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Immune Network

Joo-Young Park, Juntae Kwon, Emily Y Kim, Juliet Fink, Hye Kyung Kim, Jung-Hyun Park
Invariant NKT ( i NKT) cells are a small subset of thymus-generated T cells that produce cytokines to control both innate and adaptive immunity. Because of their very low frequency in the thymus, in-depth characterization of i NKT cells can be facilitated by their enrichment from total thymocytes. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) of glycolipid antigen-loaded CD1d-tetramer-binding cells is a commonly used method to enrich i NKT cells. Surprisingly, we found that this procedure also dramatically altered the subset composition of enriched i NKT cells...
April 2019: Immune Network
Ah-Ra Jang, Green Kim, Jung Joo Hong, Soon Myung Kang, Sung Jae Shin, Jong-Hwan Park
6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6), a virulent factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , is involved in immune regulation. However, the underlying mechanism behind the activation and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) by ESAT6 remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect on TLRs signaling on the regulation of ESAT6-induced activation and maturation of DCs. ESAT6 induced production of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-12p40 in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice, with this induction abolished in TLR4-deficient cells...
April 2019: Immune Network
Hi Eun Jung, Ye Ri Shim, Ji Eun Oh, Dong Sun Oh, Heung Kyu Lee
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in bone marrow are pluripotent cells that can constitute the hematopoiesis system through self-renewal and differentiation into immune cells and red blood cells. To ensure a competent hematopoietic system for life, the maintenance of HSCs is tightly regulated. Although autophagy, a self-degradation pathway for cell homeostasis, is essential for hematopoiesis, the role of autophagy key protein Atg5 in HSCs has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we found that Atg5 deficiency in hematopoietic cells causes survival defects, resulting in severe lymphopenia and anemia in mice...
April 2019: Immune Network
Jimin Son, Yong Woo Cho, Youn Jung Woo, Young Ae Baek, Eun Jee Kim, Yuri Cho, Joon Ye Kim, Beom Seok Kim, Jason Jungsik Song, Sang-Jun Ha
During virus infection, T cells must be adapted to activation and lineage differentiation states via metabolic reprogramming. Whereas effector CD8+ T cells preferentially use glycolysis for their rapid proliferation, memory CD8+ T cells utilize oxidative phosphorylation for their homeostatic maintenance. Particularly, enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity promotes the memory T cell response through different pathways. However, the level of AMPK activation required for optimal memory T cell differentiation remains unclear...
April 2019: Immune Network
Boae Lee, Geona Kim, Yuna Jo, Byunghyuk Lee, Yong-Il Shin, Changwan Hong
Despite the broad rehabilitative potential of aquatic exercises, the relationship between aquatic exercise and the immune system has not been fully elucidated to date. In particular, there are few specific and delicate immunological approaches to the effect of water temperature on immunity. Thus, we examined the effect of water temperature on immunity during aquatic exercise. The animal tumor model was adopted to examine the impact of aquatic exercise at thermoneutral temperature (TT; 29°C) on immunity compared with aquatic exercise at body temperature (BT; 36°C)...
April 2019: Immune Network
Jeong Woo Park, Hyun Young Kim, Min Geun Kim, Soyoung Jeong, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Staphylococcus aureus , a Gram-positive pathogen, can cause severe inflammation in humans, leading to various life-threatening diseases. The lipoprotein is a major virulence factor in S. aureus -induced infectious diseases and is responsible for excessive inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO). Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including butyrate, propionate, and acetate are microbial metabolites in the gut that are known to have anti-inflammatory effects in the host. In this study, we investigated the effects of SCFAs on S...
April 2019: Immune Network
Dong Hyun Sohn, Tam T Nguyen, Sinae Kim, Saerok Shim, Siyoung Lee, Youngmin Lee, Hyunjhung Jhun, Tania Azam, Joohee Kim, Soohyun Kim
IL-32 exists as seven mRNA transcripts that can translate into distinct individual IL-32 variants with specific protein domains. These translated protein domains of IL-32 variants code for specific functions that allow for interaction with different molecules intracellularly or extracellularly. The longest variant is IL-32γ possessing 234 amino acid residues with all 11 protein domains, while the shortest variant is IL-32α possessing 131 amino acid residues with three of the protein domains. The first domain exists in 6 variants except IL-32δ variant, which has a distinct translation initiation codon due to mRNA splicing...
April 2019: Immune Network
Suk San Choi, Eunkyeong Jang, Yeon-Kyung Oh, Kiseok Jang, Mi-La Cho, Sung-Hwan Park, Jeehee Youn
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that affects mainly salivary and lacrimal glands, but its cause remains largely unknown. Clinical data indicating that SS occurs in a substantial proportion of patients with lupus points to common pathogenic mechanisms underlying the two diseases. To address this idea, we asked whether SS develops in the lupus-prone mouse strain sanroque (SAN). Owing to hyper-activation of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, female SAN mice developed lupus-like symptoms at approximately 20 wk of age but there were no signs of SS at that time...
February 2019: Immune Network
Hye-Yeon Won, Ju-Young Lee, Dahye Ryu, Hyung-Taek Kim, Sun-Young Chang
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique subset of cells with different functional characteristics compared to classical dendritic cells. The pDCs are critical for the production of type I IFN in response to microbial and self-nucleic acids. They have an important role for host defense against viral pathogen infections. In addition, pDCs have been well studied as a critical player for breaking tolerance to self-nucleic acids that induce autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. However, pDCs have an immunoregulatory role in inducing the immune tolerance by generating Tregs and various regulatory mechanisms in mucosal tissues...
February 2019: Immune Network
Jinju Lee, Hun Sik Kim
Autophagy is a homeostatic mechanism that discards not only invading pathogens but also damaged organelles and denatured proteins via lysosomal degradation. Increasing evidence suggests a role for autophagy in inflammatory diseases, including infectious diseases, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, and pulmonary hypertension. These studies suggest that modulating autophagy could be a novel therapeutic option for inflammatory diseases. Eosinophils are a major type of inflammatory cell that aggravates airway inflammatory diseases, particularly corticosteroid-resistant inflammation...
February 2019: Immune Network
Keun Hur, Sang-Hyon Kim, Ji-Min Kim
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding RNAs of more than 200 nucleotides in length. Despite the term "noncoding", lncRNAs have been reported to be involved in gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that lncRNAs play crucial roles in the regulation of immune system and the development of autoimmunity. lncRNAs are expressed in various immune cells including T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and NK cells, and are also involved in the differentiation and activation of these immune cells...
February 2019: Immune Network
Rodrigo G de Souza, Cintia S de Paiva, Milton R Alves
Aging is a complex process associated with dysregulation of the immune system and low levels of inflammation, often associated with the onset of many pathologies. The lacrimal gland (LG) plays a vital role in the maintenance of ocular physiology and changes related to aging directly affect eye diseases. The dysregulation of the immune system in aging leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in antibodies and cytokines. While there is a gradual decline of the immune system, there is an increase in autoimmunity, with a reciprocal pathway between low levels of inflammation and aging mechanisms...
February 2019: Immune Network
Youn-Kwan Jung, Young-Mo Kang, Seungwoo Han
The enhanced differentiation and activation of osteoclasts (OCs) in the inflammatory arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gout causes not only local bone erosion, but also systemic osteoporosis, leading to functional disabilities and morbidity. The induction and amplification of NFATc1, a master regulator of OC differentiation, is mainly regulated by receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand-RANK and calcium signaling which are amplified in the inflammatory milieu, as well as by inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6...
February 2019: Immune Network
Takeshi Tsubata
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototypic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by production of autoantibodies to various nuclear antigens and overexpression of genes regulated by IFN-I called IFN signature. Genetic studies on SLE patients and mutational analyses of mouse models demonstrate crucial roles of nucleic acid (NA) sensors in development of SLE. Although NA sensors are involved in induction of anti-microbial immune responses by recognizing microbial NAs, recognition of self NAs by NA sensors induces production of autoantibodies to NAs in B cells and production of IFN-I in plasmacytoid dendritic cells...
February 2019: Immune Network
Rosa Mistica C Ignacio, Eun-Sook Lee, Andrew J Wilson, Alicia Beeghly-Fadiel, Margaret M Whalen, Deok-Soo Son
One-fifth of cancer deaths are associated with obesity. Because the molecular mechanisms by which obesity affects the progression of ovarian cancer (OC) are poorly understood, we investigated if obesity could promote the progression of OC cells using the postmenopausal ob/ob mouse model and peritoneal dissemination of mouse ID8 OC cells. Compared to lean mice, obese mice had earlier OC occurrence, greater metastasis throughout the peritoneal cavity, a trend toward shorter survival, and higher circulating glucose and proinflammatory chemokine CXCL1 levels...
December 2018: Immune Network
Ha-Yan Park, Hee-Kyung Yoon, Jong-Yeup Kim, Seok-Rae Park
Dectin-1 is a major receptor that recognizes fungal cell wall β-glucan. We previously reported that heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKSC), a Dectin-1 agonist, selectively induces IgG1 class switching in mouse B cells. Dectin-1 is also expressed on human B cells; however, Dectin-1 function in human B cells remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the direct effect of in vitro stimulation using HKSC on Ig class switching in human B cells. HKSC selectively induced the expression of germline γ4 transcripts (GLTγ4) by human B cell line 2E2, and HKSC significantly augmented GLTγ4 promoter activity...
December 2018: Immune Network
Minsuk Kwon, Young Joon Choi, Moa Sa, Su-Hyung Park, Eui-Cheol Shin
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 Abs, have shown efficacy for the treatment of various cancers. Although research has actively sought to develop new ICIs and immunomodulators, no efficient in vitro assay system is available to evaluate their functional activities. In the present study, we established a two-round MLR with human PBMCs for evaluation of the T cell-activating capacity of anti-PD-1 and other immunomodulators. We initially performed conventional MLR for this purpose...
December 2018: Immune Network
Young-Kwan Lee, Ji-Min Ju, Woo-Jeong Shon, Sehwa Oh, Chang-Ki Min, Myung-Soo Kang, Dong-Mi Shin, Eun Young Choi
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a life-threatening complication after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is induced by activation of alloreactive donor T cells. Our previous study demonstrated that transplantation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-deficient knockout (KO) bone marrow (BM) resulted in aggravation of GVHD. Here, to understand the cellular mechanism, we performed longitudinal in vivo imaging and flow cytometric analyses followed by transcriptome and functional examination of donor MyD88-KO BM progenies in GVHD hosts, using a major histocompatibility complex-matched but minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched C57BL/6→BALB...
December 2018: Immune Network
Chang-Won Hong
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-derived vesicles that mediate intercellular communications. As professional phagocytes, neutrophils also produce EVs in response to various inflammatory stimuli during inflammatory processes. Neutrophil-derived EVs can be categorized into 2 subtypes according to the mechanism of generation. Neutrophil-derived trails (NDTRs) are generated from migrating neutrophils. The uropods of neutrophils are elongated by adhesion to endothelial cells, and small parts of the uropods are detached, leaving submicrometer-sized NDTRs...
December 2018: Immune Network
Mirim Jin, Juhan Yoon
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common pruritic inflammatory skin disease characterized by thickening of epidermis and dermis as well as by the infiltration of multiple pathogenic polarized T lymphocytes, including Th2, Th17, and Th22 cells. Significant progress has been made to develop targeted therapeutics for treating AD, e.g., Food and Drug Administration-approved dupilumab, an antibody for dual targeting of IL-4 and IL-13 signaling pathways. Additionally, a growing body of published evidence and a promising result from the early stage of the clinical trial with ILV-094, an anti-IL-22 antibody, strongly support the notion that IL-22 is a potential therapeutic target for treating AD...
December 2018: Immune Network
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