plant Biology
Sabine Tausz-Posch, Michael Tausz, Maryse Bourgault
Future rapid increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2 ] are expected, with values likely to reach ~550 ppm by mid-century. This implies that every terrestrial plant will be exposed to nearly 40% more of one of the key resources determining plant growth. In this review we highlight selected areas of plant interactions with elevated [CO2 ] (e[CO2 ]), where recently published experiments challenge long-held, simplified views. Focusing on crops, especially in more extreme and variable growing conditions, we highlight uncertainties associated with four specific areas: (1) While it is long known that photosynthesis can acclimate to e[CO2 ], such acclimation is not consistently observed in field experiments...
April 4, 2019: Plant Biology
Michele Lussu, Antonio De Agostini, Annalena Cogoni, Michela Marignani, Pierluigi Cortis
Lock and key hypothesis assumes that male and female genitalia match in a unique system to prevent interspecific crosses. This hypothesis is largely investigated in animals, while there is a distinct lack of studies on plants. Nevertheless, we expect the lock and key hypothesis could be apply to plants with complex floral morphologies such as orchids. Here we apply a comparative approach to examine the variation of floral functional traits in food and sex deceptive orchids. To understand if a specific deceptive strategy is related with a specific variance of floral traits...
April 3, 2019: Plant Biology
Jieting Wu, Li Wang, Fang Ma, Lei Zhao, Xiaochen Huang
Heavy metal allocation and the mechanism(s) of metal sequestration in different clonal organs, micro-domains and subcellular structures has not been systematically studied for rhizomatous perennial plants. It is thus pertinent to investigate the knowledge of the speciation and distribution characteristics of Cu in Phragmites australis to elucidating the mobility of metals in wetland plant after their uptake via root systems so as to facilitate the development of strategies to enhance Cu tolerance. -This study investigated the distributions of Cu in Phragmites australis root, stem and leaf using ICP-MS, synchrotron-based X-ray micro-fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, then evaluated the effects of Cu on cellular structure and ultrastructure via transmission electron microscope...
March 31, 2019: Plant Biology
H C Park, J E Hwang, Y Jiang, Y J Kim, S H Kim, X C Nguyen, C Y Kim, W S Chung
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals and a non-essential element to all organisms, including plants; however, the genes involved in Cd resistance in plants remain poorly characterized. To identify Cd resistance genes in rice, we screened a rice cDNA expression library treated with CdCl2 using a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant ycf1 strain (DTY167) and isolated two rice phytochelatin synthases (OsPCS5 and OsPCS15). The genes were strongly induced by Cd treatment and conferred increased resistance to Cd when expressed in the ycf1 mutant strain...
March 31, 2019: Plant Biology
M Y B Mizushima, B G Ferreira, M G C França, A-A F Almeida, P A Cortez, J V S Silva, R M Jesus, M N V Prasad, P A O Mangabeira
Environmental cadmium (Cd) sources have increased in mangrove sediments in recent decades, inducing cellular damages in plants. Avicennia schaueriana is abundant in mangrove sites and are subjected to Cd contamination. The possible effects of Cd toxicity and the structural and physiological disturbances to this constraint were studied. Can this plant express early cellular tolerance mechanisms to such metal? Seedlings of A. schaueriana were collected from sites of their natural occurrence, placed in plastic pots containing nutrient solution for sixty days, and subsequently exposed to increasing Cd concentrations for 5 days in experimental conditions...
March 30, 2019: Plant Biology
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