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Macromolecular Bioscience

Paul L Chariou, Lu Wang, Cian Desai, Jooneon Park, Leanna K Robbins, Horst A von Recum, Reza A Ghiladi, Nicole F Steinmetz
The development of plant viral nanoparticles (VNP) loaded with different molecular versions of a photodynamic drug is described. Specifically, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) are developed as drug carriers that encapsulate the monocationic, dicationic, tricationic, and tetracationic versions of a porphyrin-based photosensitizer drug (Zn-Por). While TMV has been extensively explored for various nanotechnology applications, this is the first study investigating TMGMV for medical applications...
February 5, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Dongyan Zhou, Yue Sun, Zixian Bao, Wenshuai Liu, Mo Xian, Rui Nian, Fei Xu
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural product with multiple properties, which has been utilized in tissue engineering. However, cell adhesion and proliferation are reported to be weaker on native BC, providing less support compared to other types of biomaterials, like collagen. To increase the biocompatibility and the medical performance of BC, in situ modification is used to add carboxymethyl group to BC. By partially changing the structure and physical properties of BC, carboxymethylation significantly increases cell affinity and viability, especially on the initial cell adhesion...
February 5, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sophia Boden, Franziska Reise, Jessica Kania, Thisbe K Lindhorst, Laura Hartmann
This study investigates the influence of an increasingly hydrophobic backbone of multivalent glycomimetics based on sequence-defined oligo(amidoamines) on their resulting affinity toward bacterial lectins. Glycomacromolecules are obtained by stepwise assembly of tailor-made building blocks on solid support, using both hydrophobic aliphatic and aromatic building blocks to enable a gradual change in hydrophobicity of the backbone. Their binding behavior toward model lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) is evaluated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showing higher affinities for glycomacromolecules with higher content of hydrophobic and aromatic moieties in the backbone...
February 1, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ryoma Teranishi, Takayuki Matsuda, Eiji Yuba, Kenji Kono, Atsushi Harada
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a novel promising noninvasive therapy involving utilization of low-intensity ultrasound and sonosensitizer, which can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) by sonication. In SDT, a high therapeutic effect is achieved by intracellular delivery and accumulation at the target sites of sonosensitizer followed by oxidative damage of produced ROS by sonication. Here, pH- and redox-responsive hollow nanocapsules are prepared through the introduction of disulfide cross-linkages to self-assembled polymer vesicles formed from polyamidoamine dendron-poly(l-lysine) for the efficient delivery of sonosensitizer...
February 1, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sing Shy Liow, Pei Lin Chee, Cally Owh, Kangyi Zhang, Yubin Zhou, Feng Gao, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Xian Jun Loh
Poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a natural biodegradable polyester, has attracted much attention as a new biomaterial because of its sustainability and good biocompatibility. In this study, it is discovered that PHB can be conveniently functionalized to obtain a number of platform chain architectures that may provide a wide range of functional copolymers. In a transesterification reaction, linear (di-hydroxylated) and star shaped (tri- and tetra-hydroxylated) PHB oligomers are synthesized, followed by copolymerization with 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and quaternization with benzyl bromide to afford antimicrobial properties...
January 29, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sa Liu, Jiahong Jin, Yong-Guang Jia, Jin Wang, Lina Mo, Xiaohui Chen, Dawei Qi, Yunhua Chen, Li Ren
The use of natural compounds to construct biomaterials, including delivery system, is an attractive strategy. In the present study, through threading functional α-cyclodextrins onto the conjugated macromolecules of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and natural compound bile acid, glycopolymers of polyrotaxanes with the active targeting ability are obtained. These glycopolymers self-assemble into micelles as evidenced by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, in which glucosamine, as an example of targeting groups, is introduced...
January 29, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Tal Ben Shalom, Yuval Nevo, David Leibler, Zvi Shtein, Clarite Azerraf, Shaul Lapidot, Oded Shoseyov
This study is aimed to explore the properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films with and without 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), a nontoxic crosslinker. CNC and CNC-PVA nanocomposite films are prepared using solution-casting technique. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses show that crosslinking increased the glass transition temperature but reduced the melting temperature and crystallinity. Furthermore, high CNC concentrations in the PVA matrix interfere with PVA crystallinity, whereas in specific ratio between CNC and PVA, two different crystalline structures are observed within the PVA matrix...
January 23, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Nurdiana Nordin, Lorenzo Bordonali, Vlad Badilita, Neil MacKinnon
Biosensing applications have taken advantage of lab-on-a-chip technologies for sample handling and sensors integration for highly sensitive, specific detection with high throughput. These systems are based on 2.5D fabrication principles with sensing elements restricted to an array format in two dimensions. In this report, a sensing platform that recovers biosensing capabilites in three spatial dimensions is presented. This is achieved by leveraging chitosan, a stimulus responsive polyaminosaccharide that undergoes a sol-gel transition driven by a change of pH...
January 22, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sajeesh Kumar Madhurakkat Perikamana, Sang Min Lee, Jinkyu Lee, Taufiq Ahmad, Minsuk Lee, Hee-Seok Yang, Heungsoo Shin
Plant derived flavonoids have not been well explored in tissue engineering applications due to difficulties in efficient formulations with biomaterials for controlled presentation. Here, the authors report that surface coating of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on polymeric substrates including poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers can be performed via oxidative polymerization of EGCG in the presence of cations, enabling regulation of biological functions of multiple cell types implicated in bone regeneration...
January 15, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Daniel Andrzej Szulc, Hai-Ling Margaret Cheng
Biomaterial scaffolds are the cornerstone to supporting 3D tissue growth. Optimized scaffold design is critical to successful regeneration, and this optimization requires accurate knowledge of the scaffold's interaction with living tissue in the dynamic in vivo milieu. Unfortunately, non-invasive methods that can probe scaffolds in the intact living subject are largely underexplored, with imaging-based assessment relying on either imaging cells seeded on the scaffold or imaging scaffolds that have been chemically altered...
January 15, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yangyang Gao, Nan Song, Wenxin Liu, Alideertu Dong, Yan-Jie Wang, Ying-Wei Yang
The increasing occurrence of bacterial infection at the wound sites is a serious global problem, demanding the rapid development of new antibacterial materials for wound dressing to avoid the abuse of antibiotics and thereby antibiotic resistance. In this work, the authors first report on antibacterial N-halamine polymer nanomaterials based on a strategic copolymerization of 3-allyl-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (ADMH) and methyl methacrylate (MMA), which exhibits in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy against pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli...
January 15, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Zihao Zhang, Xucheng Zhang, Yuxue Ding, Peihua Long, Jia Guo, Changchun Wang
Nanocarrier-based cancer therapy suffers from poor tumor penetration and unsatisfied therapeutical efficacy, as its vascular extravasation efficiency is often compromised by the intrinsic physiological heterogeneity in tumor tissues. In this work, novel near infrared (NIR)-responsive CuS-loaded nanogels are prepared to deliver anticarcinogen into the tumor. These hybrid polymeric nanogels possess high photothermal conversion efficiency, and are able to load a large amount of antitumor drug (e.g., doxorubicin [DOX])...
January 15, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Héctor Soria-Carrera, Ainhoa Lucía, Laura De Matteis, José A Aínsa, Jesús M de la Fuente, Rafael Martín-Rapún
The coating of polypeptidic micelles with sodium alginate is described as a strategy to improve the stability of micelles for drug delivery. Bedaquiline, approved in 2012 for the treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, has been used as an example of hydrophobic drug to study the loading efficiency, the release of the encapsulated drug in different media, and the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the system. Alginate coating prevents the burst release of the drug from micelles upon dilution and leads to a sustained release in all tested media...
January 15, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Nina Yu Kostina, Sebastien Blanquer, Ognen Pop-Georgievski, Khosrow Rahimi, Barbara Dittrich, Anita Höcherl, Jiří Michálek, Dirk W Grijpma, Cesar Rodriguez-Emmenegger
Stereolithography-assisted fabrication of hydrogels of carboxybetaine methacrylamide (CBMAA) and a α,ω-methacrylate poly(d,l-lactide-block-ethylene glycol-block- d,l-lactide) (MA-PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA-MA) telechelic triblock macromer is presented. This technique allows printing complex structures with gyroid interconnected porosity possessing extremely high specific area. Hydrogels are characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM)...
January 15, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yang Ming, Yao Xiao, Yuan Tian, Shaobing Zhou
Considerable efforts have been devoted to enhancing the cell penetration of nanoparticles by coating cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) on the surface. However, the internalization mechanism for a CPP at different concentrations varies a lot. It is acknowledged that the mechanism is restricted to endocytic pathway at relatively low concentrations; however, direct translocation becomes dominant at high concentrations. This raises an interesting question on how the surface Tat coating density of the nanoparticles would influence their cell-membrane interaction and the consequent internalization behavior...
January 9, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Katsuya Hyodo, Yoshinori Arisaka, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Yoda, Nobuhiko Yui
Modulation of material properties and growth factor application are critical in constructing suitable cell culture environments to induce desired cellular functions. Sulfonated polyrotaxane (PRX) surfaces with immobilized vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are prepared to improve network formation in vascular endothelial cells. Sulfonated PRXs, whereby sulfonated α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) are threaded onto a linear poly(ethylene glycol) chain capped with bulky groups at both terminals, are coated onto surfaces...
January 9, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Zahra Baghban Taraghdari, Rana Imani, Fatemeh Mohabatpour
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most prevalent non-contagious disease, which has affected a large number of people all over the world. Among all treatments known to have a positive influence in the control of DM, insulin therapy is the most common and effective one. Nowadays, various methods of insulin delivery are under investigation, which are able to reach a plausible bioavailability with ignorable side effects instead of insulin injection. This article presents a comprehensive review of the insulin therapy approach with a focus on modified methods in insulin delivery strategies and current advances in engineered insulin delivery systems...
January 6, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Yu Dai, Xiaojin Zhang
Polyethylenimines (PEIs) are outstanding macromolecules belonging to the polycations used in gene transfection. The transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of PEIs increase with the increase in their molecular weight. To break up the correlation between transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity for non-viral gene delivery, disulfide cross-linked polyethylenimine (PEI-SS) has been widely employed as highly efficient gene vectors for DNA/siRNA delivery in numerous efforts. In this work, PEI-SS is described as a non-viral vector for miRNA delivery for the first time...
January 6, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sharon Golan-Paz, Hannah Frizzell, Kim A Woodrow
Significant efforts have been invested in finding a delivery system that can encapsulate and deliver therapeutics. Core-shell polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles have been studied as a promising platform because of their mechanical stability, narrow size distribution, biocompatibility, and ability to co-deliver diverse drugs. Here, novel core-shell nanoparticles based on a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core and multilamellar lipid shell are designed, where the lipid bilayers are crosslinked between the two adjacent bilayers (PLGA-ICMVs)...
December 27, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Hong Cheng, Gui-Ling Fan, Jing-Hao Fan, Rong-Rong Zheng, Lin-Ping Zhao, Ping Yuan, Xiao-Ya Zhao, Xi-Yong Yu, Shi-Ying Li
In this paper, a self-delivery chimeric peptide PpIX-PEG8 -KVPRNQDWL is designed for photodynamic therapy (PDT) amplified immunotherapy against malignant melanoma. After self-assembly into nanoparticles (designated as PPMA), this self-delivery system shows high drug loading rate, good dispersion, and stability as well as an excellent capability in producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). After cellular uptake, the ROS generated under light irradiation could induce the apoptosis and/or necrosis of tumor cells, which would subsequently stimulate the anti-tumor immune response...
December 21, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
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