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Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

Yin-Feng Zhang, Hai-Ming Xu, Fei Yu, Hong-Yu Yang, Dong-Dong Jia, Pei-Feng Li
The amphibian metamorphosis assay (AMA) was proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to screen thyroid disruptors of vertebrate species.The general experimental design of the AMA exposes Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF) stage 51 Xenopus laevis tadpoles to test chemical concentrations for 21days. However, recent studies demonstrated that thyroid gland began to function after NF stage 45 in Xenopus laevis. Thus, in this study we initiated exposure with NF stage48 tadpoles when the thyroid gland is still in a preliminary development period, to compare the sensitivity of the AMA with NF 48 stage and NF 51 stage tadpoles...
February 7, 2019: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Fujiang Chu, Hongyan Ma, Xiaobao Jin
BACKGROUND: Many studies have demonstrated that the water extracts and low-molecular-weight peptide (LMWP) of the Musca domestica larvae contain significant biological activity. However, the cardiovascular and respiratory safety evaluations of LMWP are yet to be sufficiently investigated. AIM: The present study focused on the cardiovascular and respiratory safety evaluations of the M. domestica larvae LMWP in Beagle dogs. METHODS: Direct cardiovascular and respiratory effects of three different doses of the M...
January 24, 2019: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Rahmouni Fatma, Riadh Badraoui, Nahed Amri, Aïda Elleuch, Abdelfattah El-Feki, Tarek Rebai, Saoudi Mongi
This work investigated the protective effects of Teucrium polium (T. polium) and Vitamin C (Vit C) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats. T.polium reduced the Fer reduced Antioxidant Power (FRAP) (IC50 = 0.89 mg/ml) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.049 µg/ml) than Vit C, FRAP (IC50 = 0.71 mg/ml) and DPPH (IC50 = 0.029 µg/ml). Male albino Wistar rats were divided into six groups: group I was used as controls, group II received CCl4 in olive oil (0...
January 24, 2019: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Okunola A Alabi, Adewale A Sorungbe, Yetunde M Adeoluwa
Increase in production of different types of plastics has led to increase in the amount of plastic waste generation worldwide. The chemical constituents of these plastic wastes have made their disposal an important economic and environmental health problem globally. This study assessed the mutagenic and genotoxic potential of plastic waste dumpsite raw and simulated leachates using the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, and the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37...
January 15, 2019: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
W L Braguini, B B Alves, N V Pires
The toxicity of extracts of lavender (Lavandula officinalis) leaves and flowers was evaluated. Aqueous ethanolic and acetone extracts had higher tannin content than that in the aqueous solution. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured in aqueous extracts of leaves and flowers. Polyphenol concentration in aqueous leaf and flower extracts was 61.31 and 84.43 mg tannic acid/g, respectively, whereas flavonoid concentration was 194.1 and 109.9 mg quercetin/g, respectively. Saponins content were 7.85 and 6...
January 15, 2019: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Shahriar Shahi, Mutlu Özcan, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Simin Sharifi, Nadin Al-Haj Husain, Aziz Eftekhari, Elham Ahmadian
OBJECTIVES: A wide range of compounds are utilized in dentistry such as dental composites, resins and implants. The successful clinical use of dental materials rely on their physiochemical properties as well as biological and toxicological reliability. Different local and systemic toxicities of dental materials have been reported. Placement of these materials in oral cavity for a long time period might yield in unwanted reactions. An extensive variety of materials is used in dentistry including filling materials, restorative materials, intracanal medicines, prosthetic materials, different types of implants, liners and irrigants...
January 15, 2019: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Ajay Vikram Singh, Peter Laux, Andreas Luch, Chaitanya Sudrik, Stefan Wiehr, Anna-Maria Wild, Giulia Santamauro, Joachim Bill, Metin Sitti
Nanotoxicology and nanosafety has been a topic of intensive research for about more than 20 years. Nearly 10,000 research papers have been published on the topic, yet there exists a gap in terms of understanding and ways to harmonize nanorisk assessment. In this review, we revisit critically ignored parameters of nanoscale materials (e.g. band gap factor, phase instability and silver leaching problem, defect and instability plasmonic vs. inorganic particles) versus their biological counterparts (cell batch-to-batch heterogeneity, biological barrier model design, cellular functional characteristics) which yield variability and nonuniformity in results...
January 14, 2019: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Xuanying Chen, Xiaoping Peng, Yong Luo, Jiegen You, Dong Yin, Qiang Xu, Huan He, Ming He
Cardiotoxicity limits the clinical applications of doxorubicin (Dox), which mechanism might be excess generation of intracellular ROS. Quercetin (Que) is a flavonoid that possesses anti-oxidative activities, exerts myocardial protection. We hypothesized that the cardioprotection against Dox injury of Que involved 14-3-3γ, and mitochondria. To investigate the hypothesis, we treated primary cardiomyocytes with Dox and determined the effects of Que pretreatment with or without 14-3-3γ knockdown. We analyzed various cellular and molecular indexes...
January 14, 2019: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Amal Feki, Imen Jaballi, Boutheina Cherif, Naourez Ktari, Manel Neifar, Rim Kallel, Ons Boudawara, Choumous Kallel, Moncef Nasri, Ibtissem Ben Amara
The current study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of a polysaccharide extracted from fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) (FWEP) against insecticide- thiamethoxam (TMX) - induced hepatotoxicity. Obtained data exhibited potent antioxidant and antibacterial potentialities. On other trend, in vivo, adult female rats were divided into four groups: controls; TMX (100 mg/kg of body weight); TMX + FWEP at two graded doses respectively (100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight) for 30 days. Up to TMX treatment, our data showed a significant increase in plasma markers of hepatotoxicity including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and in lactate dehydrogenase activities, which is coordinated with decline in total protein and albumin levels...
January 8, 2019: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Samita Rijal, Nilanjan Changdar, Manas Kinra, Ayush Kumar, Madhavan Nampoothiri, Devinder Arora, Rekha R Shenoy, K Sreedhara Ranganath Pai, Alex Joseph, Jayesh Mudgal
Para-methoxycinnamic acid (PMCA) and Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) are reported to possess neuroprotective effect in reversing an acute memory deficit. However, there is a dearth of evidence for their therapeutic effect in chronic memory deficit. Thus, there is a scope to study these derivatives against the chronic model of cognitive dysfunction. The present study was aimed to determine the cognitive enhancing activity of PMCA and EPMC in aluminum-induced chronic dementia. Cognitive enhancing property of PMCA and EPMC was assessed using Morris water maze by analyzing spatial memory parameters such as escape latency, D-quadrant latency, and island entries...
December 27, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Mary Abiola Okesola, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo
Exposure to toxic elements is greatly unavoidable in our daily activities due to several routes of coming in contact with these elements. Thus lead, is one of the major causes of health hazard in human. In this study, evaluation of Zingiber officinale as mitigating measure against lead induced biochemical and cytogenic toxicity in albino rats was investigated. Experimental rats were grouped into 5 with 5 animals per group, group I serves as control and groups 2-5 were induced intraperitoneal with lead acetate dissolved in distilled water at 3 mg/kg body weight whereas group 3-5 were orally administered with 200 mg/kg vitamin C, 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of Z...
December 18, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Tsung-Ming Shih, Jeffrey A Koenig, Cindy Acon Chen
The efficacy of anticonvulsant therapies to stop seizure activities following organophosphorus nerve agents (NAs) has been documented as being time-dependent. We utilized the guinea pig NA-seizure model to compare the effectiveness of phencynonate (PCH) and scopolamine (SCP) when given at the early (at time of seizure onset) or late (40 min after seizure onset) phase of seizure progression. PCH possesses both anticholinergic and anti-NMDA activities, while SCP is a purely anti-muscarinic compound. Animals with cortical electrodes were pretreated with pyridostigmine bromide 30 min prior to exposure to a 2...
December 18, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Sanjiv Singh
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is the most commonly used nanoparticles among different nanoparticles. Its applications ranged from personal care products, sensors, antibacterial creams and biomedical applications. The broad range of applications raises concern in regards to their potential toxicity. Therefore it is required to understand their toxicity mechanism and pattern on various levels. The primary aim of this review is to summarize the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and developmental toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in various kinds of cells in vitro and in vivo...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Mohita Sharma, Ramanpreet Kaur, Kuldeep Kaushik, Naveen Kaushal
Ulcerative colitis (UC), a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is an immune-modulated disorder characterized by chronic and recurring inflammatory episodes. Oxidative stress and COX pathway of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis is indispensable to pathogenesis of UC. Any imbalance between PGs can compromise the mucosal homeostasis, leading to mucosal damage and chronic inflammation. However, blocking these PGs using classical Cox inhibitors such as Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can instead aggravate signs of IBD...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Atsushi Kawase, Ayaka Kaneto, Mao Ishibashi, Akihiro Kobayashi, Hiroaki Shimada, Masahiro Iwaki
Direct hepatotoxic effects of drugs can occur when a parent drug and/or its reactive metabolites induces the formation of reactive oxygen species. Reactive metabolites of diclofenac (DIC) such as DIC acyl-β-D-glucuronide (DIC-AG) bind covalently to proteins, potentially decreasing protein function or inducing an immune response. However, it is unclear whether the macrophages and GSH depletion participate in DIC-induced cytotoxicity. Mouse hepatocytes (Hep) co-cultured with peritoneal macrophages (PM) were used to clarify the effects of presence of PM with GSH depletion on DIC-induced cytotoxicity in Hep...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Barkha Shakya, Sonam Shakya, Yasir Hasan Siddique
In the present study geraniol at the final concentration of 10, 20, 30, and 40 µM was mixed in the diet along with 80 µM of arecoline and the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9 were allowed to feed on it for 24 hrs. After the exposure of 24 hrs the larvae were subjected to ONPG, X-gal, trypan blue exclusion test, oxidative stress markers and apoptotic and comet assays. The exposure of larvae to geraniol showed a dose dependent decrease in the activity of β-galactosidase, tissue damage and oxidative stress markers...
November 28, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Tajamul Hussain, Salman Alamery, Dikshit Gambhir, Arif A Mohammed, Shaik M Naushad, Salman Alrokayan
Incense smoke is reported to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in exposed individuals. However, the mechanism underlying the toxic effect of incense smoke on cardiovascular system is unclear. To test this, we chronically exposed male albino rats to two different types of Arabian incense smoke and studied their effects on oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function. Rats exposed to either of incense smoke showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH)...
November 27, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Onur Gökhan Yildirim, Esra Sumlu, Esra Aslan, H Buğra Koca, M Bilgehan Pektas, Gökhan Sadi, Fatma Akar
The increased consumption of high-fructose in diet may contribute to high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the world. The influence of high-fructose diet on male reproductive system has been poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary high-fructose on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in association with certain testicular proteins and sex hormones in the testis of rats. Fructose was given to the rats as 20% solution (7.8 mg/kg) in drinking water for 15 weeks. Dietary high-fructose caused testicular degeneration, also decreased testicular concentration of testosterone and right testis absolute weight...
November 27, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Asma Sultana Shaik, Abjal Pasha Shaik, Achraf Al Faraj, Vamsi K Bammidi
The current study evaluated in vitro and in vivo toxicity of carboxyl or amine PEG surface functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Assessments of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and oxidative stress were performed in vitro and in vivo (in a one-month follow-up study). The SWCNT biodistribution was investigated using noninvasive MRI. Results confirmed the enhanced biocompatibility of PEG-functionalized SWCNTs compared to non-functionalized materials with significant decreases (p < 0...
November 27, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Mengdie Jiang, Bihan Wu, Yongbing Sun, Yanhuai Ding, Yixi Xie, Liangliang Liu, Yi Cao
In a biological microenvironment, free fatty acids (FFA) as ubiquitous biological molecules might interact with nanoparticles (NPs) and consequently change the toxicological responses. However, whether the chemical structures of FFA could influence their interactios with NPs remains unknown. This study investigated the interactions between ZnO NPs and saturated or unsaturated FFA (complexed to BSA), namely stearic acid (SA, C18:0), oleic acid (OA, C18:1), and α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3). It was shown that BSA, SA, OA and ALA increased the atomic force microscope (AFM) heights as well the the polydispersity index (PDI) of ZnO NPs...
November 21, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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