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Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source

Jean-François Sauvé, Jérôme Lavoué, Louise Nadon, Ramzan Lakhani, Mounia Senhaji Rhazi, Robert Bourbonnais, Hugues Richard, Marie-Élise Parent
BACKGROUND: While the expert-based occupational exposure assessment approach has been considered the reference method for retrospective population-based studies, its implementation in large study samples has become prohibitive. To facilitate its application and improve upon it we developed, in the context of a Montreal population-based study of prostate cancer (PROtEuS), a hybrid approach combining job-exposure profiles (JEPs) summarizing expert evaluations from previous studies and expert review...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Barbara K Butland, Evangelia Samoli, Richard W Atkinson, Benjamin Barratt, Klea Katsouyanni
BACKGROUND: Spatio-temporal models are increasingly being used to predict exposure to ambient outdoor air pollution at high spatial resolution for inclusion in epidemiological analyses of air pollution and health. Measurement error in these predictions can nevertheless have impacts on health effect estimation. Using statistical simulation we aim to investigate the effects of such error within a multi-level model analysis of long and short-term pollutant exposure and health. METHODS: Our study was based on a theoretical sample of 1000 geographical sites within Greater London...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Hannah T Jordan, Sukhminder Osahan, Jiehui Li, Cheryl R Stein, Stephen M Friedman, Robert M Brackbill, James E Cone, Charon Gwynn, Ho Ki Mok, Mark R Farfel
BACKGROUND: Asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression have each been linked to exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks (9/11). We described the prevalence and patterns of these conditions and associated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) fifteen years after the attacks. METHODS: We studied 36,897 participants in the WTC Health Registry, a cohort of exposed rescue/recovery workers and community members, who completed baseline (2003-2004) and follow-up (2015-16) questionnaires...
February 12, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Jessica Singh, Sunni L Mumford, Anna Z Pollack, Enrique F Schisterman, Marc G Weisskopf, Ana Navas-Acien, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou
BACKGROUND: Tampons are used by up to 86% of US women and are a rarely considered potential source of pesticide and metal exposure. Tampons may be of particular concern given the likely higher absorption that occurs in the vagina. Our objective was to examine the potential associations between tampon use and metal concentrations, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among healthy women. METHODS: We used information from a prospective cohort of 259 regularly menstruating women, aged 18-44, followed for two menstrual cycles...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Pi-I D Lin, Sabri Bromage, Md Golam Mostofa, Mohammad Rahman, Joseph Allen, Emily Oken, Molly L Kile, David C Christiani
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests that arsenic (As) exposure during pregnancy may reduce infant birth weight. One significant source of As exposure is diet; thus, As may indirectly affect infant growth by mediating the effect of maternal diet on birth weight (BW). This study evaluated the potential mediating effect of As in the relationship between maternal diet and BW, gestational age (GA), and gestational weight gain (GWG). METHOD: The study used a prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh that captured the dietary habits of 1057 pregnant women through validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Cheng-Kuan Lin, Ro-Ting Lin, Tom Chen, Corwin Zigler, Yaguang Wei, David C Christiani
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient particulate matter generated from coal-fired power plants induces long-term health consequences. However, epidemiologic studies have not yet focused on attributing these health burdens specifically to energy consumption, impeding targeted intervention policies. We hypothesize that the generating capacity of coal-fired power plants may be associated with lung cancer incidence at the national level. METHODS: Age- and sex-adjusted lung cancer incidence from every country with electrical plants using coal as primary energy supply were followed from 2000 to 2016...
January 28, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Thomas Coudon, Aurélie Marcelle Nicole Danjou, Elodie Faure, Delphine Praud, Gianluca Severi, Francesca Romana Mancini, Pietro Salizzoni, Béatrice Fervers
BACKGROUND: Dioxins are environmental and persistent organic carcinogens with endocrine disrupting properties. A positive association with several cancers, including risk of breast cancer has been suggested. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and assess performances of an exposure metric based on a Geographic Information System (GIS) through comparison with a validated dispersion model to estimate historical industrial dioxin exposure for its use in a case-control study nested within a prospective cohort...
January 25, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Laurel A Schaider, Lucien Swetschinski, Christopher Campbell, Ruthann A Rudel
BACKGROUND: Low-income and minority communities often face disproportionately high pollutant exposures. The lead crisis in Flint, Michigan, has sparked concern about broader socioeconomic disparities in exposures to drinking water contaminants. Nitrate is commonly found in drinking water, especially in agricultural regions, and epidemiological evidence suggests elevated risk of cancer and birth defects at levels below U.S. EPA's drinking water standard (10 mg/L NO3 -N). However, there have been no nationwide assessments of socioeconomic disparities in exposures to nitrate or other contaminants in U...
January 17, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Yanfeng Ren, Jianping Chen, Maohua Miao, De-Kun Li, Hong Liang, Ziliang Wang, Fen Yang, Xiaowei Sun, Wei Yuan
OBJECTIVE: Studies on the effect of prenatal exposure to magnetic field (MF) on fetal growth is inconclusive and subject to some methodological limitations, particularly in measurement of MF exposure. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal extremely low frequency MF (ELF-MF) exposure during pregnancy and fetal growth in offspring. METHODS: A total of 128 pregnant women were recruited at their 3rd trimester and asked to wear an EMDEX Lite meter for 24 h to capture daily ELF-MF exposure...
January 11, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Hillary A Craddock, Dina Huang, Paul C Turner, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Devon C Payne-Sturges
BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoids are a class of systemic insecticides widely used on food crops globally. These pesticides may be found in "off-target" food items and persist in the environment. Despite the potential for extensive human exposure, there are limited studies regarding the prevalence of neonicotinoid residues in foods sold and consumed in the United States. METHODS: Residue data for seven neonicotinoid pesticides collected between 1999 and 2015 by the US Department of Agriculture's Pesticide Data Program (PDP) were collated and summarized by year across various food commodities, including fruit, vegetable, meat, dairy, grain, honey, and baby food, as well as water to qualitatively describe and examine trends in contamination frequency and residue concentrations...
January 11, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Rong Huang, Qian Chen, Lin Zhang, Kai Luo, Lin Chen, Shasha Zhao, Liping Feng, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been reported to disrupt endocrine system and reproduction. However, epidemiological evidence on the association between PFAS and preeclampsia is inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between prenatal PFAS exposure and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in humans. METHODS: PFAS were measured by liquid chromatography system coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in 687 umbilical cord plasma samples collected between 2011 and 2012 in Shanghai, China...
January 9, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Nimesh B Patel, Yingying Xu, Lawrence C McCandless, Aimin Chen, Kimberly Yolton, Joseph Braun, Robert L Jones, Kim N Dietrich, Bruce P Lanphear
BACKGROUND: Mercury is toxic to the developing brain, but the lowest concentration associated with the development of behavior problems is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between very low-level mercury exposure during fetal development and behavior problems in children. METHODS: We used data from 389 mothers and children in a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort study. We defined mean prenatal mercury concentration as the mean of total whole blood mercury concentrations in maternal samples collected at 16- and 26-weeks of gestation, delivery, and neonatal cord blood samples...
January 9, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Christina Gillezeau, Maaike van Gerwen, Rachel M Shaffer, Iemaan Rana, Luoping Zhang, Lianne Sheppard, Emanuela Taioli
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing and widespread use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum herbicide and desiccant, very few studies have evaluated the extent and amount of human exposure. OBJECTIVE: We review documented levels of human exposure among workers in occupational settings and the general population. METHODS: We conducted a review of scientific publications on glyphosate levels in humans; 19 studies were identified, of which five investigated occupational exposure to glyphosate, 11 documented the exposure in general populations, and three reported on both...
January 7, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
David M Stieb, Eric Lavigne, Li Chen, Lauren Pinault, Antonio Gasparrini, Michael Tjepkema
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the association between air pollution and preterm birth (< 37 weeks gestation) but findings have been inconsistent. These associations may be more difficult to detect than associations with other adverse birth outcomes because of the different duration of exposure in preterm vs. term births, and the existence of seasonal cycles in incidence of preterm birth. METHODS: We analyzed data pertaining to 1,001,700 singleton births occurring between 1999 and 2008 in 24 Canadian cities where daily air pollution data were available from government monitoring sites...
January 3, 2019: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Hisanori Fukunaga, Kevin M Prise
BACKGROUND: The conventional concept of radiation protection is based on epidemiological studies of radiation that support a positive correlation between dose and response. However, there is a remarkable difference in biological responses at the tissue level, depending on whether radiation is delivered as a uniform or non-uniform spatiotemporal distribution due to tissue sparing effects (TSE). From the point of view of radiation micro-dosimetry, environmental radiation is delivered as a non-uniform distribution, and radiation-induced biological responses at the tissue level, such as TSE, would be implicated in individual risk following exposure to environmental radiation...
December 29, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Domenico Franco Merlo, Marco Bruzzone, Paolo Bruzzi, Elsa Garrone, Riccardo Puntoni, Lucia Maiorana, Marcello Ceppi
BACKGROUND: Exposure to asbestos remains a global issue due to its massive use in the twentieth century and its long environmental persistence. Exposure to asbestos still occurs during dismantling of ships and vessels, buildings renovation, mining operations, and is reported in developing countries. Current estimate report exposure of hundreds of million people in occupational settings in countries where its use remains unregulated. METHODS: We conducted a historical prospective cohort mortality study aimed at estimating mortality from specific causes, the temporal changes of pleural and lung cancer mortality, and the attributable fraction (AF) of lung cancer deaths following asbestos exposure...
December 29, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Rachel Bick, Erika Halsey, Christine C Ekenga
Fast fashion, inexpensive and widely available of-the-moment garments, has changed the way people buy and dispose of clothing. By selling large quantities of clothing at cheap prices, fast fashion has emerged as a dominant business model, causing garment consumption to skyrocket. While this transition is sometimes heralded as the "democratization" of fashion in which the latest styles are available to all classes of consumers, the human and environmental health risks associated with inexpensive clothing are hidden throughout the lifecycle of each garment...
December 27, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Jisheng Nie, Jinyu Li, Lin Cheng, Yanning Li, Yunjun Deng, Zhiwei Yan, Lei Duan, Qiao Niu, Frederica Perera, Deliang Tang
BACKGROUND: Naphthalene is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). It is easily emitted into the atmosphere, posing a significant risk to human health. However, limited studies have described the impact of naphthalene exposure on birth outcomes. In this study, we investigated the association between the maternal urinary metabolites of naphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OH NAP), and birth outcomes. METHOD: In the present study, four urinary PAH metabolites were measured in 263 pregnant women during late pregnancy...
December 20, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Rengyi Xu, Frances K Barg, Edward A Emmett, Douglas J Wiebe, Wei-Ting Hwang
BACKGROUND: The risk of mesothelioma has been shown to be associated with exposure to asbestos fibers. Most of the existing literature focuses on occupational exposure; however, non-occupational asbestos exposure has also been identified as an important risk factor. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between mesothelioma and non-occupational asbestos exposure, and evaluate control recruitment and exposure measurement methods. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify case-control (CC) and cohort studies that examined the association between mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos, including neighborhood, domestic, and household exposure...
December 19, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Kentaro Watai, Yuma Fukutomi, Hiroaki Hayashi, Yosuke Kamide, Kiyoshi Sekiya, Masami Taniguchi
INTRODUCTION: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterized by recurrent nonspecific symptoms that are attributed to exposure to trace levels of environmental agents. Although the clinical symptoms of MCS have been described in several studies, the risk factors for this condition remain unclear. Our aim was to clarify the risk factors for MCS and the association between MCS and birth by caesarean section. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide case-control study of Japanese individuals (aged 20-65 years) with physician-diagnosed MCS (183 cases) and without MCS (345 controls)...
December 14, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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