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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging

Francisco Morales-Acuna, Luis Ochoa, Carolina Valencia, Alvaro N Gurovich
INTRODUCTION: Endothelial dysfunction is considered the first step in the development of atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) has been the most common assessment of endothelial function in research but it has failed in obtaining a widespread use in clinical settings due to a lack of standardization and a large inter-subject variability. Normalization of FMD to endothelial shear stress (ESS) has been proposed to solve its technical limitations. However, studies have not considered the characteristic of the blood flow during FMD under pulsatile conditions in their ESS estimations...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
A Ingvarsson, A Werther Evaldsson, G J Smith, J Waktare, J Nilsson, M Stagmo, A Roijer, G Rådegran, C Meurling
AIMS: Assessment following heart transplantation (HTx) is routinely performed using transthoracic echocardiography. Differences in long-term mortality following HTx related to donor-recipient matching have been reported, but effects of gender on cardiac size and function are not well studied. The aims of this study were to evaluate differences in echocardiographic characteristics of HTx recipients defined by gender. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study prospectively enrolled 123 (n=34 female) HTx recipients of which 23 recipients were donor-recipient gender mismatched...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Hosahalli K Mohan, Lefteris Livieratos, A Michael Peters
Tc-99m-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m-MIBI) is a radiolabelled xenobiotic, the disappearance rate of which from lungs following inhalation as a radioaerosol correlates inversely with broncho-pulmonary MRP1 expression. Tc-99m-MIBI clearance has previously been shown to be delayed in cigarette smokers. The aim of the current study was to determine if smoking correlates with broncho-pulmonary MRP1 expression, to confirm that Tc-99m-MIBI disappearance rate from the lungs following inhalation is delayed in smokers, and to determine the effects of gender and age on disappearance rate...
January 16, 2019: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Anthony Lindholm, Roger Hesselstrand, Göran Rådegran, Håkan Arheden, Ellen Ostenfeld
PURPOSE: Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to systemic sclerosis (SSc) have high mortality. Left ventricular (LV) peak global longitudinal strain (GLS) is decreased in SSc. It is unknown if low GLS is due to SSc or PAH. Therefore, our primary aim was to evaluate both LV and RV free wall GLS (RVRF GLS) in SSc, with and without PAH, using cardiac magnetic resonance with feature tracking. Secondary aim was to relate GLS to invasive mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR)...
December 31, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Maciej Turski, Magdalena Kocierz-Woźnowska, Maciej Wybraniec, Marek Grabka, Marcin Wita, Adrianna Berger-Kucza, Krystian Wita, Katarzyna Mizia-Stec
INTRODUCTION: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the main causes of congestive heart failure (CHF). The main symptom of CHF is exercise tolerance impairment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for impaired exercise tolerance in patients after STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: 84 patients with STEMI were analyzed in the study. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was performed 6 months after STEMI. Impaired exercise tolerance defined as peak VO2 < 84% predicted for age and sex was present in 49 (58%) patients and was connected with lack of abciximab administration (91,4 vs 69%, p=0·02) and the presence of mitral regurgitation (47 vs...
December 27, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Ayano Ishizeki, Tomonori Kishino, Sawano Ogura, Haruna Kuga, Yuki Masai, Keiichiro Harashima, Satoshi Nakajima, Junichi Otaki, Hiroaki Ohnishi, Takashi Watanabe
Hemodynamics is subject to change after eating meals, which may be related to various postprandial physical statuses such as hypotension or daytime sleepiness. Previous studies have shown that blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) increases after meals, but conflicting results have been reported regarding blood flow in the common carotid artery (CCA). In those studies, the fasting interval before the meal was not taken into account. For example, eating breakfast shortly before lunch may affect hemodynamics in these vessels...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Zachary W Bell, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
The purpose was to examine the acute skeletal muscle response to high load exercise and low-load exercise with and without different levels of applied pressure (BFR). A total of 22 participants completed the following four conditions: elbow flexion exercise to failure using a traditional high load [70% 1RM, (7000)], low load [15% 1RM,(1500)], low load with moderate BFR [15%1RM+40%BFR(1540)] or low load with greater BFR [15% 1RM+80%BFR(1580)]. Torque and muscle thickness were measured prior to, immediately post, and 15 min postexercise...
December 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Marcus Carlsson, Martin Ugander, Mikael Kanski, Rasmus Borgquist, Ulf Ekelund, Håkan Arheden
BACKGROUND: Total heart volume (THV) within the pericardium is not constant throughout the cardiac cycle and THV would intuitively be lowest at end systole. We have, however, observed a phase shift between ventricular outflow and atrial inflow which causes the minimum THV to occur before end systole. The aims were to explain the mechanism of the late-systolic net inflow to the heart and determine whether this net inflow is affected by increased cardiac output or systolic heart failure...
December 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Panagiota Sotiriou, Evangelia Kouidi, Asterios Karagiannis, Nikolaos Koutlianos, Parashos Geleris, Vasileios Vassilikos, Asterios Deligiannis
BACKGROUND: Structural and functional arterial adaptations with regard to the type and level of training in young athletes are understudied. Our research aimed at evaluating them in two types of exercise (dynamic and static) and two levels of engagement (high and recreational). METHODS: A total of 76 volunteers formed five groups. Group A included 17 high-level dynamic sports athletes 30·9 ± 6·4 years old, group B 14 recreational ones aged 28·7 ± 6·2 years, group C 15 high-level static sports athletes 26·4 ± 3·9 years old and group D 16 recreational ones, aged 25·8 ± 4·8 years...
November 11, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Katarzyna Wdowiak-Okrojek, Paulina Wejner-Mik, Jarosław D Kasprzak, Piotr Lipiec
PURPOSE: The assessment of temporal changes in systolic and diastolic regional left ventricle function by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) after successful reperfusion therapy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: A total of 97 consecutive patients admitted with AMI and treated with successful percutaneous coronary intervention were included in this study. On days 1, 2, 3, 7, 30 and 180 following admission patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography with subsequent measurement of systolic longitudinal strain (SLS), systolic longitudinal strain rate (SRS) and early diastolic longitudinal strain rate (SRe) in left ventricular segments by speckle tracking technique...
November 7, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
A Werther Evaldsson, A Ingvarsson, J G Smith, G Rådegran, A Roijer, J Waktare, E Ostenfeld, C Meurling
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) systolic function is an important determinant of outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Conventional echocardiographic measures of RV are mainly based on longitudinal contractility. Recently, measurement of RV global longitudinal strain derived from multiple windows (RVGLS) has emerged as an option but has not been well evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate which echocardiographic RV function parameter correlates best with RV ejection fraction derived from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (RVEFCMR )...
October 30, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Adriano Machado de Lacerda, Sergio Augusto Lopes de Souza, Bianca Gutfilen, Léa Mirian Barbosa da Fonseca, Flávia Paiva Proença Lobo Lopes, Elise Tonomura, Mário Vaisman, Patrícia de Fátima Dos Santos Teixeira
It has been suggested that technetium-99m (99mTc)-anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) scintigraphy (SCI) may be a useful diagnostic tool in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). This study evaluated whether orbit total radioactivity uptake on SCI could be used to predict corticosteroid therapy (CorT) responses in active-GO patients. A longitudinal study of patients with active GO defined by Clinical Active Score (CAS) >3/7 was done. Clinical, laboratory and SCI evaluations were performed at baseline and 3 months after concluding intravenous CorT...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Matthew M Schubert, Rebekah F Seay, Katie K Spain, Holly E Clarke, James K Taylor
Accurate measures of body composition (BC) are essential for performance and health. In addition to accuracy, BC measures should be practical and be minimally invasive to maximize their utility. The purpose of the present study was to compare the day-to-day variability and validity of four common laboratory-based body composition assessments to a criterion four-compartment model. Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography (BP), multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (MF-BIA) and underwater weighing (UWW) were performed twice in a sample of 32 young men and women...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Alain Boussuges, Fabienne Brégeon, Philippe Blanc, Jean-Marie Gil, Laurent Poirette
BACKGROUND: M-mode ultrasonography might be useful for detecting hemidiaphragm paralysis. The objective of the present study was to describe the motion recorded by M-mode ultrasonography of both diaphragmatic leaves in patients with a pre-established diagnosis of hemidiaphragm paralysis. METHODS: A study was conducted in 26 patients (18 men, 8 women) with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. They were referred to two different rehabilitation centres after thoracic surgery in 23 cases and cardiac interventional procedures in three cases...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Pauliina Kangas, Antti Tikkakoski, Marko Uitto, Jari Viik, Heidi Bouquin, Onni Niemelä, Jukka Mustonen, Ilkka Pörsti
Impaired heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence regarding alterations of HRV in metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains elusive. In order to examine HRV in MetS, we subjected 501 volunteers without atherosclerosis, diabetes or antihypertensive medication, mean age 48 years, to passive head-up tilt. The subjects were divided to control men (n = 131), men with MetS (n = 121), control women (n = 191) and women with MetS (n = 58) according to the criteria by Alberti et al...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Henric Nilsson, Eva Nylander, Sabina Borg, Éva Tamás, Kristofer Hedman
Aortic valve surgery is the definitive treatment for aortic stenosis (AS). No specific recommendation is available on how exercise training should be conducted and evaluated after aortic valve replacement (AVR). This study aimed to examine the effect of aerobic exercise training on exercise capacity following AVR. In addition to our primary outcome variable, peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2 ), the effect on submaximal cardiopulmonary variables including oxygen uptake kinetics (tau), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) and ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) was evaluated...
October 8, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Michael Y Henein, Erik Tossavainen, Roman A'roch, Stefan Söderberg, Per Lindqvist
AIMS: Non-invasive estimation of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) during stress is important for explaining exertional symptoms in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to evaluate ability of Doppler echocardiographic measures of elevated LVFP with passive leg lifting (PLL) in patients with suspected HF. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with clinical signs of HF who underwent simultaneous Doppler echocardiography and right heart catheterization (RHC) at rest and during PLL were consecutively investigated...
October 8, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
May Sadik, Erica Lind, Eirini Polymeri, Olof Enqvist, Johannes Ulén, Elin Trägårdh
BACKGROUND: 18F-FDG-PET/CT has become a standard for assessing treatment response in patients with lymphoma. A subjective interpretation of the scan based on the Deauville 5-point scale has been widely adopted. However, inter-observer variability due to the subjectivity of the interpretation is a limitation. Our main goal is to develop an objective and automated method for evaluating response. The first step is to develop and validate an artificial intelligence (AI)-based method, for the automated quantification of reference levels in the liver and mediastinal blood pool in patients with lymphoma...
October 3, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Daria Frestad Bechsgaard, Ida Gustafsson, Jesper James Linde, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed, Eva Prescott, Jens Dahlgaard Hove
PURPOSE: Combined coronary CT angiography and CT perfusion (CTP) is a novel, non-invasive, 'one-stop' diagnostic tool to rule out ischaemia in patients suspected for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the normal myocardial perfusion pattern by static CTP in humans is poorly described. We aimed to investigate global and regional myocardial perfusion during rest and adenosine-induced hyperaemia in asymptomatic women without history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Using a 320-row CT scanner with a static protocol, semi-quantitative assessment of rest and stress CTP was performed in 34 asymptomatic middle-aged women without obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis) or history of CHD, and with normal exercise stress test and left ventricular (LV) function...
September 30, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Melissa Mazor, Betty J Smoot, Judy Mastick, Grace Mausisa, Steven M Paul, Kord M Kober, Charles Elboim, Komal Singh, Yvette P Conley, Gabby Mickevicius, Jennifer Field, Heather Hutchison, Christine Miaskowski
Given the paucity of information on local tissue water (LTW) in the upper extremity and trunk of women after breast cancer surgery, the purpose of this study was to compare tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values between the affected and unaffected sides of breast cancer survivors with and without upper extremity lymphoedema (LE). Differences in LTW were assessed using the TDC method for three sites in the upper limbs, three sites in the lateral thorax and two sites on the back. Additional measures included demographic and clinical characteristics, arm circumference and bioimpedance analysis...
September 12, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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