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Learning and Individual Differences

Barbara A Lewis, Lisa Freebairn, Jessica Tag, Penelope Benchek, Nathan J Morris, Sudha K Iyengar, H Gerry Taylor, Catherine M Stein
This study examined the spelling skills in middle childhood and adolescence in individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI). Youth without such histories were also included (No SSD/LI group). The heritability of spelling skills at each age level was estimated. Children with SSD were classified as SSD-only, SSD with LI but without childhood apraxia of speech (SSD + LI/ No CAS), and CAS and LI (CAS + LI). The SSD-only group did not differ in spelling from the No SSD/LI group, suggesting that SSD-only did not increase risk for poor spelling...
July 2018: Learning and Individual Differences
Jessica M Namkung, Lynn S Fuchs, Natalie Koziol
The purposes of this study were to (a) explore whether early fractions understanding at 4th grade is differentially challenging for students with versus without adequate whole-number competence and (b) identify specific whole-number skill associated with difficulty in fractions understanding. Based on initial whole-number competence, 1,108 4th graders were classified as having (a) adequate whole-number competence ( n = 775), (b) less severe whole-number difficulty ( n = 201), and (c) severe whole-number difficulty ( n = 132)...
January 2018: Learning and Individual Differences
Florina Erbeli, Sara A Hart, Young-Suk Grace Kim, Jeanette Taylor
Researchers have identified sources of individual differences in writing across beginning and developing writers. The aim of the present study was to further clarify the sources of this variability by investigating the extent to which there are differences in genetic and environmental factors underlying the associations between lexical diversity, syntactic knowledge, and semantic cohesion knowledge in relation to writing. Differences were examined across two developmental phases of writing: beginning (i.e., elementary school) and developing (i...
October 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
Amelia S Malone, Abbey M Loehr, Lynn S Fuchs
The purpose of the study was to determine whether individual differences in at-risk 4th graders' language comprehension, nonverbal reasoning, concept formation, working memory, and use of decimal labels (i.e., place value, point, incorrect place value, incorrect fraction, or whole number) are related to their decimal magnitude understanding. Students (n = 127) completed 6 cognitive assessments, a decimal labeling assessment, and 3 measures of decimal magnitude understanding (i.e., comparing decimals to the fraction [Formula: see text] benchmark task, estimating where decimals belong on a 0-1 number line, and identifying fraction and decimal equivalencies)...
August 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
Jeanette Taylor, Chelsea R Ennis, Sara A Hart, Amy J Mikolajewski, Christopher Schatschneider
The goal of this study was to identify home environmental and temperament/behavior variables that best predict standardized reading comprehension scores among school-aged children. Data from 269 children aged 9-16 ( M = 12.08; SD = 1.62) were used in discriminant function analyses to create the Home and Behavior indices. Family income was controlled in each index. The final Home and Behavior models each classified around 75% of cases correctly (reading comprehension at grade level vs. not). Each index was then used to predict other outcomes related to reading...
July 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
Trelani F Milburn, Christopher J Lonigan, Darcey M Allan, Beth M Phillips
To investigate approaches for identifying young children who may be at risk for later reading-related learning disabilities, this study compared the use of four contemporary methods of indexing learning disability (LD) with older children (i.e., IQ-achievement discrepancy, low achievement, low growth, and dual-discrepancy) to determine risk status with a large sample of 1,011 preschoolers. These children were classified as at risk or not using each method across three early-literacy skills (i.e., language, phonological awareness, print knowledge) and at three levels of severity (i...
April 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
Daniel E Gustavson, Akira Miyake
This study examined the relationship between academic procrastination and goal accomplishment in two novel ways. First, we experimentally tested whether undergraduate students ( N = 177) could reduce their academic procrastination over a course of three weeks after performing goal-related exercises to set so-called SMART goals and/or to prepare those students with specific strategies to resist their temptations (forming implementation intentions). Second, we conducted systematic regression analyses to examine whether academic procrastination at baseline uniquely predicts later goal-related outcomes, controlling for various correlated variables, including personality traits (e...
February 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
Amber Y Wang, Lynn S Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs
The purpose of this study was to identify cognitive and linguistic predictors of word problems with versus without irrelevant information. The sample was 701 2nd-grade students who received no specialized intervention on word problems. In the fall, they were assessed on initial arithmetic and word-problem skill as well as language ability, working memory capacity, and processing speed; in the spring, they were tested on a word-problem measure that included items with versus without irrelevant information. Significant predictors common to both forms of word problems were initial arithmetic and word problem-solving skill as well as language and working memory...
December 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Sara A Hart, Shayne B Piasta, Laura M Justice
The present study included 314 children who had been involved in Project STAR, and explored how two learning-related behaviors, interest in literacy and effortful control, moderated the impact of the literacy intervention on reading outcomes. Results indicated significant associations of both learning-related behaviors with reading, with the children with the highest literacy interest and effortful control in the intervention group showing the highest reading outcomes. These results indicate that accounting for a greater breadth of possible moderators of intervention impacts is an important area to explore...
August 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Maria G Tosto, Kathryn Asbury, Michèle M M Mazzocco, Stephen A Petrill, Yulia Kovas
Drawing on Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation model, perceived classroom environment and three intrapersonal factors (mathematics self-efficacy, maths interest and academic self-concept) were considered as predictors of test performance in two correlated mathematics assessments: a public examination (GCSE) and an on-line test, both taken by UK pupils at age 16 (n = 6689). Intrapersonal factors were significantly associated with both test scores, even when the alternative score was taken into account. Classroom environment did not correlate with mathematics achievement once intrapersonal factors and alternative test performance were included in the model, but was associated with subject interest and academic self-concept...
August 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Christopher R Wolfe, Valerie F Reyna, Colin L Widmer, Elizabeth M Cedillos-Whynott, Priscila G Brust-Renck, Audrey M Weil, Xiangen Hu
The BRCA Gist Intelligent Tutoring System helps women understand and make decisions about genetic testing for breast cancer risk. BRCA Gist is guided by Fuzzy-Trace Theory, (FTT) and built using AutoTutor Lite. It responds differently to participants depending on what they say. Seven tutorial dialogues requiring explanation and argumentation are guided by three FTT concepts: forming gist explanations in one's own words, emphasizing decision-relevant information, and deliberating the consequences of decision alternatives...
July 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Curtis Tatsuoka, Bridget McGowan, Tomoko Yamada, Kimberly Andrews Espy, Nori Minich, H Gerry Taylor
Although mathematics disabilities (MD) are common in extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW) children, little is known about the nature of these problems. In this study partially ordered set (POSET) models were applied to classify 140 EPT/ELBW kindergarten children (gestational age <28 weeks and/or birth weight <1000 g) and 110 normal birth weight (NBW) controls into profiles of numerical and cognitive skills. Models based on five numerical skills and five executive function and processing speed skills provided a good fit to performance data...
July 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Tina J Glasner, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Even children attending the same primary school and taught by the same teacher differ greatly in their performance. In the Netherlands, performance at the end of primary school determines the enrollment in a particular level of secondary education. Identifying the impact of genes and the environment on individual differences in educational achievement between children is important. The Netherlands Twin Register has collected data on scores of tests used in primary school (ages 6 to 12) to monitor a child's educational progress in four domains, i...
April 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Ui Jeong Moon, Sandra L Hofferth
Gender differences in elementary school performance among immigrant children have not yet been well documented. This study examined how differences in parental involvement, child effort, and family characteristics and resources contribute to immigrant boys'-and girls' academic achievement from kindergarten through 5(th)-grade. The sample was drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort. Using a latent score growth model, this study found that parents' involvement at home benefited boys' reading and mathematics skills throughout all early elementary school years, but did not have the same benefit for girls...
April 1, 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Sergey A Kornilov, Tatiana V Lebedeva, Marina A Zhukova, Natalia A Prikhoda, Irina V Korotaeva, Roman A Koposov, Lesley Hart, Jodi Reich, Elena L Grigorenko
Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children...
February 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Paul Bangirana, Robert O Opoka, Michael J Boivin, Richard Idro, James S Hodges, Chandy C John
This study assessed the effects of cerebral malaria (CM) and severe malarial anemia (SMA) on individual neurocognitive domains. Eighty children with CM, 86 with SMA, and 61 community children (CC) were assessed for gross motor skills, fine motor skills, visual reception, receptive language, and expressive language a week after discharge (CM or SMA) or at enrolment (CC), and 6 and 12 months later. At 12-months follow-up, children with CM had significantly lower scores than CC for all outcomes. Children with SMA had significantly lower scores than CC for visual reception, receptive language, and expressive language, and scores that were lower but did not reach significance for gross and fine motor skills...
February 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Catalina Mourgues, Mei Tan, Sascha Hein, Emma Ojanen, Jodi Reich, Heikki Lyytinen, Elena L Grigorenko
Associative learning has been identified as one of several non-linguistic processes involved in reading acquisition. However, it has not been established whether it is an independent process that contributes to reading performance on its own or whether it is a process that is embedded in other linguistic skills (e.g., phonological awareness or phonological memory) and, therefore, contributing to reading performance indirectly. Research has shown that performance on tasks assessing associative learning, e.g...
February 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Sascha Hein, Mei Tan, Jodi Reich, Philip E Thuma, Elena L Grigorenko
This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3(rd) to 7(th) graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively...
February 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Itziar Familiar, Noeline Nakasujja, Judith Bass, Alla Sikorskii, Sarah Murray, Horacio Ruisenor-Escudero, Paul Bangirana, Robert Opoka, Michael J Boivin
Maternal mental health (particularly depression) may influence how they report on their child's behavior. Few research studies have focused on Sub-Saharan countries where pediatric HIV concentrates and impacts child neuropsychological development and caregiver mental health. We investigated the associations between caregivers' depressive symptoms and neuropsychological outcomes in HIV-infected (n=118) and HIV-exposed (n=164) Ugandan children aged 2-5 years. We compared performance-based tests of development (Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Color Object Association Test), to a caregiver report of executive function (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, BRIEF)...
February 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Sascha Hein, Jodi Reich, Sarah Marks, Philip E Thuma, Elena L Grigorenko
Careful development and adaptation of assessments is imperative for cultural psychological research. However, despite the best efforts, the use of assessments in new contexts can reveal atypical and/or unexpected patterns of performance. We found this to be the case in the testing of assessments to be used for a larger investigation of Specific Reading Disabilities in Zambia. In a sample of 207 children (100 female) from grades 2 to 7, we illustrated that assessment characteristics (i.e., stimulus type, answer choice, and response type) differentially impact patterns of responsiveness...
February 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
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