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Annual Review of Plant Biology

Xianwei Song, Yan Li, Xiaofeng Cao, Yijun Qi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-24 nucleotide noncoding RNAs abundant in plants and animals. The biogenesis of plant miRNAs involves transcription of miRNA genes, processing of primary miRNA transcripts by DICER-LIKE proteins into mature miRNAs, and loading of mature miRNAs into ARGONAUTE proteins to form miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). By targeting complementary sequences, miRISC negatively regulates gene expression, thereby coordinating plant development and plant-environment interactions. In this review, we present and discuss recent updates on the mechanisms and regulation of miRNA biogenesis, miRISC assembly and actions as well as the regulatory roles of miRNAs in plant developmental plasticity, abiotic/biotic responses, and symbiotic/parasitic interactions...
March 8, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Guangtao Zhu, Junbo Gou, Harry Klee, Sanwen Huang
Although flavor is an essential element for consumer acceptance of food, breeding programs have focused primarily on yield, leading to significant declines in flavor for many vegetables. The deterioration of flavor quality has concerned breeders; however, the complexity of this trait has hindered efforts to improve or even maintain it. Recently, the integration of flavor-associated metabolic profiling with other omics methodologies derived from big data has become a prominent trend in this research field. Here, we provide an overview of known metabolites contributing to flavor in the major vegetables as well as genetic analyses of the relevant metabolic pathways based on different approaches, especially multi-omics...
March 5, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Kunling Chen, Yanpeng Wang, Rui Zhang, Huawei Zhang, Caixia Gao
Enhanced agricultural production through innovative breeding technology is urgently needed to increase access to nutritious foods worldwide. Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas genome editing enable efficient targeted modification in most crops, thus promising to accelerate crop improvement. Here, we review advances in CRISPR/Cas9 and its variants and examine their applications in plant genome editing and related manipulations. We highlight base-editing tools that enable targeted nucleotide substitutions and describe the various delivery systems, particularly DNA-free methods, that have linked genome editing with crop breeding...
March 5, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Etienne H Meyer, Elina Welchen, Chris Carrie
Plant mitochondria play a major role during respiration by producing the ATP required for metabolism and growth. ATP is produced during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), a metabolic pathway coupling electron transfer with ADP phosphorylation via the formation and release of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The OXPHOS system is composed of large, multiprotein complexes coordinating metal-containing cofactors for the transfer of electrons. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge about assembly of the OXPHOS complexes in land plants...
March 1, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Hans Motte, Steffen Vanneste, Tom Beeckman
In order to optimally establish their root systems, plants are endowed with several mechanisms to use at distinct steps during their development. In this review, we zoom in on the major processes involved in root development and detail important new insights that have been generated in recent studies, mainly using the Arabidopsis root as a model. First, we discuss new insights in primary root development with the characterization of tissue-specific transcription factor complexes and the identification of noncell-autonomous control mechanisms in the root apical meristem...
March 1, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Craig R Brodersen, Adam B Roddy, Jay W Wason, Andrew J McElrone
Water transport in vascular plants represents a critical component of terrestrial water cycles and supplies the water needed for the exchange of CO2 in the atmosphere for photosynthesis. Yet, many fundamental principles of water transport are difficult to assess given the scale and location of plant xylem. Here we review the mechanistic principles that underpin long-distance water transport in vascular plants, with a focus on woody species. We also discuss the recent development of noninvasive tools to study the functional status of xylem networks in planta...
March 1, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Joachim Schiemann, Antje Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Frank Hartung, Christian Kohl, Jörg Romeis, Thorben Sprink
The review describes the current status and future challenges of risk assessment and regulation of plants modified by modern biotechniques, namely genetic engineering and genome editing. It provides a general overview of the biosafety and regulation of genetically modified plants and details different regulatory frameworks with a focus on the European situation. The environmental risk and safety assessment of genetically modified plants is explained, and aspects of toxicological assessments are discussed, especially the controversial debate in Europe on the added scientific value of untargeted animal feeding studies...
March 1, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Mark A Johnson, Jeffrey F Harper, Ravishankar Palanivelu
In flowering plants, pollen tubes undergo tip growth to deliver two nonmotile sperm to the ovule where they fuse with an egg and central cell to achieve double fertilization. This extended journey involves rapid growth and changes in gene activity that manage compatible interactions with at least seven different cell types. Nearly half of the genome is expressed in haploid pollen, which facilitates genetic analysis, even of essential genes. These unique attributes make pollen an ideal system with which to study plant cell-cell interactions, tip growth, cell migration, the modulation of cell wall integrity, and gene expression networks...
March 1, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Sabeeha S Merchant
Over 100 whole-genome sequences from algae are published or soon to be published. The rapidly increasing availability of these fundamental resources is precipitating a paradigm shift in the way we understand one of the most diverse, complex, and understudied groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Genome sequences provide a window into the functional potential of each disparate alga, with phylogenomics and functional genomics as tools for contextualizing and transferring knowledge from reference organisms into less well-characterized systems...
March 1, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Urs Fischer, Melis Kucukoglu, Ykä Helariutta, Rishikesh P Bhalerao
Stem cell populations in meristematic tissues at distinct locations in the plant body provide the potency of continuous plant growth. Primary meristems, at the apices of the plant body, contribute mainly to the elongation of the main plant axes, whereas secondary meristems in lateral positions are responsible for the thickening of these axes. The stem cells of the vascular cambium-a secondary lateral meristem-produce the secondary phloem (bast) and secondary xylem (wood). The sites of primary and secondary growth are spatially separated, and mobile signals are expected to coordinate growth rates between apical and lateral stem cell populations...
March 1, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Hye Ryun Woo, Hyo Jung Kim, Pyung Ok Lim, Hong Gil Nam
Leaf senescence is an important developmental process involving orderly disassembly of macromolecules for relocating nutrients from leaves to other organs and is critical for plants' fitness. Leaf senescence is the response of an intricate integration of various environmental signals and leaf age information and involves a complex and highly regulated process with the coordinated actions of multiple pathways. Impressive progress has been made in understanding how senescence signals are perceived and processed, how the orderly degeneration process is regulated, how the senescence program interacts with environmental signals, and how senescence regulatory genes contribute to plant productivity and fitness...
February 27, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Na Li, Ran Xu, Yunhai Li
The size of seeds affects not only evolutionary fitness but also grain yield of crops. Understanding the mechanisms controlling seed size has become an important research field in plant science. Seed size is determined by the integrated signals of maternal and zygotic tissues, which control the coordinated growth of the embryo, endosperm, and seed coat. Recent advances have identified several signaling pathways that control seed size through maternal tissues, including or involving the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, G-protein signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, phytohormone perception and homeostasis, and some transcriptional regulators...
February 22, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Pantelis Livanos, Sabine Müller
Plant cells divide their cytoplasmic content by forming a new membrane compartment, the cell plate, via a rerouting of the secretory pathway toward the division plane aided by a dynamic cytoskeletal apparatus known as the phragmoplast. The phragmoplast expands centrifugally and directs the cell plate to the preselected division site at the plasma membrane to fuse with the parental wall. The division site is transiently decorated by the cytoskeletal preprophase band in preprophase and prophase, whereas a number of proteins discovered over the last decade reside continuously at the division site and provide a lasting spatial reference for phragmoplast guidance...
February 22, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Momoko Ikeuchi, David Seth Favero, Yuki Sakamoto, Akira Iwase, Duncan Coleman, Bart Rymen, Keiko Sugimoto
Plants reprogram somatic cells following injury and regenerate new tissues and organs. Upon perception of inductive cues, somatic cells often dedifferentiate, proliferate, and acquire new fates to repair damaged tissues or develop new organs from wound sites. Wound stress activates transcriptional cascades to promote cell fate reprogramming and initiate new developmental programs. Wounding also modulates endogenous hormonal responses by triggering their biosynthesis and/or directional transport. Auxin and cytokinin play pivotal roles in determining cell fates in regenerating tissues and organs...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Acer VanWallendael, Ali Soltani, Nathan C Emery, Murilo M Peixoto, Jason Olsen, David B Lowry
Ecological specialization in plants occurs primarily through local adaptation to different environments. Local adaptation is widely thought to result in costly fitness trade-offs that result in maladaptation to alternative environments. However, recent studies suggest that such trade-offs are not universal. Further, there is currently a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for fitness trade-offs associated with adaptation. Here, we review the literature on stress responses in plants to identify potential mechanisms underlying local adaptation and ecological specialization...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Georg Hölzl, Peter Dörmann
Chloroplasts contain high amounts of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and low levels of the anionic lipids sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG). The mostly extraplastidial lipid phosphatidylcholine is found only in the outer envelope. Chloroplasts are the major site for fatty acid synthesis. In Arabidopsis, a certain proportion of glycerolipids is entirely synthesized in the chloroplast (prokaryotic lipids)...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Jorge J Casal, Sureshkumar Balasubramanian
When exposed to warmer, nonstressful average temperatures, some plant organs grow and develop at a faster rate without affecting their final dimensions. Other plant organs show specific changes in morphology or development in a response termed thermomorphogenesis. Selected coding and noncoding RNA, chromatin features, alternative splicing variants, and signaling proteins change their abundance, localization, and/or intrinsic activity to mediate thermomorphogenesis. Temperature, light, and circadian clock cues are integrated to impinge on the level or signaling of hormones such as auxin, brassinosteroids, and gibberellins...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
A Harvey Millar, Joshua L Heazlewood, Carmela Giglione, Michael J Holdsworth, Andreas Bachmair, Waltraud X Schulze
Assessing posttranslational modification (PTM) patterns within protein molecules and reading their functional implications present grand challenges for plant biology. We combine four perspectives on PTMs and their roles by considering five classes of PTMs as examples of the broader context of PTMs. These include modifications of the N terminus, glycosylation, phosphorylation, oxidation, and N-terminal and protein modifiers linked to protein degradation. We consider the spatial distribution of PTMs, the subcellular distribution of modifying enzymes, and their targets throughout the cell, and we outline the complexity of compartmentation in understanding of PTM function...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Matthias Erb, Philippe Reymond
Diverse molecular processes regulate the interactions between plants and insect herbivores. Here, we review genes and proteins that are involved in plant-herbivore interactions and discuss how their discovery has structured the current standard model of plant-herbivore interactions. Plants perceive damage-associated and, possibly, herbivore-associated molecular patterns via receptors that activate early signaling components such as Ca2+ , reactive oxygen species, and MAP kinases. Specific defense reprogramming proceeds via signaling networks that include phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and transcription factors...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Vilde Olsson, Lisa Joos, Shanshuo Zhu, Kris Gevaert, Melinka A Butenko, Ive De Smet
During the past decade, a flurry of research focusing on the role of peptides as short- and long-distance signaling molecules in plant cell communication has been undertaken. Here,we focus on peptides derived from nonfunctional precursors, and we address several key questions regarding peptide signaling. We provide an overview of the regulatory steps involved in producing a biologically active peptide ligand that can bind its corresponding receptor(s) and discuss how this binding and subsequent activation lead to specific cellular outputs...
December 10, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
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