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Experimental Psychology

Ed D J Berry, Richard J Allen, Amanda H Waterman, Robert H Logie
By investigating the effect of individualized verbal load on a visual working memory task, we investigated whether working memory is better captured by modality-specific stores or a general attentional resource. A visual measure was used that allows for the precision of representations in working memory to be quantified. Bayesian analyses were employed to contrast the likelihood of our data assuming a small versus a large effect, as predicted by the differing accounts. We found evidence that the effect of verbal load on visual precision and binary feature recall was small...
January 2019: Experimental Psychology
Hadar Ram, Dieter Struyf, Bram Vervliet, Gal Menahem, Nira Liberman
People apply what they learn from experience not only to the experienced stimuli, but also to novel stimuli. But what determines how widely people generalize what they have learned? Using a predictive learning paradigm, we examined the hypothesis that a low (vs. high) probability of an outcome following a predicting stimulus would widen generalization. In three experiments, participants learned which stimulus predicted an outcome (S+) and which stimulus did not (S-) and then indicated how much they expected the outcome after each of eight novel stimuli ranging in perceptual similarity to S+ and S-...
January 2019: Experimental Psychology
Franziska Schreckenbach, Klaus Rothermund, Nicolas Koranyi
Whenever individuals reveal personally relevant information to a stranger, they have to remember their self-disclosure for future interactions. Relying on instance-based theories of automaticity, we hypothesized that knowledge about having revealed private information to someone unfamiliar is retrieved automatically whenever this person is encountered again. In two studies, participants were orally interviewed by two different persons and instructed to be honest to one of them and to lie to the other. This instruction was either related to the identity of the interviewers (Experiment 1) or their gender (Experiment 2)...
January 2019: Experimental Psychology
Brittan A Barker, Emily M Elliott
The current research employed a classic irrelevant sound effect paradigm and investigated the talker-specific content of the irrelevant speech. Specifically, we aimed to determine if the participants' familiarity with the irrelevant speech's talker affected the magnitude of the irrelevant sound effect. Experiment 1 was an exploration of talker familiarity established in a natural listening environment (i.e., a university classroom) in which we manipulated the participants' relationships with the talker. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the participants' familiarity with the talker via 4 days of controlled exposure to the target talker's audio recordings...
January 2019: Experimental Psychology
Jinhui Zhang, Andrea Kiesel, David Dignath
Congruency effects diminish in contexts associated with mostly incongruent trials compared with contexts associated with mostly congruent trials. Here, we aimed to assess affective influences on this context-specific proportion congruent (CSPC) effect. We presented either neutral or affective faces as context stimuli in a Flanker task and associated mostly incongruent trials with male/female faces for a neutral-context group and with angry/happy faces for a affective-context group. To assess general influences of affective valence, we compared CSPC effects between the neutral-context group and the affective-context group...
January 2019: Experimental Psychology
Sina A Klein, Benjamin E Hilbig
Experimental tasks measure actual behavior when the consequences that follow actions and choices mirror those of real-life behavior. Consequently, choice tasks in consumer research would need to include both costs (losing a previously earned endowment) and gains (actually receiving what was chosen) to structurally resemble real-life consumer choices. A literature review of studies ( k = 446) in consumer research confirms that full implementation of consequences is rare. The extent to which presence versus absence of these consequences systematically affects observable behavior is tested in an experiment ( N = 669) comparing a fully consequential (cost and gain consequences), a partially consequential (gain consequence only), and a hypothetical (no consequences) consumer choice task...
January 2019: Experimental Psychology
Michèle C Muhmenthaler, Beat Meier
Research consistently shows that task switching slows down performance on switch compared to repeat trials, but the consequences on memory are less clear. In the present study, we investigated the impact of task switching on subsequent memory performance. Participants had to switch between two semantic classification tasks. In Experiment 1, the stimuli were univalent; in Experiment 2, the stimuli were bivalent (relevant for both tasks). The aim was to disentangle the conflicts triggered by task switching and bivalency...
January 2019: Experimental Psychology
Kit Ying Chan, Ming Ming Chiu, Brady A Dailey, Daroon M Jalil
This study disentangled factors contributing to impaired memory for foreign-accented words - misperception and disruption of encoding. When native English and Cantonese-accented words were presented auditorily for serial recall (Experiment 1), intrusion errors for accented words were higher across all serial positions (SPs). Participants made more intrusion errors during auditory presentation than visual and auditory presentation, and more errors for accented words than native words. Lengthening the interstimulus intervals in Experiment 2 reduced intrusion, repetition, order, and omission errors in the middle and late SPs during accented word recall, suggesting that extra time is required for identification and encoding of accented words into memory...
January 2019: Experimental Psychology
Thorsten Michael Erle, Sascha Topolinski
Recent research has shown that perceptual processes carry intrinsic affect. But prior studies have only manipulated the occurrence of perceptual processes by presenting two different stimulus categories. The present studies go beyond this by manipulating perceptual expectations for identical stimuli. Seven experiments demonstrated that objectively identical stimuli become visually disappointing and are liked less when they violate the expectation that an intrinsically pleasant perceptual process will occur compared to when there is no perceptual expectation...
November 2018: Experimental Psychology
Michael Geden, Ana-Maria Staicu, Jing Feng
The perceptual decoupling hypothesis suggests a general mechanism that while mind wandering, our attention is detached from our environment, resulting in diminished processing of external stimuli. This study focused on examining two possible specific mechanisms: the global suppression of all external stimuli, and a combination of reduced target facilitation and increased distractor suppression. An attentional capture task was used in which certain trials measured distractor suppression effects and others assessed target facilitation effects...
November 2018: Experimental Psychology
Bert Reynvoet, Helene Vos, Avishai Henik
Perceptual decisions such as that we have more strawberries than apples left in our fruit basket seem to be made effortlessly. However, it is not examined yet whether such decisions are also biased by the size of the objects, just like numerosity comparisons with meaningless dot arrays. We presented two homogeneous sets of larger and smaller fruits (e.g., three apples and four strawberries), and participants had to indicate which set was more numerous. Although accuracy was nearly perfect, a strong congruency effect was found in reaction times, showing it is more difficult to compare the numerosities of sets of 2 apples and 3 strawberries than the opposite, that is, 3 apples and 2 strawberries...
November 2018: Experimental Psychology
Jeffrey B Wagman, Brandon J Thomas, Dawn M McBride
In information-based approaches, affordances are perceived by detecting information that specifies an animal-environment fit, not by combining perceptions of constituent lower-order properties. Given that detection of such information necessarily occurs over space and time, there is no clear distinction between perception and memory. Rather, perceiving and remembering are continuous processes. Whereas previous research has investigated the continuity of perceived and remembered affordances for the self, we did so with respect to perceived and remembered affordances for others...
November 2018: Experimental Psychology
Veronika Lerche, Ursula Christmann, Andreas Voss
In experiments by Gibbs, Kushner, and Mills (1991) , sentences were supposedly either authored by poets or by a computer. Gibbs et al. (1991) concluded from their results that the assumed source of the text influences speed of processing, with a higher speed for metaphorical sentences in the Poet condition. However, the dependent variables used (e.g., mean RTs) do not allow clear conclusions regarding processing speed. It is also possible that participants had prior biases before the presentation of the stimuli...
November 2018: Experimental Psychology
Bernhard Hommel
Human beings are assumed to own a concept of their self, but it remains a mystery how they represent themselves and others. I shall develop a theoretical framework, inspired by the Theory of Event Coding, of how people represent themselves and others, how and under which circumstances these two kinds of representations interact and what consequences this has. In a nutshell, I shall argue that self- and other-representations can overlap to the degree that they share features, that the shared features are particularly relevant or salient, and that the individual is under a particular metacontrol state...
November 2018: Experimental Psychology
James A Grange
N-2 repetition costs in task switching refer to slower responses to ABA sequences compared to CBA sequences, reflecting the persisting inhibition of task A across the ABA sequence. The magnitude of inhibition is thought to be sensitive to activation levels of interfering tasks. This is supported by larger n-2 repetition costs when the response-cue interval (RCI) is reduced: At short RCIs, a just-performed task is highly active when a new task is required, triggering more inhibition. However, recent work has shown that much of the n-2 repetition cost measures episodic interference, rather than inhibition...
November 2018: Experimental Psychology
Volker Thoma, Jan W De Fockert
Participants made speeded categorization decisions regarding a famous person (politician or film star) accompanied by a peripheral distracter face (either the same or from the opposite category). The first experiment found that processing a peripheral distracter face is independent of load when the search set contains name strings. The search set in the second experiment consisted of faces. Interference effects between the target and distracter face (both shown in frontal views) were found when no additional non-target faces were present (low load), but not when two non-famous faces (high load) accompanied the target face, even when the latter were shown in three-quarter views...
November 2018: Experimental Psychology
Moyun Wang, Pengfei Yin
The covariation and causal power account for causal induction make different predictions for what is transferred in causal generalization across contexts. Two experiments tested these predictions using hypothetical scenarios in which the effect of an intervention was evaluated between (Experiment 1) or within (Experiment 2) groups. Each experiment contained a manipulation of ΔP, power and their combination. Both experiments found that causal transfer was determined by ΔP rather than causal power. The overall transfer pattern supports ΔP transfer account rather than the other transfer accounts...
September 20, 2018: Experimental Psychology
Amandine E Rey, Rémy Versace, Gaën Plancher
To prevent forgetting in working memory, the attentional refreshing is supposed to increase the level of activation of memory traces by focusing attention. However, the involvement of memory traces reactivation in refreshing relies in the majority on indirect evidence. The aim of this study was to show that refreshing relies on the reactivation of memory traces by investigating how the reactivation of an irrelevant trace prevents the attentional refreshing to take place, and (2) the memory traces reactivated are sensorial in nature...
September 20, 2018: Experimental Psychology
Peter Wühr, Christian Frings, Herbert Heuer
We tested the hypothesis that selective response preparation, based on reliable response cues, reduces response conflict in an Eriksen flanker task. Previous studies of this issue produced inconclusive results because presenting an always valid response cue before the stimulus display turns a choice-response task into a simple-response task, in which full processing of the actual stimulus display is no longer necessary. We conducted two experiments in which we matched stimulus processing in conditions without cues and with reliable cues as far as possible...
September 20, 2018: Experimental Psychology
Leonardo Martin, Caitlin Mills, Sidney K D'Mello, Evan F Risko
Material re-exposure (e.g., re-reading) is a popular mnemonic strategy, however, its utility has been questioned. We extend research on re-reading to re-watching - an emerging mnemonic technique given the increased use of recorded lectures today (e.g., in online courses). Consistent with findings from recent investigations of re-reading, there were no benefits of massed re-watching on memory for lecture material and re-watching increased rates of mind wandering. We discuss implications for understanding the cognitive consequences of re-exposure-based mnemonics...
September 20, 2018: Experimental Psychology
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