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Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530551/volcanoes-in-italy-and-the-role-of-muon-radiography
#1
Raffaello D'Alessandro, F Ambrosino, G Baccani, L Bonechi, M Bongi, A Caputo, R Ciaranfi, L Cimmino, V Ciulli, M D'Errico, F Giudicepietro, S Gonzi, G Macedonio, V Masone, B Melon, N Mori, P Noli, M Orazi, P Passeggio, R Peluso, G Saracino, L Scognamiglio, P Strolin, E Vertechi, L Viliani
Cosmic-ray muon radiography (muography), an imaging technique that can provide measurements of rock densities within the top few 100 m of a volcanic cone, has now achieved a spatial resolution of the order of 10 m in optimal detection conditions. Muography provides images of the top region of a volcano edifice with a resolution that is considerably better than that typically achieved with other conventional methods (i.e. gravimetric). We expect such precise measurements, to provide us with information on anomalies in the rock density distribution, which can be affected by dense lava conduits, low-density magma supply paths or the compression with the depth of the overlying soil...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530550/muography-overview-and-future-directions
#2
REVIEW
Ralf Kaiser
Cosmic-ray muography uses high-energy particles for imaging applications that are produced by cosmic rays in particle showers in the Earth's atmosphere. This technology has developed rapidly over the last 15 years, and it is currently branching out into many different applications and moving from academic research to commercial application. As in any new sub-field of research and technology, the nomenclature of the field itself is still developing and has not settled yet as new aspects of the field are appearing and with them the terms to describe them...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530549/first-of-a-kind-muography-for-nuclear-waste-characterization
#3
David Mahon, Anthony Clarkson, Simon Gardner, David Ireland, Ramsey Jebali, Ralf Kaiser, Matthew Ryan, Craig Shearer, Guangliang Yang
In the last decade, there has been a surge in the number of academic research groups and commercial companies exploiting naturally occurring cosmic-ray muons for imaging purposes in a range of industrial and geological applications. Since 2009, researchers at the University of Glasgow and the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) have pioneered this technique for the characterization of shielded nuclear waste containers with significant investment from the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and Sellafield Ltd...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530548/overview-of-muographers
#4
REVIEW
Hiroyuki K M Tanaka, László Oláh
By observing the growth of a research community, particularly the factors of size and strength of involvement, it is possible to evaluate the vitality of a new field. The emerging technology of muography, a new visualization technique to look through gigantic objects with an elementary particle called the muon, is the focus of this study. Recently, the initial applications of muography to the study of structures such as pyramids and volcanoes have been expanding to include more commercial interests such as inspecting social infrastructures and energy and mineral resources...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530547/japanese-volcanoes-visualized-with-muography
#5
REVIEW
Hiroyuki K M Tanaka
High-energy muons that are generated via the reaction between primary cosmic rays and the Earth's atmosphere can be used to map out the density distribution in shallow parts of a volcano's interior. This new subterranean imaging technique called muography has been applied to three different kinds of volcano dynamics in Japan: lava dome formation, vulcanian explosions and magma convection. Taking all of the observational data together, it appears that muography can serve as a new and alternative volcano observation technique, providing a fresh approach to understanding eruption mechanism...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530546/a-portable-muon-telescope-based-on-small-and-gas-tight-resistive-plate-chambers
#6
Sophie Wuyckens, Andrea Giammanco, Eduardo Cortina Gil, Pavel Demin
We report on the first steps in the development of a small-size muon telescope based on glass resistive plate chambers with small active area (16 × 16 cm2 ). The long-term goal of this project is to focus on applications of muography where the telescope may have to be operated underground and/or inside small rooms, and in challenging logistic situations. Driving principles in our design are therefore compact size, light weight, gas tightness and robustness. The first data-taking experiences have been encouraging, and we elaborate on the lessons learnt and future directions for development...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530545/muography-applications-developed-by-ifin-hh
#7
Bogdan Mitrica, Denis Stanca, Bogdan Cautisanu, Mihai Niculescu-Oglinzanu, Alexandru Balaceanu, Alexandru Gherghel-Lascu, Andreea Munteanu, Alexandra Saftoiu, Toma Mosu, Romul Margineanu, Bashar Alkotbe
Cosmic-ray muons have been studied at IFIN-HH for more than 20 years. Starting as fundamental physics research, the muon flux measurements bring new directions of study regarding muography. Two new directions have been recently developed: underground muon scanning of old mining sites in order to detect the possible presence of unknown cavities and underwater scanning of ships in commercial harbours in order to prevent the illegal traffic of radioactive materials. The main goal of the first direction of study is to improve the security of underground civilian and industrial infrastructures, by starting the development of a new, innovative detection system that can be used to identify potentially dangerous conditions using a non-invasive, totally safe method...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530544/imaging-the-dome-of-santa-maria-del-fiore-using-cosmic-rays
#8
E Guardincerri, J D Bacon, N Barros, C Blasi, L Bonechi, A Chen, R D'Alessandro, J M Durham, M Fine, C Mauger, G Mayers, C Morris, F M Newcomer, J Okasinski, T Pizzico, K Plaud-Ramos, D C Poulson, M B Reilly, A Roberts, T Saeid, V Vaccaro, R Van Berg
The dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are under way to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only known reinforcement is a wood chain 7.75 m above the springing of the Cupola. Multiple scattering muon radiography is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the dome's wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in it...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530543/investigation-of-the-limits-of-high-definition-muography-for-observation-of-mt-sakurajima
#9
László Oláh, Hiroyuki K M Tanaka, Gergő Hamar, Dezső Varga
A multi-wire proportional chamber-based muo- graphy observatory is under development for the monitoring of the internal structure of Mt Sakurajima in Kyushu, Japan. We investigated the limits of large-scale and high-definition muography. We adjusted the parameters of a modified Gaisser model and found that the spectral index of γ  =  - 2.64 and normalization factor of C  = 0.66 reproduce more accurately the measured fluxes than the original parameters at large thickness. A thickness and zenith angle-dependent correction is suggested to the measured muon flux due to the energy cut which is introduced to suppress the background particles...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530542/lingacom-muography
#10
A Harel, D Yaish
Lingacom Ltd develops detectors for muography-imaging using cosmic-ray muons-together with imaging algorithms and tools. We present selected simulation results from muon imaging of cargo conta- iners, from a joint muon and X-ray imaging algorithm, and for ground surveys using borehole detectors.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Cosmic-ray muography'.
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530541/infn-muon-tomography-demonstrator-past-and-recent-results-with-an-eye-to-near-future-activities
#11
REVIEW
P Checchia, M Benettoni, G Bettella, E Conti, L Cossutta, M Furlan, F Gonella, J Klinger, F Montecassiano, G Nebbia, M Pegoraro, S Pesente, A Rigoni Garola, M Urbani, G Viesti, S Vanini, G Zumerle
A short description of the muon tomography demonstrator at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro near Padua, Italy, is given and the principal achievements owing to the data collected at that experimental facility are presented. In particular, the feasibility studies for several applications based on the muon-tomographic technology, within national and European projects, are discussed. The experimental problems and the procedures used to improve the performance are underlined. In addition, new activities and the related detector optimization are illustrated...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530540/muons-at-isis
#12
REVIEW
A D Hillier, J S Lord, K Ishida, C Rogers
For the last 30 years, muon experiments at ISIS pulsed neutron and muon facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire have been making a significant contribution to a number of scientific fields. The muon facilities at ISIS consist of eight experimental areas. The European Commission Muon facility consists of three experimental areas with a fixed momentum (28 MeV c-1 ). The RIKEN-RAL facility has a variable momentum (17-90 MeV c-1 ) and a choice of negative or positive muons delivering muons to four experimental areas...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530539/tests-of-a-novel-imaging-algorithm-to-localize-hidden-objects-or-cavities-with-muon-radiography
#13
L Bonechi, G Baccani, M Bongi, D Brocchini, N Casagli, R Ciaranfi, L Cimmino, V Ciulli, R D'Alessandro, C Del Ventisette, A Dini, G Gigli, S Gonzi, S Guideri, L Lombardi, B Melon, N Mori, M Nocentini, P Noli, G Saracino, L Viliani
A novel algorithm developed within muon radiography to localize objects or cavities hidden inside large material volumes was recently proposed by some of the authors (Bonechi et al. 2015 J. Instrum. 10 , P02003 (doi:10.1088/1748-0221/10/02/P02003)). The algorithm, based on muon back projection, helps to estimate the three-dimensional position and the transverse extension of detected objects without the need for measurements from different points of view, which would be required to make a triangulation. This algorithm can now be tested owing to the availability of real data collected both in laboratory tests and from real-world measurements...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530538/novel-muon-imaging-techniques
#14
REVIEW
Guangliang Yang, Tony Clarkson, Simon Gardner, David Ireland, Ralf Kaiser, David Mahon, Ramsey Al Jebali, Craig Shearer, Matthew Ryan
Owing to the high penetrating power of high-energy cosmic ray muons, muon imaging techniques can be used to image large bulky objects, especially objects with heavy shielding. Muon imaging systems work just like CT scanners in the medical imaging field-that is, they can reveal information inside of a target. There are two forms of muon imaging techniques: muon absorption imaging and muon multiple scattering imaging. The former is based on the flux attenuation of muons, and the latter is based on the multiple scattering of muons in matter...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530537/muon-geotomography-selected-case-studies
#15
REVIEW
Doug Schouten
Muon attenuation in matter can be used to infer the average material density along the path length of muons underground. By mapping the intensity of cosmic ray muons with an underground sensor, a radiographic image of the overburden above the sensor can be derived. Multiple such images can be combined to reconstruct a three-dimensional density model of the subsurface. This article summarizes selected case studies in applying muon tomography to mineral exploration, which we call muon geotomography.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Cosmic-ray muography'...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530536/borehole-muography-of-subsurface-reservoirs
#16
Alain Bonneville, Richard Kouzes, Jared Yamaoka, Azaree Lintereur, Joshua Flygare, Gary S Varner, Isar Mostafanezhad, Elena Guardincerri, Charlotte Rowe, Robert Mellors
Imaging subsurface rock formations or geological objects like oil and gas reservoirs, mineral deposits, cavities or even magmatic plumbing systems under active volcanoes has been for many years a major quest of geoscientists. Since these subsurface objects cannot be observed directly, different indirect methods have been developed. These methods are all based on variations of certain physical properties of the subsurface materials that can be detected from the ground surface or from boreholes. To determine the density distribution, a new imaging technique using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole has been developed and a first prototype of a borehole muon detector successfully tested...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530535/passive-continuous-monitoring-of-carbon-dioxide-geostorage-using-muon-tomography
#17
Jon Gluyas, Lee Thompson, Dave Allen, Charlotte Benton, Paula Chadwick, Sam Clark, Joel Klinger, Vitaly Kudryavtsev, Darren Lincoln, Ben Maunder, Cathryn Mitchell, Sam Nolan, Sean Paling, Neil Spooner, Lazar Staykov, Sam Telfer, David Woodward, Max Coleman
Carbon capture and storage is a transition technology from a past and present fuelled by coal, oil and gas and a planned future dominated by renewable energy sources. The technology involves the capture of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel power stations and other point sources, compression of the CO2 into a fluid, transporting it and injecting it deep beneath the Earth's surface into depleted petroleum reservoirs and other porous formations. Once injected, the CO2 must be monitored to ensure that it is emplaced and assimilated as planned and that none leaks back to surface...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530534/applications-of-muon-absorption-radiography-to-the-fields-of-archaeology-and-civil-engineering
#18
G Saracino, F Ambrosino, L Bonechi, L Cimmino, R D'Alessandro, M D'Errico, P Noli, L Scognamiglio, P Strolin
Muon radiography, also known as muography, is an imaging technique that provides information on the mass density distribution inside large objects. Muons are naturally produced in the interactions of cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. The physical process exploited by muography is the attenuation of the muon flux, that depends on the thickness and density of matter that muons cross in the course of their trajectory. A particle detector with tracking capability allows the measurement of the muons flux as a function of the muon direction...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530533/non-destructive-testing-of-industrial-equipment-using-muon-radiography
#19
Pablo Martinez Ruiz-Del Arbol, Pablo Gomez Garcia, Carlos Diez Gonzalez, Aitor OrioAlonso
A new application of muon radiography (MR) is presented in the context of non-destructive testing of industrial equipment. The long-term operation of industrial facilities frequently involves the deterioration of critical components such as pipes and cauldrons due to corrosion and other processes. The precise determination of the inner state of this equipment is needed to ensure the integrity of the facility. MR can be used to infer the thickness of these components through the comparison and further classification of muon observables with respect to well-known templates...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30530532/application-of-muon-tomography-to-fuel-cask-monitoring
#20
Dan Poulson, Jeff Bacon, Matt Durham, Elena Guardincerri, C L Morris, Holly R Trellue
Long-term monitoring of spent fuel stored in dry cask storage is currently achieved through the use of seals and surveillance. Muon tomography can provide direct imaging that may be useful in cases where what is known as Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) has been lost using the former methods. Over the past several years, a team from Los Alamos National Laboratory has been studying the use of muon scattering and stopping to examine spent fuel in dry cask storage. Data taken on a partially loaded Westinghouse MC-10 fuel cask have demonstrated that muon scattering radiography can detect missing fuel assemblies...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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