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Vascular Pharmacology

Stefano Masi, Monica Uliana, Agostino Virdis
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxygen derivates and play an active role in vascular biology. These compounds are generated within the vascular wall, at the level of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, as well as by adventitial fibroblasts. Physiologically, ROS generation is counteracted effectively by the rate of elimination. In hypertension, a ROS excess occurs, which is not counterbalanced by the endogenous antioxidant mechanisms, leading to a state of oxidative stress. Angiotensin II, the active peptide of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), is a significant stimulus for ROS generation within the vasculature...
January 30, 2019: Vascular Pharmacology
Mo-Li Zhu, Ge Wang, He Wang, Yu-Ming Guo, Ping Song, Jian Xu, Peng Li, Shuang-Xi Wang, Lin Yang
AIM: Selenium, a trace element involved in important enzymatic activities inside the body, has protective effects against cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. The safe dose of selenium in the organism is very narrow, limiting the supplementation of selenium in diet. The aim of this study is to explore whether selenium quantum dots (SeQDs) prevent atherosclerosis and to investigate the potential mechanisms. METHODS: An amorphous form of SeQDs (A-SeQDs) and a crystalline form of SeQDs (C-SeQDs) were prepared through self-redox decomposition of selenosulfate precursor...
January 26, 2019: Vascular Pharmacology
Aleksandra Gasecka, Michał Konwerski, Justyna Pordzik, Aleksandra Soplińska, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Jolanta M Siller-Matula, Marek Postuła
Platelet P2Y12 receptors play a key role in platelet activation and thrombus formation. Accordingly, P2Y12 receptor antagonists are the cornerstone of secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The availability of different oral P2Y12 antagonists (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) along with the introduction of the first intravenous P2Y12 antagonist cangrelor offer an opportunity to individualize antiplatelet therapy according to the changing clinical setting...
January 24, 2019: Vascular Pharmacology
Kirtikar Shukla, Himangshu Sonowal, Ashish Saxena, Kota V Ramana
Although didymin, a dietary flavonoid glycoside from citrus fruits, known to be a potent antioxidant with anti-cancer activities, its role in angiogenesis is not known. In this study, we examined the effect of didymin on VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models. Our results suggest that treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) with didymin significantly prevented the VEGF-induced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Further, didymin significantly prevented the VEGF-induced endothelial tube formation in culture...
January 8, 2019: Vascular Pharmacology
Xi Liu, Zhexue Qin, Chuan Liu, Mingbao Song, Xiaolin Luo, Hongqing Zhao, Dehui Qian, Jianfei Chen, Lan Huang
BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia leads to a vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inflammatory response. Meanwhile, Nox4 dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH)/epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are both involved in vascular inflammation. Herein, we hypothesized that Nox4 and soluble epoxide hydrolase cross regulated during homocysteine-induced VSMC inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In cultured VSMCs, the expression of the inflammatory factors VCAM1 and ICAM1 was measured by real-time PCR and Western blotting, while supernatant MCP1 was measured by ELISA...
January 2, 2019: Vascular Pharmacology
Jin Wang, Xiao-Ting Tian, Zhouyf Peng, Wen-Qun Li, Yuan-Yuan Cao, Ying Li, Xiao-Hui Li
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a critical nonclassical inflammatory cytokine, has been found up-regulated in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), but its role in vascular remodeling of pulmonary hypertension (pH) is still unknown. In present study, we demonstrated that the plasma level of inflammatory cytokine including HMGB1, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were elevated in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension rats model...
January 2, 2019: Vascular Pharmacology
Tsung-Cheng Yin, Pei-Hsun Sung, Kuan-Hung Chen, Yi-Chen Li, Chi-Wen Luo, Chi-Ruei Huang, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, John Y Chiang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
We tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal-shock-wave (ECSW)-assisted adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) therapy was better than either one for restoring the blood flow in critical limb ischemia (CLI). Adult male-SD rats were categorized into group 1 (sham-operated-control), group 2 (CLI), group 3 [CLI + ECSW (280 impulses/0.10 mJ/mm2 ) applied to left inguinal area at 3 h after CLI], group 4 [CLI + SVF (1.2 × 106 ) implanted into CLI area at 3 h after CLI], group 5 (CLI + ECSW-SVF)...
December 28, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Ammar Kurdi, Lynn Roth, Bieke Van der Veken, Debby Van Dam, Peter P De Deyn, Mireille De Doncker, Hugo Neels, Guido R Y De Meyer, Wim Martinet
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising approach to halt atherogenesis in different animal models. This study evaluated whether the mTOR inhibitor everolimus can stabilize pre-existing plaques, prevent cardiovascular complications and improve survival in a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis. METHODS: ApoE-/- Fbn1C1039G+/- mice (n = 24) were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks. Subsequently, mice were treated with everolimus (1...
December 24, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Magdalena Budzyń, Bogna Gryszczyńka, Maciej Boruczkowski, Mariusz Kaczmarek, Beata Begier-Krasińska, Angelika Osińska, Alicja Bukowska, Maria Iskra, Magdalena Paulina Kasprzak
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate endothelial status by measuring the concentration of novel markers of endothelial dysfunction (ED): a number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs) and their ratio (CEPCs/CECs) as well as a traditional parameter - soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) in patients with resistant (RH) and mild hypertension (MH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with MH and thirty subjects with RH were involved in the study...
December 24, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Ann-Kathrin Vlacil, Jutta Schuett, Bernhard Schieffer, Karsten Grote
Monocytes are important mediators of the innate immunity by recognizing and attacking especially bacterial pathogens but also play crucial roles in various inflammatory diseases, including vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Maturation, differentiation and function of monocytes have been intensively explored for a long time in innumerable experimental and clinical studies. Monocytes do not represent a uniform cell type but could be further subdivided into subpopulations with distinct features and functions...
December 12, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
M Yvonne Alexander, Benedetta Bussolati, Andrea Banfi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Francesca Vacante, Laura Denby, Judith C Sluimer, Andrew H Baker
Noncoding RNAs (long noncoding RNAs and small RNAs) are emerging as critical modulators of phenotypic changes associated with physiological and pathological contexts in a variety of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although it has been well established that hereditable genetic alterations and exposure to risk factors are crucial in the development of CVDs, other critical regulators of cell function impact on disease processes. Here we discuss noncoding RNAs have only recently been identified as key players involved in the progression of disease...
November 28, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Magdalena Boncler, Joanna Wzorek, Nina Wolska, Dawid Polak, Cezary Watala, Marcin Rozalski
Several adenosine receptor (AR) agonists have been shown in the past to possess anti-platelet potential; however, the adjunctive role of AR agonists in anti-platelet therapy with the use of P2Y12 receptor inhibitors has not been elucidated so far. This in vitro aggregation-based study investigates whether the inhibition of platelet function mediated by cangrelor or prasugrel metabolite can be potentiated by AR agonists. It evaluates the effect of non-selective (2-chloroadenosine), A2A -selective (UK 432097, MRE 0094, PSB 0777) and A2B -selective AR agonists (BAY 60-6583) on platelet function in relation to their toxicity, specificity towards adenosine receptor subtypes, structure and solubility...
November 21, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Sevtap Han, Nur Banu Bal, Gökhan Sadi, Suzan Emel Usanmaz, Merve Matilda Tuglu, Mecit Orhan Uludag, Emine Demirel-Yilmaz
Hypertension has complex vascular pathogenesis and therefore the molecular etiology remains poorly elucidated. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a condition of the unfolded/misfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum, has been defined as a potential target for cardiovascular disease. In the present study, the effects of ERS inhibition on hypertension-induced alterations in the vessels were investigated. In male Wistar albino rats, hypertension was induced through unilateral nephrectomy, deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA) injection (20 mg/kg, twice a week) and 1% NaCl with 0...
November 17, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Biao Zhu, Yixiang Li, Wen Mei, Mingjuan He, Yan Ding, Biying Meng, Hui Zhao, Guangda Xiang
OBJECTIVE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) regulates vascular function in a paracrine manner and the vasodilatory effect of PVAT on vessels is completely abolished in obesity. In addition, autophagy is required for maintaining biological function of PVAT and has been shown to be inhibited in obesity. The aim of this study was to explore whether alogliptin improves endothelial function by promoting autophagy in PVAT in obese mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were maintained on high fat diet with or without alogliptin intervention for 3 months...
November 14, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Roxana E Oberkersch, Massimo M Santoro
The role of endothelial metabolism represents a crucial element governing the formation and the differentiation of blood vessels, termed angiogenesis. Besides glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, endothelial cells rely on specific amino acids to proliferate, migrate, and survive. In this review we focus on the metabolism of those amino acids and the intermediates that hold an established function within angiogenesis and endothelial pathophysiology. We also discuss recent work which provides a rationale for specific amino acid-restricted diets and its beneficial effects on vascular tissues, including extending the life span and preventing the development of a variety of diseases...
November 10, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Maria Paraskevi Kotini, Maarja Andaloussi Mäe, Heinz-Georg Belting, Christer Betsholtz, Markus Affolter
Branching morphogenesis is a fascinating process whereby a simple network of biological tubes increases its complexity by adding new branches to existing ones, generating an enlarged structure of interconnected tubes. Branching morphogenesis has been studied extensively in animals and much has been learned about the regulation of branching at the cellular and molecular level. Here, we discuss studies of the Drosophila trachea and of the vertebrate vasculature, which have revealed how new branches are formed and connect (anastomose), leading to the establishment of complex tubular networks...
November 10, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Maria Rosa Montinari, Sergio Minelli, Raffaele De Caterina
Aspirin is currently the most widely used drug worldwide, and has been clearly one of the most important pharmacological achievements of the twentieth century. Historians of medicine have traced its birth in 1897, but the fascinating history of aspirin actually dates back >3500 years, when willow bark was used as a painkiller and antipyretic by Sumerians and Egyptians, and then by great physicians from ancient Greece and Rome. The modern history of aspirin precursors, salicylates, began in 1763 with Reverend Stone - who first described their antipyretic effects - and continued in the 19th century with many researchers involved in their extraction and chemical synthesis...
November 2, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Katarzyna Sztuka, Daria Orszulak-Michalak, Magdalena Jasińska-Stroschein
A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to test candidate therapeutic approaches in pulmonary hypertension (PH). The efficacy of 522 interventions with >200 unregistered drugs was tested on 7254 animals. We propose a modified formula to assess meta-data that concerns the contribution of PH animal model to the denoted efficacy of tested agents. The measure of efficacy expressed as a response ratio for right ventricle systolic pressure was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.46-0.50; P < 0.00001), mean pulmonary artery pressure was 0...
November 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
P J Hohensinner, J Baumgartner, B Ebenbauer, B Thaler, M B Fischer, K Huber, W S Speidl, J Wojta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophages are versatile immune cells involved in tissue degradation and remodeling. Proinflammatory macrophages have the highest capacity of matrix degradation and proteolysis. Within atherosclerotic lesions, proinflammatory macrophages are associated with unstable plaques. Statins have been demonstrated to increase plaque stability. Possible changes of polarized macrophage tissue degradation behavior under statin treatment are currently unknown. METHODS: Polarized macrophages were tested in vitro for matrix degradation capacity with or without statin treatment...
November 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
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