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Molecular Cancer

Yoko Tsukita, Naoya Fujino, Eisaku Miyauchi, Ryoko Saito, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Koji Itakura, Yorihiko Kyogoku, Koji Okutomo, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Tatsuma Okazaki, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Akira Inoue, Yoshinori Okada, Masakazu Ichinose
Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is involved in the growth and metastasis and is an indicator of poor prognosis in several cancers including lung cancers. Although a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program are critical, molecular mechanisms underlying the Axl-driven cancer progression have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to identify molecules up-regulated by Axl kinase in lung adenocarcinomas. Through the global gene expression analysis and the functional annotation clustering, we found that AXL expression positively correlated with mRNA expressions of immune checkpoint molecules and chemokine receptors in non-small-cell lung cancers...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Hailin Tang, Xiaojia Huang, Jin Wang, Lu Yang, Yanan Kong, Guanfeng Gao, Lijuan Zhang, Zhe-Sheng Chen, Xiaoming Xie
BACKGROUND: Increasing studies has found that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play vital roles in cancer progression. But the expression profile and function of circRNAs in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are unclear. METHODS: We used a circRNA microarray to explore the circRNA expression profile of TNBC. The expression of the top upregulated circRNA, circKIF4A, was confirmed by qRT-PCR in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted to analyze the clinical impact of circKIF4A on TNBC...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Wei Li, Liyuan Zhang, Binbin Guo, Jieqiong Deng, Siqi Wu, Fang Li, Yirong Wang, Jiachun Lu, Yifeng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Though esophageal cancer is three to four times more common among males than females worldwide, this type of cancer still ranks in the top incidence among women, even more than the female specific cancer types. The occurrence is currently attributed to extrinsic factors, including tobacco use and alcohol consumption. However, limited attention has been given to gender-specific intrinsic genetic factors, especially in female. METHODS: We re-annotated a large cohort of microarrays on 179 ESCC patients and identified female-specific differently expressed lncRNAs...
February 8, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Hongqing Zhuang, Siyu Shi, Zhiyong Yuan, Joe Y Chang
Vascular damage is followed by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression at high levels, which is an important mechanism forradiation brain necrosis development. Bevacizumab alleviates brain edema symptoms caused by radiation brain necrosis through inhibiting VEGF and acting on vascular tissue around the brain necrosis area. Many studies have confirmed that bevacizumab effectively relieves symptoms caused by brain necrosis, improves patients' Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores and brain necrosis imaging...
February 7, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Takatoshi Matsuyama, Toshiaki Ishikawa, Naoki Takahashi, Yasuhide Yamada, Masamichi Yasuno, Tatsuyuki Kawano, Hiroyuki Uetake, Ajay Goel
The current histopathological risk-stratification criteria in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients following a curative surgery remain inadequate. In this study, we undertook a systematic, genomewide, biomarker discovery approach to identify and validate key EMT-associated genes that may facilitate recurrence prediction in CRC. Genomewide RNA expression profiling results from two datasets (GSE17538; N = 173 and GSE41258; N = 307) were used for biomarker discovery. These results were independently validated in two, large, clinical cohorts (testing cohort; N = 201 and validation cohort; N = 468)...
February 4, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Xing Zhang, Sen Wang, Haixiao Wang, Jiacheng Cao, Xiaoxu Huang, Zheng Chen, Penghui Xu, Guangli Sun, Jianghao Xu, Jialun Lv, Zekuan Xu
BACKGROUND: CircRNA has emerged as a new non-coding RNA that plays crucial roles in tumour initiation and development. 'MiRNA sponge' is the most reported role played by circRNAs in many tumours. The AKT/mTOR axis is a classic signalling pathway in cancers that sustains energy homeostasis through energy production activities, such as the Warburg effect, and blocks catabolic activities, such as autophagy. Additionally, the AKT/mTOR axis exerts a positive effect on EMT, which promotes tumour metastasis...
February 4, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Rongkun Li, Yahui Wang, Xiaoxin Zhang, Mingxuan Feng, Jun Ma, Jun Li, Xiaomei Yang, Fang Fang, Qiang Xia, Zhigang Zhang, Mingyi Shang, Shuheng Jiang
BACKGROUND: Lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4) has been found to be dysregulated in several human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of LOXL4 in HCC progression remains largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance and biological involvement of LOXL4 in the progression of HCC. METHODS: LOXL4 expression was measured in HCC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression, shRNA-mediated knockdown, recombinant human LOXL4 (rhLOXL4), and deletion mutants were applied to study the function of LOXL4 in HCC...
January 31, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Guan-Min Jiang, Yuan Tan, Hao Wang, Liang Peng, Hong-Tao Chen, Xiao-Jun Meng, Ling-Ling Li, Yan Liu, Wen-Fang Li, Hong Shan
Autophagy is a genetically well-controlled cellular process that is tightly controlled by a set of core genes, including the family of autophagy-related genes (ATG). Autophagy is a "double-edged sword" in tumors. It can promote or suppress tumor development, which depends on the cell and tissue types and the stages of tumor. At present, tumor immunotherapy is a promising treatment strategy against tumors. Recent studies have shown that autophagy significantly controls immune responses by modulating the functions of immune cells and the production of cytokines...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Liyuan Fan, Qiang Cao, Jia Liu, Junpeng Zhang, Baosheng Li
Esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) is a high incidence and mortality disease worldwide. However, specificity and sensitivity of its diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are still unsatisfactory. Recently, circular RNAs (circRNAs) as biomarkers have been studied extensively while the expression profile and clinical significance of circRNAs in ESCC have rarely been studied. We performed circular RNA microarray in 3 pairs of ESCC frozen tumor and non-tumor tissues to identify ESCC-related circRNAs and found 1045 up-regulated and 1032 down-regulated circRNAs among which 6 circRNAs (hsa_circ_0062459, hsa_circ_0076535, hsa_circ_0072215, hsa_circ_0042261, hsa_circ_0001946, and hsa_circ_0043603) displayed consistency with microarray results by qRT-PCR...
January 23, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Gang Wang, Zi-Jian Zhang, Wen-Gang Jian, Pan-Hong Liu, Wei Xue, Teng-da Wang, Yu-Yang Meng, Chao Yuan, Hao-Ming Li, Yi-Peng Yu, Zhan-Xin Liu, Qiong Wu, Da-Ming Zhang, Cheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) OTUD6B antisense RNA 1 (OTUD6B-AS1) is oriented in an antisense direction to the protein-coding gene OTUD6B on the opposite DNA strand. TCGA database data show that the expression of the lncRNA OTUD6B-AS1 is downregulated and that OTUD6B-AS1 acts as an antioncogene in a variety of tumors. However, the expression and biological functions of the lncRNA OTUD6B-AS1 are still unknown in tumors, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). METHODS: The expression level of OTUD6B-AS1 was measured in 75 paired human ccRCC tissue and corresponding adjacent normal renal tissue samples...
January 22, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Lijian Chen, Aruo Nan, Nan Zhang, Yangyang Jia, Xin Li, Yihui Ling, Jiabin Dai, Shaozhu Zhang, Qiaoyuan Yang, Yanni Yi, Yiguo Jiang
Circular RNAs are widely expressed in eukaryotic cells and associated with cancer. However, limited studies to date have focused on the potential role of circRNAs in progression of lung cancer. Data from the current investigation showed that circRNA 100146 is highly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and the chemically induced malignant transformed bronchial cell line, 16HBE-T, as well as 40 paired tissue samples of NSCLC. Suppression of circRNA 100146 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of cells and promoted apoptosis...
January 21, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Divya Thomas, Prakash Radhakrishnan
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To date, limited therapeutic achievements targeting cell proliferation and related mechanisms has led researchers to focus on the microenvironment where pancreatic cancers develop. The anomalous proliferation of stromal cells, such as pancreatic stellate cells, and an increased deposition of altered matrix proteins create an environment that facilitates tumor growth, metastasis and drug resistance. Here, we summarize our understanding of recent advances in research about the role of fibrosis in pancreatic cancer progression, with particular emphasize on the involvement of fibrotic machineries such as wound healing, extra cellular matrix degradation, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
January 21, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Greta Sökeland, Udo Schumacher
Formation of distant metastases is by far the most common cause of cancer-related deaths. The process of metastasis formation is complex, and within this complex process the formation of migratory cells, the so called epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which enables cancer cells to break loose from the primary tumor mass and to enter the bloodstream, is of particular importance. To break loose from the primary cancer, cancer cells have to down-regulate the cell-to-cell adhesion molecuIes (CAMs) which keep them attached to neighboring cancer cells...
January 18, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Yu Yin, Lingfan Xu, Yan Chang, Tao Zeng, Xufeng Chen, Aifeng Wang, Jeff Groth, Wen-Chi Foo, Chaozhao Liang, Hailiang Hu, Jiaoti Huang
BACKGROUND: MYCN amplification or N-Myc overexpression is found in approximately 40% NEPC and up to 20% CRPC patients. N-Myc has been demonstrated to drive disease progression and hormonal therapeutic resistance of NEPC/CRPC. Here, we aim to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the N-Myc-driven therapeutic resistance and provide new therapeutic targets for those N-Myc overexpressed NEPC/CRPC. METHODS: N-Myc overexpressing stable cell lines for LNCaP and C4-2 were generated by lentivirus infection...
January 18, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Xianjie Jiang, Jie Wang, Xiangying Deng, Fang Xiong, Junshang Ge, Bo Xiang, Xu Wu, Jian Ma, Ming Zhou, Xiaoling Li, Yong Li, Guiyuan Li, Wei Xiong, Can Guo, Zhaoyang Zeng
Tumor immune escape is an important strategy of tumor survival. There are many mechanisms of tumor immune escape, including immunosuppression, which has become a research hotspot in recent years. The programmed death ligand-1/programmed death-1 (PD-L1/PD-1) signaling pathway is an important component of tumor immunosuppression, which can inhibit the activation of T lymphocytes and enhance the immune tolerance of tumor cells, thereby achieving tumor immune escape. Therefore, targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway is an attractive strategy for cancer treatment; however, the therapeutic effectiveness of PD-L1/PD-1 remains poor...
January 15, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Liping Tan, Dongmei Mai, Bailin Zhang, Xiaobing Jiang, Jialiang Zhang, Ruihong Bai, Ying Ye, Mei Li, Ling Pan, Jiachun Su, Yanfen Zheng, Zexian Liu, Zhixiang Zuo, Qi Zhao, Xiaoxing Li, Xudong Huang, Jie Yang, Wen Tan, Jian Zheng, Dongxin Lin
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the major cause of cancer-related death in women. Although the importance of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in cancer has been increasingly recognized, few studies have been explored the functional mechanism of piRNAs in breast cancer development and progression. METHODS: We examined the top 20 highly expressed piRNAs based on the analysis of TCGA breast cancer data in two patient cohorts to test the roles of piRNAs in breast cancer...
January 12, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Hanchen Xu, Chunyan Wang, Haiyan Song, Yangxian Xu, Guang Ji
In this study, the secondary sequencing was used to profile circRNA expression in the tissue samples from three CRC patients with liver metastasis and three matched CRC patients. After verified some candidates in another 40 CRC and CRC-m samples by qRT-PCR, we further demonstrated that circRNA_0001178 and circRNA_0000826 were significantly upregulated in CRC-m tissues, and both of them had the potential for diagnosing liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Finally, the networks of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA base on these two circRNAs were constructed respectively...
January 10, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Yaxiong Zhang, Lianpeng Chang, Yunpeng Yang, Wenfeng Fang, Yanfang Guan, Aiwei Wu, Shaodong Hong, Huaqiang Zhou, Gang Chen, Xi Chen, Shen Zhao, Qiufan Zheng, Hui Pan, Lanjun Zhang, Hao Long, Haoxian Yang, Xin Wang, Zhesheng Wen, Junye Wang, Hong Yang, Xuefeng Xia, Yuanyuan Zhao, Xue Hou, Yuxiang Ma, Ting Zhou, Zhonghan Zhang, Jianhua Zhan, Yan Huang, Hongyun Zhao, Ningning Zhou, Xin Yi, Li Zhang
Understanding of intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) among different non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtypes is necessary. Whether circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) profile could represent these ITH is still an open question. We performed 181 multi-region tumor tissues sequencing and matched ctDNA sequencing from 32 operative NSCLC to compare ITH among different NSCLC subtypes, including EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), KRAS-mutant LUAD, EGFR&KRAS-wild-type LUAD, and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), and examine potential value of ctDNA for ITH analysis...
January 9, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Qingfeng Shang, Zhi Yang, Renbing Jia, Shengfang Ge
Covalently closed single-stranded circular RNAs (circRNAs) consist of introns or exons and are widely present in eukaryotic cells. CircRNAs generally have low expression levels and relatively stable structures compared with messenger RNAs (mRNAs), most of which are located in the cytoplasm and often act in cell type and tissue-specific manners, indicating that they may serve as novel biomarkers. In recent years, circRNAs have gradually become a hotspot in the field of RNA and cancer research, but the functions of most circRNAs have not yet been discovered...
January 9, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Paul Laissue
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly occurring cancer worldwide and the fourth most frequent cause of death having an oncological origin. It has been found that transcription factors (TF) dysregulation, leading to the significant expression modifications of genes, is a widely distributed phenomenon regarding human malignant neoplasias. These changes are key determinants regarding tumour's behaviour as they contribute to cell differentiation/proliferation, migration and metastasis, as well as resistance to chemotherapeutic agents...
January 8, 2019: Molecular Cancer
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