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Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

Emily Carl, Sara M Witcraft, Brooke Y Kauffman, Eilis M Gillespie, Eni S Becker, Pim Cuijpers, Michael Van Ameringen, Jasper A J Smits, Mark B Powers
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide updated pooled effect sizes of evidence-based psychotherapies and medications for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and to investigate potential moderators of outcomes. Seventy-nine randomized controlled trials (RCT) including 11,002 participants with a diagnosis of GAD were included in a meta-analysis that tested the efficacy of psychotherapies or medications for GAD. Psychotherapy showed a medium to large effect size (g = 0.76) and medication showed a small effect size (g = 0...
February 14, 2019: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Alexandra K Gold, Georgia Stathopoulou, Michael W Otto
Refining the mechanisms behind illicit drug use is an important factor for improving the quality of clinical care. Research in alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine use disorders have linked coping motives (e.g. using substances to ameliorate negative emotional states) to problematic substance use. We evaluated the link between emotion regulation difficulties (as assessed via the difficulties in emotion regulation scale [DERS]) and motives for drug use (as assessed via the Drug Use Motives Questionnaire) among individuals (n = 68) with opioid use disorders who were in methadone maintenance treatment...
February 14, 2019: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Joshua J Kemp, Shannon M Blakey, Kate B Wolitzky-Taylor, Jennifer T Sy, Brett J Deacon
This study re-analyzes data from Sy and colleagues (2011; Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 305-314) comparing safety behavior availability (SBA) to safety behavior utilization (SBU) during exposure therapy for claustrophobic concerns. The present investigation assessed differential rates of inhibitory learning (i.e. change in danger expectancy and coping self-efficacy) between SBA and SBU before, during, and after a single-session treatment. Thirty-nine participants with marked claustrophobic fear completed six consecutive 5-minute exposure trials in a claustrophobia chamber...
February 14, 2019: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Simon B Goldberg, Raymond P Tucker, Preston A Greene, Richard J Davidson, David J Kearney, Tracy L Simpson
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) appears to be a promising intervention for the prevention of relapse in major depressive disorder, but its efficacy in patients with current depressive symptoms is less clear. Randomized clinical trials of MBCT for adult patients with current depressive symptoms were included (k = 13, N = 1046). Comparison conditions were coded based on whether they were intended to be therapeutic (specific active controls) or not (non-specific controls). MBCT was superior to non-specific controls at post-treatment (k = 10, d = 0...
February 8, 2019: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Alice Arndt, Wolfgang Lutz, Julian Rubel, Thomas Berger, Björn Meyer, Johanna Schröder, Christina Späth, Martin Hautzinger, Kristina Fuhr, Matthias Rose, Fritz Hohagen, Jan Philipp Klein, Steffen Moritz
To date, only few studies have attempted to investigate non-ignorable dropout during Internet-based interventions by applying an NMAR model, which includes missing data indicators in its equations. Here, the Muthen-Roy model was used to investigate change and dropout patterns in a sample of patients with mild-to-moderate depression symptoms (N = 483) who were randomized to a 12-week Internet-based intervention (deprexis, identifier: NCT01636752). Participants completed the PHQ-9 biweekly during the treatment...
February 5, 2019: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Ashley N Howell, Alyssa A Rheingold, Thomas W Uhde, Constance Guille
Medical and health science graduate students report greater anxiety problems than the general population, but they are less likely to seek treatment due to cultural and logistical barriers. One preventative approach that overcomes these barriers is web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (webCBT). It is unknown whether webCBT is effective for preventing anxiety escalation within this population. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing the effects of webCBT versus a control group (CG). Medical university students (n=594; Mage=27; 67% female; 80% Caucasian) completed online baseline measures and four assigned online activities...
December 11, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Alex Kirk, Kurt Michael, Shawn Bergman, Marisa Schorr, J P Jameson
School mental health (SMH) programs have been shown to be effective in providing evidence-based interventions to underserved youth. However, limitations of SMH programs are that they can entail holiday breaks, typically do not operate through summer, and often require pulling students from class to receive therapy. These limitations suggest that treatment must be expeditious and potent. Although researchers have investigated dose response to treatment, no studies were located that addressed dose response to treatment in SMH programs...
December 10, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Aliza T Stein, Johnna L Medina, David Rosenfield, Michael W Otto, Jasper A J Smits
Initial evidence suggests that experiential avoidance (EA) mediates the relation between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and depression. We examined the AS-EA-depression pathway, examining both concurrent, and prospective (cross-lag), mediation models. Utilizing data from a study that examined the effects of exercise on AS (N = 60), we modeled depressive symptoms, EA, and AS over four time points. Time-varying predictors were disaggregated into between-subjects (each person's mean level of the predictor) and within-subjects change (each person's deviations, at each time point, from their mean level on the predictor) components...
December 3, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Debbie Tallon, Carrie-Anne McClay, David Kessler, Glyn Lewis, Tim J Peters, Roz Shafran, Chris Williams, Nicola Wiles
Use of supporting materials in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is widely advocated, and homework increases effectiveness. The study aimed to identify materials most frequently used by CBT therapists to support CBT for depression, and those perceived clinically most effective. Questionnaires were sent to 3665 accredited CBT therapists asking about their use of resources commonly described in CBT manuals, and their views on effectiveness. Of 3665 approached by post/email, 994 (27%) responded. Another 33 completed the questionnaire via the study website...
December 3, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Doyanne A Darnell, Lea E Parker, Amy W Wagner, Christopher W Dunn, David C Atkins, Shannon Dorsey, Douglas F Zatzick
Despite high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among traumatically injured patients, engagement in session-based psychotherapy early after trauma is limited due to various service utilization and readiness barriers. Task-shifting brief mental health interventions to routine trauma center providers is an understudied but potentially critical part of the continuum of care. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of training trauma nurses to engage patients in patient-centered activity scheduling based on a Behavioral Activation paradigm, which is designed to counteract dysfunctional avoidance/withdrawal behavior common among patients after injury...
November 30, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Jake Linardon, John Gleeson, Keong Yap, Kylie Murphy, Leah Brennan
Third-wave behavioural interventions are increasingly popular for treating and preventing mental health conditions. Recently, researchers have begun testing whether these interventions can effectively targeting eating disorder risk factors (disordered eating, body image concerns). This meta-analysis examined whether third-wave behavioural interventions (acceptance and commitment therapy; dialectical behaviour therapy; mindfulness-based interventions; compassion-focused therapy) show potential for being effective eating disorder prevention programs, by testing their effects on eating disorder risk factors in samples without an eating disorder...
January 2019: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Andres G Viana, Elizabeth M Raines, Emma C Woodward, Abigail E Hanna, Rheeda Walker, Michael J Zvolensky
The present investigation examined associations between low emotional clarity (the extent to which individuals are confused about the specific emotions they are experiencing) and suicidal ideation in a diverse sample of trauma-exposed inpatient adolescents, as well as the moderating role of distress tolerance (DT) in this association. Participants (N = 50; 52.0% female; M = 15.1 years, SD = .51; 44% White) completed measures of emotion dysregulation, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation/attempts, as well as a behavioral measure of DT...
November 20, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Brooke Y Kauffman, Lorra Garey, Alec Nordan, Charles Jardin, Nubia A Mayorga, Zuzuky Robles, Michael J Zvolensky
Currently, there is poor understanding of fatigue and the possible psychological conditions that may underlie chronic fatigue. Although substantial work has been directed to better clinically address fatigue, no work has explored individual differences in expectations or perceptions of the negative consequences associated with fatigue-related symptoms. The goals of this study were to (a) develop and (b) validate a measure of expectations or perceptions of the negative consequences associated with fatigue-related symptoms (e...
November 20, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Brittney L Culp, Jacob W Roden-Foreman, Estrella V Thomas, Evan Elizabeth McShan, Monica M Bennett, Katherine Riley Martin, Mark B Powers, Michael L Foreman, Laura B Petrey, Ann Marie Warren
This is the first study to compare both physical and psychological outcomes in geriatric and non-geriatric patients (n = 268) at baseline and 6 months post-trauma. Demographic, clinical, and psychological data, including screens for alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were collected from 67 geriatric patients (70.7 ± 8.0 years) and 201 non-geriatric patients (40.2 ± 12.8 years) admitted to a Level I trauma center for ≥ 24 h. Geriatric patients were significantly less likely to screen positive for alcohol use at baseline, and depression, PTSS, and alcohol use at follow-up...
November 5, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Kristofer Vernmark, Hugo Hesser, Naira Topooco, Thomas Berger, Heleen Riper, Liisa Luuk, Lisa Backlund, Per Carlbring, Gerhard Andersson
Blended Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (bCBT) is a new form of treatment, mixing internet-based modules and face-to-face therapist sessions. How participants rate the therapeutic alliance in bCBT has not yet been thoroughly explored, and neither is it clear whether therapist- and patient-rated alliances are predictors of change in depression during treatment. Depression and alliance ratings from 73 participants in a treatment study on bCBT (part of the E-COMPARED project) were analysed using growth curve models...
October 29, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Michaela B Swee, Thomas M Olino, Richard G Heimberg
The evidence supporting the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty (IU), a cognitive construct well established in the anxiety literature, and depression is mixed. Some research has demonstrated a direct association between IU and depression, whereas other studies suggest that IU is either unrelated or indirectly related to depression through other pathways, including anxiety. The present study aimed to further elucidate the relationship between IU and depression in an undergraduate sample (N = 221)...
October 25, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Gordon J G Asmundson, Audur S Thorisdottir, Jacob W Roden-Foreman, Scarlett O Baird, Sara M Witcraft, Aliza T Stein, Jasper A J Smits, Mark B Powers
Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Two prior meta-analyses of studies are available but used approaches that limit conclusions that can be drawn regarding the impact of CPT on PTSD outcomes. The current meta-analysis reviewed outcomes of trials that tested the efficacy of CPT for PTSD in adults and evaluated potential moderators of outcomes. All published trials comparing CPT against an inactive control condition (i...
October 18, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
John R Seeley, Lisa B Sheeber, Edward G Feil, Craig Leve, Betsy Davis, Erik Sorensen, Steve Allan
This study evaluated the putative mediating mechanisms of an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for depression tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of preschool-age children. The CBT mediators were tested across two previously published randomized controlled trials which included the same measures of behavioral activation, negative thinking, and savoring of positive events. Trial 1 included 70 mothers with elevated depressive symptoms who were randomized to either the eight-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or to treatment as usual...
October 12, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Lauren E Poulin, Melissa L Button, Henny A Westra, Michael J Constantino, Martin M Antony
Client motivation to change is often considered a key factor in psychotherapy. To date, research on this client construct has largely relied on self-report, which is prone to response bias and ceiling effects. Moreover, self-reported motivation has been inconsistently related to treatment outcome. Early observed client in-session language may be a more valid measure of initial motivation and thus a promising predictor of outcome. The predictive ability of motivational factors has been examined in addiction treatment but has been limited in other populations...
September 21, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Jennifer Krafft, Jack A Haeger, Michael E Levin
Transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral interventions target different cognitive processes to promote mental health, including cognitive fusion and cognitive reappraisal. Determining the relative impact of cognitive fusion and reappraisal on a range of student mental health concerns could help interventions target psychopathological cognitive processes more effectively. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal impact of cognitive fusion and reappraisal on mental health and functioning outcomes. A series of hierarchical regression models tested the effects of cognitive fusion and reappraisal in a sample of college students (n = 339)...
September 19, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
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