Read by QxMD icon Read

Stapp Car Crash Journal

Kerry Danelson, Laura Watkins, Jonathan Hendricks, Patricia Frounfelker, Karen Pizzolato-Heine, Ray Valentine, Kathryn Loftis
During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, improvised explosive devices were used strategically and with increasing frequency. To effectively design countermeasures for this environment, the Department of Defense identified the need for an under-body blast-specific Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan). To help with this design, information on Warfighter injuries in mounted under-body blast attacks was obtained from the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat program through their Request for Information interface...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Eric Song, Philippe Petit, Jerome Uriot
In a previous study (Song et al. 2017), an adjustable generic simplified vehicle buck was developed; eleven PMHS were impacted by the buck representing a SUV, a van and a sedan successively; and biofidelity corridors were established. The objectives of the current study were 1) to develop the computational model of the buck, and 2) to simulate these PMHS tests with the buck model and to assess the biofidelity of the GHBMC 50th percentile male pedestrian simplified model (GHBMC M50-PS). First, coupon tensile tests and static and dynamic compression tests were performed on the steel tubes representing the bonnet leading edge (BLE), the bumper and the spoiler used in the above PMHS tests...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Kyle P McNamara, Derek A Jones, James P Gaewsky, Jacob B Putnam, Jeffrey T Somers, Ashley A Weaver, Joel D Stitzel
Computational models of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) can be used in crash simulations to quantify the injury risks to occupants in both a cost-effective and time-sensitive manner. The purpose of this study was to validate the performance of a 50th percentile THOR finite element (FE) model against a physical THOR ATD in 11 unique loading scenarios. Physical tests used for validation were performed on a Horizontal Impact Accelerator (HIA) where the peak sled acceleration ranged from 8-20 G and the time to peak acceleration ranged from 40-110 ms...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
Accident emergency calling systems (AECSs) are signaled by the deployment of airbags, which causes them to automatically emit information providing the location of the accident site to a public service answering party (PSAP). In some realworld accidents, airbags have failed to deploy. This study clarifies the factors that influence the nondeployment of front airbags in vehicle-vehicle collisions, investigating nondeployment of the driver-side front airbags in sedans and light passenger cars (LPCs) from Japanese accident data...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Sophie Cuny, Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Sabine Compigne, Mitsutoshi Masuda
The study firstly aimed at looking whether sacroilium (SI) fractures could be sustained as unique pelvic injuries in side impact real world automotive accidents. Secondarily, the sacroilium fractures observed in conjunction with other pelvic fractures were analyzed to investigate the existence of injury association patterns. Two real world accident databases were searched for SI fractures. The occupants selected were front car passengers older than 16, involved in side, oblique or frontal impact, with AIS2+ pelvic injuries...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Jennifer L Yaek, Christopher J Andrecovich, John M Cavanaugh, Stephen W Rouhana
Analysis and validation of current scaling relationships and existing response corridors using animal surrogate test data is valuable, and may lead to the development of new or improved scaling relationships. For this reason, lateral pendulum impact testing of appropriate size cadaveric porcine surrogates of human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male age equivalence, were performed at the thorax and abdomen body regions to compare swine test data to already established human lateral impact response corridors scaled from the 50th percentile human adult male to the pediatric level to establish viability of current scaling laws...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Potier, Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Baudrit, Denis Lafont, Richard Douard
The EuroSID-2re (ES-2re) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) commonly known as the crash test dummy is also used in the military domain to assess the risk of injury of armored vehicles occupants from lateral impact. The loading conditions range from low velocity - long duration impacts (4 m/s - 50 ms) similar to the automotive domain, to high velocity - short duration impacts (28 m/s - 3 ms) corresponding to cases where the panel deforms under an explosion. The human shoulder response to lateral impact was investigated at bounds of the loading condition spectrum previously mentioned, and also at intermediate conditions (14 m/s - 9 ms) in previous studies...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Zhou Zhou, Xiaogai Li, Svein Kleiven, Chirag S Shah, Warren N Hardy
Relative motion between the brain and skull and brain deformation are biomechanics aspects associated with many types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thus far, there is only one experimental endeavor (Hardy et al., 2007) reported brain strain under loading conditions commensurate with levels that were capable of producing injury. Most of the existing finite element (FE) head models are validated against brain-skull relative motion and then used for TBI prediction based on strain metrics. However, the suitability of using a model validated against brain-skull relative motion for strain prediction remains to be determined...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Narayan Yoganandan, Sajal Chirvi, Frank A Pintar, Anjishnu Banerjee, Liming Voo
Cervical spine injuries can occur in military scenarios from events such as underbody blast events. Such scenarios impart inferior-to-superior loads to the spine. The objective of this study is to develop human injury risk curves (IRCs) under this loading mode using Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS). Twenty-five PMHS head-neck complexes were obtained, screened for pre-existing trauma, bone densities were determined, pre-tests radiological images were taken, fixed in polymethylmethacrylate at the T2-T3 level, a load cell was attached to the distal end of the preparation, positioned end on custom vertical accelerator device based on the military-seating posture, donned with a combat helmet, and impacted at the base...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Michelle M Murach, Yun-Seok Kang, John H Bolte, David Stark, Rakshit Ramachandra, Amanda M Agnew, Kevin Moorhouse, Jason Stammen
Thoracic injuries continue to be a major health concern in motor vehicle crashes. Previous thoracic research has focused on 50th percentile males and utilized scaling techniques to apply results to different demographics. Individual rib testing offers the advantage of capturing demographic differences; however, understanding of rib properties in the context of the intact thorax is lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to obtain the data necessary to develop a transfer function between individual rib and thoracic response...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Amanda M Agnew, Michelle M Murach, Victoria M Dominguez, Akshara Sreedhar, Elina Misicka, Angela Harden, John H Bolte, Yun-Seok Kang, Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse
Despite safety advances, thoracic injuries in motor vehicle crashes remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality, and rib fractures are the most prevalent of thoracic injuries. The objective of this study was to explore sources of variation in rib structural properties in order to identify sources of differential risk of rib fracture between vehicle occupants. A hierarchical model was employed to quantify the effects of demographic differences and rib geometry on structural properties including stiffness, force, displacement, and energy at failure and yield...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Xavier Trosseille, Philippe Petit, Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit, Olivier Richard, Sabine Compigne, Mitsutoshi Masuda, Richard Douard
In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to understand the physics of submarining and its consequences in terms of abdominal injuries. For that purpose, 27 Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) tests were performed in well controlled conditions on a sled and response corridors were provided to assess the biofidelity of dummies or human body models. All these efforts were based on the 50th percentile male. In parallel, efforts were initiated to transfer the understanding of submarining and the prediction criteria to the THOR dummies...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Koji Mizuno, Ryoichi Yoshida, Yutaka Nakajima, Yoshihiko Tanaka, Ryota Ishigaki, Naruyuki Hosokawa, Yoshinori Tanaka, Masahito Hitosugi
Chest injuries occur frequently in frontal collisions. During impact, tension in the lap belt is transferred to the inboard shoulder belt, which compresses the lower ribs of the occupant. In this research, inboard shoulder belt and lap belt geometries and forces were investigated to reduce chest deflection. First, the inboard shoulder belt geometry was changed by the lap/shoulder belt (L/S) junction for the rear seat occupant in sled tests using Hybrid III finite element simulation, sled tests and THOR simulation...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Devon L Albert, Stephanie M Beeman, Andrew R Kemper
A total of 20 full-scale frontal sled tests were conducted using the Hybrid III (HIII), THOR-M and post-mortem human surrogates (PMHSs) to evaluate the thoracic biofidelity of the HIII and THOR-M under various belted restraint conditions. Each surrogate was tested under three belted restraint conditions: knee bolster, knee bolster and steering wheel airbag, and knee bolster airbag and steering wheel airbag. In order to assess the relative biofidelity of each ATD, external thoracic deflections were quantitatively compared between the ATDs and PMHSs using an objective rating metric...
November 2018: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Takahiro Isshiki, Jacobo Antona-Makoshi, Atsuhiro Konosu, Yukou Takahashi
This study addresses the virtual optimization of the technical specifications for a recently developed Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor (aPLI). The aPLI incorporates a number of enhancements for improved lower limb injury predictability with respect to its predecessor, the FlexPLI. It also incorporates an attached Simplified Upper Body Part (SUBP) that enables the impactor's applicability to evaluate pedestrian's lower limb injury risk also with high-bumper cars. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize both the aPLI's lower limb and SUBP specifications, while imposing a total mass upper limit of 25 kg that complies with international standards for maximum weight lifting allowed for a single operator in the laboratory setting...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Kazuhiro Sorimachi, Akira Imanishi, Takeshi Fujimura
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-cyclist collision impact velocity and the serious-injury and fatality risks to cyclists, and to investigate the effects of road type and driving scenario on the frequency of cyclist fatalities due to collisions with vehicles. We used micro and macro truck-cyclist collision data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Eric Song, Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Jerome Uriot, Pascal Potier, Denis Dubois, Richard Douard
This study aims to provide a set of reference post-mortem human subject tests which can be used, with easily reproducible test conditions, for developing and/or validating pedestrian dummies and computational human body models against a road vehicle. An adjustable generic buck was first developed to represent vehicle front-ends. It was composed of four components: two steel cylindrical tubes screwed on rigid supports in V-form represent the bumper and spoiler respectively, a quarter of a steel cylindrical tube represents the bonnet leading edge, and a steel plate represents the bonnet...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Lan Xu, Guy Nusholtz
A parametric model obtained by fitting a set of data to a function generally uses a procedure such as maximum likelihood or least squares. In general this will generate the best estimate for the distribution of the data overall but will not necessarily generate a reasonable estimation for the tail of the distribution unless the function fitted resembles the underlying distribution function. A distribution function can represent an estimate that is significantly different from the actual tail data, while the bulk of the data is reasonably represented by the central part of the fitted distribution...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Lan Xu, Guy Nusholtz
Statistical methods, using the entire time-history, can be used to assess the impact response of an ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device) in terms of its repeatability and reproducibility. In general, the methods generate a correlation relationship described as shape, magnitude and phase-difference between two time-histories' in a given set of similar tests: for repeatability the relationship it is for the same ATD, for reproducibility it is for different ATDs of the same design and for biofidelity it is a relationship between ATDs and biomechanical response data from a series of human surrogate impact tests...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Daniel Parent, Matthew Craig, Kevin Moorhouse
The objective of this study is to present a quantitative comparison of the biofidelity of the THOR and Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATDs. Quantitative biofidelity was assessed using NHTSA's Biofidelity Ranking System in a total of 21 test conditions, including impacts to the head, face, neck, upper thorax, lower oblique thorax, upper abdomen, lower abdomen, femur, knee, lower leg, and whole-body sled tests to evaluate upper body kinematics and thoracic response under frontal and frontal oblique restraint loading...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"