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Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30725162/stored-perfume-dynamics-and-consequences-for-signal-development-in-male-orchid-bees
#1
T Eltz, S Josten, T Mende
Male orchid bees (Euglossini) collect volatiles from their environment to concoct species-specific "perfumes", which are later emitted at mating sites. Intensity, complexity or composition of perfumes may encode age (survival) of a male, but how the individual perfume develops over time needs to be clarified. We investigated chemical changes during storage in leg pockets. We injected a mixture of eight perfume compounds into pockets of Euglossa imperialis and only the two most volatile compounds decreased over 12 days...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721348/behavioral-analysis-of-substrate-texture-preference-in-a-leech-helobdella-austinensis
#2
Rachel C Kim, Dylan Le, Kenny Ma, Elizabeth A C Heath-Heckman, Nathan Whitehorn, William B Kristan, David A Weisblat
Leeches in the wild are often found on smooth surfaces, such as vegetation, smooth rocks or human artifacts such as bottles and cans, thus exhibiting what appears to be a "substrate texture preference". Here, we have reproduced this behavior under controlled circumstances, by allowing leeches to step about freely on a range of silicon carbide substrates (sandpaper). To begin to understand the neural mechanisms underlying this texture preference behavior, we have determined relevant parameters of leech behavior both on uniform substrates of varying textures, and in a behavior choice paradigm in which the leech is confronted with a choice between rougher and smoother substrate textures at each step...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689019/vividly-coloured-poppy-flowers-due-to-dense-pigmentation-and-strong-scattering-in-thin-petals
#3
Casper J van der Kooi, Doekele G Stavenga
The flowers of poppies (Papaveraceae) exhibit bright colours, despite their thin and floppy petals. We investigated the optical properties of flowers of Papaver rhoeas, P. dubium, Meconopsis cambrica and Argemone polyanthemos using a combined approach of anatomy, spectrophotometry and optical modelling. The petals of Papaver flowers are composed of only three cell layers, an upper and lower epidermal layer, which are densely filled with pigment, and an unpigmented mesophyll layer. Dense pigmentation together with strong scattering structures, composed of serpentine cell walls and air cavities, cause the striking poppy colours...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689018/terrestrial-cue-learning-and-retention-during-the-outbound-and-inbound-foraging-trip-in-the-desert-ant-cataglyphis-velox
#4
Cody A Freas, Marcia L Spetch
Foraging ants are able to acquire and retain long-term memories of panorama cues around the nest and along known routes. Here we explore foragers' ability to learn and retain skyline cues experienced on only the outbound or inbound portion of the foraging trip. Foragers exposed to the skyline on the outbound portion showed single trial learning of these cues. Furthermore, the navigational performance of these "Outbound-Only" foragers was on par with foragers that experienced the full route. In contrast, foragers experiencing the skyline only on the inbound portion, "Inbound-Only" foragers, took 5 trips to successfully learn these cues...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30656420/brain-evolution-in-social-insects-advocating-for-the-comparative-approach
#5
REVIEW
R Keating Godfrey, Wulfila Gronenberg
Sociality is classified as one of the major transitions in the evolution of complexity and much effort has been dedicated to understanding what traits predispose lineages to sociality. Conversely, studies addressing the role of sociality in brain evolution (e.g., the social brain hypothesis) have not focused on particular traits and instead relied largely on measurements of relative brain composition. Hymenoptera range from solitary to advanced social species, providing enticing comparisons for studying sociality and neural trait evolution...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649587/anatomy-of-the-stemmata-in-the-photuris-firefly-larva
#6
Frederick Murphy, Andrew Moiseff
Fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) have distinct visual systems at different stages of development. Larvae have stemmata and adults have compound eyes. Adults use compound eyes to mediate photic communication during courtship. Larvae do not manifest this behavior, yet they are bioluminescent. We investigated the structure of stemmata in Photuris firefly larvae to identify anatomical substrates (i.e., rhabdomeres) conferring visual function. Stemmata were located bilaterally on the antero-lateral surfaces of the head...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30635725/lagenar-potentials-of-the-vocal-plainfin-midshipman-fish-porichthys-notatus
#7
Brooke J Vetter, Lane H Seeley, Joseph A Sisneros
The plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) is a species of marine teleost that produces acoustic signals that are important for mediating social behavior. The auditory sensitivity of the saccule is well established in this species, but the sensitivity and function of the midshipman's putative auditory lagena are unknown. Here, we characterize the auditory-evoked potentials from hair cells in the lagena of reproductive type I males to determine the frequency response and auditory sensitivity of the lagena to behaviorally relevant acoustic stimuli...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30617601/innate-releasing-mechanisms-and-fixed-action-patterns-basic-ethological-concepts-as-drivers-for-neuroethological-studies-on-acoustic-communication-in-orthoptera
#8
REVIEW
Bernhard Ronacher
This review addresses the history of neuroethological studies on acoustic communication in insects. One objective is to reveal how basic ethological concepts developed in the 1930s, such as innate releasing mechanisms and fixed action patterns, have influenced the experimental and theoretical approaches to studying acoustic communication systems in Orthopteran insects. The idea of innateness of behaviors has directly fostered the search for central pattern generators that govern the stridulation patterns of crickets, katydids or grasshoppers...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604271/effects-of-autonomic-denervations-on-the-rhythms-in-axial-length-and-choroidal-thickness-in-chicks
#9
Debora L Nickla, Falk Schroedl
In chicks, axial length and choroidal thickness undergo circadian oscillations. The choroid is innervated by both branches of the autonomic nervous system, but their contribution(s) to these rhythms is unknown. We used two combination lesions to test this. For parasympathectomy, nerve VII was sectioned presynaptic to the pterygopalatine ganglia, and the ciliary post-ganglionics were cut (double lesion; n = 8). Triple lesions excised the sympathetic superior cervical ganglion as well (n = 8). Sham surgery was done in controls (n = 7)...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588550/jittered-echo-delay-resolution-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#10
James J Finneran, Ryan Jones, Jason Mulsow, Dorian S Houser, Patrick W Moore
Psychophysical methods similar to those employed with bats were used to examine jittered echo-delay resolution in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Two dolphins were trained to produce echolocation clicks and report a change from electronic echoes with a fixed delay of ~ 12.6 ms (~ 9.4 m simulated range) to echoes with delays that alternated (jittered) between successive emitted signals. Jitter delays varied from 0 to 50 µs. Jittered echo-delay thresholds were between 1 and 2 µs-the lowest achievable (non-zero) values with the hardware configuration...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30535830/preparing-to-migrate-expression-of-androgen-signaling-molecules-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-skeletal-muscles-of-gambel-s-white-crowned-sparrows
#11
Devaleena S Pradhan, Chunqi Ma, Barney A Schlinger, Kiran K Soma, Marilyn Ramenofsky
Migratory birds, including Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii), exhibit profound modifications of skeletal muscles prior to migration, notably hypertrophy of the pectoralis muscle required for powered flight. Muscle growth may be influenced by anabolic effects of androgens; however, prior to spring departure, circulating androgens are low in sparrows. A seasonal increase in local androgen signaling may occur within muscle to promote remodeling. We measured morphological parameters, plasma and tissue levels of testosterone, as well as mRNA expression levels of androgen receptor, 5α-reductase (converts testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone), and the androgen-dependent myotrophic factor insulin-like growth factor-1...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30506392/the-impact-of-age-and-egg-laying-cycle-on-female-grasshoppers-preference-functions-for-acoustic-signals
#12
Jennifer Aufderheide, Bernhard Ronacher
Female responsiveness and the shape of preference functions for male signal traits are important determinants for male mating success. We observed the responsiveness and the selectivity of virgin grasshopper females (Chorthippus biguttulus L.) for different features of males' acoustic signals throughout their life span to detect possible influences of age on the females' preference functions. In particular, we explored the hypothesis that the females may become less selective with increasing age and, therefore, would start to accept songs that are normally rejected...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470926/behavioural-and-physiological-responses-to-low-and-high-intensity-locomotion-in-chinese-shrimp-fenneropenaeus-chinensis
#13
Jiangtao Li, Xiuwen Xu, Wentao Li, Xiumei Zhang
We explored stroke behaviour, energy sources, and their related metabolic enzymes during multi-intensity swimming and tail-flipping at low- and high-intensity modes in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. In swimming, shrimp were encouraged to swim at velocities of 3, 6, 9 cm s-1 for 200 min (low-intensity), and at 12, 15, 18 cm s-1 until fatigue (high-intensity). In tail-flipping, shrimp were encouraged to tail-flip by tapping cephalothorax at frequencies of 0.020, 0.040, 0.063 Hz (one tap every 50, 25, 16 s) for 5 min (low-intensity), and at 0...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30465281/honey-bee-workers-generate-low-frequency-vibrations-that-are-reliable-indicators-of-their-activity-level
#14
Michael Hrncir, Camila Maia-Silva, Walter M Farina
In social insects, the tuning of activity levels among different worker task groups, which constitutes a fundamental basis of colony organization, relies on the exchange of reliable information on the activity level of individuals. The underlying stimuli, however, have remained largely unexplored so far. In the present study, we describe low-frequency thoracic vibrations generated by honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) within the colony, whose velocity amplitudes and main frequency components significantly increased with the level of an individual's activity...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30377768/auditory-sensitivity-exhibits-sexual-dimorphism-and-seasonal-plasticity-in-music-frogs
#15
Ping Yang, Fei Xue, Jianguo Cui, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Guangzhan Fang
Seasonal changes in the structure and function of the vertebrate brain have been described in many species, particularly in seasonal breeders. However, it remains unclear whether sexual dimorphism varies between breeding seasons for specific brain regions. Auditory event-related potential (ERP) changes were evaluated in the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina) to assess sexual dimorphism and seasonal variations in auditory sensitivity. An acoustic playback experiment using an oddball paradigm design was conducted, in which two conspecific call types were used as deviant stimuli with synthesized white noise as standard stimulus...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30374566/does-silvering-or-11-ketotestosterone-affect-osmoregulatory-ability-in-the-new-zealand-short-finned-eel-anguilla-australis
#16
Erin L Damsteegt, Matthew J Wylie, Alvin N Setiawan
Silvering has been associated with advancing osmoregulatory ability. Given the demonstrated role of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) in mediating many of the silvering-related changes, we investigated the role of 11KT in driving this advanced osmoregulatory ability in the New Zealand short-finned eel (Anguilla australis). Yellow (non-migratory) eels with or without 11KT implants and blank-implanted silver (migratory) eels, either held in freshwater or subjected to seawater challenge, were sampled to determine serum [Na+ ] and [Cl- ], pituitary prolactin mRNA levels, gill Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity and gill mRNA levels for Na+ /K+ -ATPase-α1 subunit and for Na+ /K+ /2Cl- co-transporter-1α-subunit...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30367271/seafinding-revisited-how-hatchling-marine-turtles-respond-to-natural-lighting-at-a-nesting-beach
#17
Lisa Celano, Caroline Sullivan, Angela Field, Michael Salmon
Hatchling marine turtles emerge at night from underground nests on oceanic beaches and then use visual cues to crawl from the nest site to the sea ("seafinding"). However, the light wavelengths (λ's) used to accomplish this orientation have not been thoroughly documented, nor do we understand why some λ's are favored over others. We measured nocturnal radiance on the horizon at 20 nm intervals between 340 and 600 nm at two nesting beach sites and then, under laboratory conditions, determined the lowest intensities of those λ's that induced green turtle and loggerhead hatchlings to crawl toward each light source (a low positive "phototaxis threshold")...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30353372/enhancement-of-habituation-during-escape-swimming-in-starved-crayfish
#18
Nozomi Kato, Naoyuki Fujiyama, Toshiki Nagayama
Feeding is important to supply the immediate energy needs of animals and starved animals must expend energy in attempting to acquire foods irrespective of the danger of predation risk. Crayfish escape from attack of predators by tailflipping and in response to rostral stimuli crayfish show backward escape swimming following an initial rapid flexion of the abdomen. Since the tailflip is an energetically costly behaviour, the occurrence of a tailflip diminishes if a stimulus is repeatedly applied through habituation...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30350127/magnetoreception-activation-of-avian-cryptochrome-1a-in-various-light-conditions
#19
Christine Nießner, Susanne Denzau, Leo Peichl, Wolfgang Wiltschko, Roswitha Wiltschko
The avian magnetic inclination compass is based on radical pair processes, with cryptochrome (Cry) assumed to form the crucial radical pairs; it requires short-wavelength light from UV to green. Under high-intensity narrow-band lights and when yellow light is added, the magnetic compass is disrupted: migratory birds no longer prefer their migratory direction, but show other orientation responses. The candidate receptor molecule Cry1a is located in the shortwavelength-sensitive SWS1 cone photoreceptors in the retina...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30298343/a-simple-mathematical-model-using-centred-loops-and-random-perturbations-accurately-reconstructs-search-patterns-observed-in-desert-ants
#20
Franz Waldner, Tobias Merkle
This paper describes a new mathematical model that is based on centred loops to reconstruct the "Systematic Search" behaviour of Cataglyphis desert ants. The notable advantage of this model is the combination of simplicity, efficiency and performance. All model input is kept to a minimum, using only parameters that previous research has shown to be available to the animals at all times: distance from the origin, direction of the last step and home vector. Outbound and inbound search paths are being combined into loops that return to the origin, sampling this area more intensely...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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