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Journal of Vision

Giuseppe Notaro, Wieske van Zoest, Magda Altman, David Melcher, Uri Hasson
A core question underlying neurobiological and computational models of behavior is how individuals learn environmental statistics and use them to make predictions. Most investigations of this issue have relied on reactive paradigms, in which inferences about predictive processes are derived by modeling responses to stimuli that vary in likelihood. Here we deployed a novel anticipatory oculomotor metric to determine how input statistics impact anticipatory behavior that is decoupled from target-driven-response...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Lukas F Schaeffner, Andrew E Welchman
Depth perception is better when observers view stimuli containing a mixture of bright and dark visual features. It is currently unclear where in the visual system sensory processing benefits from the availability of different contrast polarity. To address this question, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation to the visual cortex to modulate normal neural activity during processing of single- or mixed-polarity random-dot stereograms. In line with previous work, participants gave significantly better depth judgments for mixed-polarity stimuli...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Oliver J Flynn, Brett G Jeffrey
Radial frequency (RF) patterns are valuable tools for investigations of contour integration and shape discrimination. Under photopic conditions, healthy observers can detect deformations from circularity in RF patterns as small as 3 seconds of arc. Such fine discrimination may be facilitated by cortical curvature detectors or global shape-detecting mechanisms that favor a closed contour. Rods make up 95% of photoreceptors in the retina, but we know very little about how spatial information is processed by rod-mediated pathways...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Jirí Lukavský
Humans display a very good understanding of the content in briefly presented photographs. To achieve this understanding, humans rely on information from both high-acuity central vision and peripheral vision. Previous studies have investigated the relative contribution of central and peripheral vision. However, the role of attention in this task remains unclear. In this study, we presented composite images with a scene in the center and another scene in the periphery. The two channels conveyed different information, and the participants were asked to focus on one channel while ignoring the other...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Jolande Fooken, Miriam Spering
Neural activity in brain areas involved in the planning and execution of eye movements predicts the outcome of an upcoming perceptual decision. Many real-world decisions, such as whether to swing at a baseball pitch, are accompanied by characteristic eye-movement behavior. Here we ask whether human eye-movement kinematics can sensitively predict decision outcomes in a go/no-go task requiring rapid interceptive hand movements. Observers (n = 45) viewed a moving target that passed through or missed a designated strike box...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Maarten W A Wijntjes, Bei Xiao, Robert Volcic
Although product photos and movies are abundantly present in online shopping environments, little is known about how much of the real product experience they capture. While previous studies have shown that movies or interactive imagery give users the impression that these communication forms are more effective, there are no studies addressing this issue quantitatively. We used nine different samples of jeans, because in general fabrics represent a large and interesting product category and specifically because jeans can visually be rather similar while haptically be rather different...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Tessel Blom, Qianchen Liang, Hinze Hogendoorn
Motion-induced position shifts constitute a broad class of visual illusions in which motion and position signals interact in the human visual pathway. In such illusions, the presence of visual motion distorts the perceived positions of objects in nearby space. Predictive mechanisms, which could contribute to compensating for processing delays due to neural transmission, have been given as an explanation. However, such mechanisms have struggled to explain why we do not usually perceive objects extrapolated beyond the end of their trajectory...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Junjun Zhang, Jingting Wu, Xieyi Liu, Zhenlan Jin, Ling Li, Lin Chen
The global-first theory of topological perception claims that topological perception is prior to the perception of local features (e.g., Chen, 1982, 2005). Our previous studies demonstrated a hole superiority effect (HSE): Figures with holes are more detectable than figures without holes. Such an HSE was shown with figures formed by either orientation-defined texture (Zhang, 2009) or a black-and-white contrast (Meng, Cui, Zhou, Chen, & Ma, 2012). The present study used binocular disparity as one more organizing factor for testing the abstract nature of the HSE, indicating holes, as a typical kind of topological invariance, are represented in vision independent of the features that were forming the holes...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Matteo Santon, Thomas A Münch, Nico K Michiels
Spatial resolution is a key property of eyes when it comes to understanding how animals' visual signals are perceived. This property can be robustly estimated by measuring the contrast sensitivity as a function of different spatial frequencies, defined as the number of achromatic vertical bright and dark stripe pairs within one degree of visual angle. This contrast sensitivity function (CSF) has been estimated for different animal groups, but data on fish are limited to two free-swimming, freshwater species (i...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
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January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
Lilla M Gurtner, Walter F Bischof, Fred W Mast
Several studies demonstrated similarities of eye fixations during mental imagery and visual perception but-to our knowledge-the temporal characteristics of eye movements during imagery have not yet been considered in detail. To fill this gap, the same data is analyzed with conventional spatial techniques such as analysis of areas of interest (AOI), ScanMatch, and MultiMatch and with recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), a new way of analyzing gaze data by tracking re-fixations and their temporal dynamics...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
David Kane, Marcelo Bertalmío
In 1986, Paul Whittle investigated the ability to discriminate between the luminance of two small patches viewed upon a uniform background. In 1992, Paul Whittle asked subjects to manipulate the luminance of a number of patches on a uniform background until their brightness appeared to vary from black to white with even steps. The data from the discrimination experiment almost perfectly predicted the gradient of the function obtained in the brightness experiment, indicating that the two experimental methodologies were probing the same underlying mechanism...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
Steven W Savage, Lauren P Spano, Alex R Bowers
Age-related declines in both peripheral vision and cognitive resources could contribute to the increased crash risk of older drivers. However, it is unclear whether increases in age and cognitive load result in equal detriments to detection rates across all peripheral target eccentricities (general interference effect) or whether these detriments become greater with increasing eccentricity (tunnel effect). In the current study we investigated the effects of age and cognitive load on the detection of peripheral motorcycle targets (at 5°-30° eccentricity) in static images of intersections...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
Anna Shafer-Skelton, Timothy F Brady
The ability to perceive and remember the spatial layout of a scene is critical to understanding the visual world, both for navigation and for other complex tasks that depend upon the structure of the current environment. However, surprisingly little work has investigated how and when scene layout information is maintained in memory. One prominent line of work investigating this issue is a scene-priming paradigm (e.g., Sanocki & Epstein, 1997), in which different types of previews are presented to participants shortly before they judge which of two regions of a scene is closer in depth to the viewer...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
Tushar Chauhan, Kaida Xiao, Sophie Wuerger
Despite the importance of the appearance of human skin for theoretical and practical purposes, little is known about visual sensitivity to subtle skin-tone changes, and whether the human visual system is indeed optimized to discern skin-color changes that confer some evolutionary advantage. Here, we report discrimination thresholds in a three-dimensional chromatic-luminance color space for natural skin and skinlike textures, and compare these to thresholds for uniform stimuli of the same mean color. We find no evidence that discrimination performance is superior along evolutionarily relevant color directions...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
Antonio Fernández, Rachel N Denison, Marisa Carrasco
Temporal attention, the prioritization of information at a specific point in time, improves visual performance, but it is unknown whether it does so to the same extent across the visual field. This knowledge is necessary to establish whether temporal attention compensates for heterogeneities in discriminability and speed of processing across the visual field. Discriminability and rate of information accrual depend on eccentricity as well as on polar angle, a characteristic known as performance fields. Spatial attention improves speed of processing more at locations at which discriminability is lower and information accrual is slower, but it improves discriminability to the same extent across isoeccentric locations...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
Charlotte Boeykens, Johan Wagemans, Pieter Moors
Perception can differ even when the stimulus information is the same. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of experience and relevance on visual perception. We examined the influence of perceptual relevance in an auxiliary task on subsequent perception of an ambiguous stimulus. Observers were presented with an ambiguous motion stimulus that could either be perceived as rotating dot pairs ("local") or pulsating geometrical figures ("global"). Prolonged perception of this stimulus is characterized by a "shift to global", but it remained unclear whether this process is due to relevance of the global percept or mere exposure to the stimulus...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
Gennady Erlikhman, Mengzhu Fu, Michael D Dodd, Gideon P Caplovitz
The motion-induced contour (MIC) was first described by Victor Klymenko and Naomi Weisstein in a series of papers in the 1980s. The effect is created by rotating the outline of a tilted cube in depth. When one of the vertical edges is removed, an illusory contour can be seen in its place. In four experiments, we explored which stimulus features influence perceived illusory contour strength. Participants provided subjective ratings of illusory contour strength as a function of orientation of the stimulus, separation between inducing edges, and the length of inducing edges...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
James Tanner, Laurent Itti
Most visual saliency models that integrate top-down factors process task and context information using machine learning techniques. Although these methods have been successful in improving prediction accuracy for human attention, they require significant training data and are unable to provide an understanding of what makes information relevant to a task such that it will attract gaze. This means that we still lack a general theory for the interaction between task and attention or eye movements. Recently, Tanner and Itti (2017) proposed the theory of goal relevance to explain what makes information relevant to goals...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
Qianli Meng, Bo Wang, Ding Cui, Ning Liu, Yan Huang, Lin Chen, Yuanye Ma
Over the past 40 years, research has addressed the impact of the aging process on various aspects of visual function. Most studies have focused on age-related visual impairment in low-level local features of visual objects, such as orientation, contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency. However, whether there are lifespan changes in global visual perception is still unclear. To suitably frame this question, we defined global visual patterns by a topological approach, and local visual patterns were manipulated with different levels of geometrical invariants in descending order of structural stability from projective, affine, and then Euclidean features...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vision
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