Jason L Chan, Ariane V Carpentier, Erik H Middlebrooks, Michael S Okun, Joshua K Wong
INTRODUCTION: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging therapy for mood disorders, particularly treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Different brain areas implicated in depression-related brain networks have been investigated as DBS targets and variable clinical outcomes highlight the importance of target identification. Tractography has provided insight into how DBS modulates disorder-related brain networks and is being increasingly used to guide DBS for psychiatric disorders. AREAS COVERED: In this perspective, an overview of the current state of DBS for TRD and the principles of tractography is provided...
November 30, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Francesco Pisani, Carlotta Spagnoli
INTRODUCTION: There is a very wide spectrum of epilepsies and developmental and epileptic encephalopathies that affect children, from self-limited forms, not necessarily requiring treatment, to severe drug-resistant ones. AREAS COVERED: In this perspective, the authors discuss the main factors to consider before drug prescription in children, considering the most recent clinical research, including age, seizure type, epilepsy syndrome, etiology, efficacy and safety profile, comorbidities, gender, available formulations, costs and drug coverage, and regulatory issues...
November 30, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Simone C Tauber, Roland Nau
INTRODUCTION: The central nervous system is frequently involved during severe sepsis. Patients either develop septic encephalopathy characterized by delirium and coma or focal neurological signs as a consequence of septic-embolic or septic-metastatic encephalitis. AREAS COVERED: In this review, a summary of currently available literature on established and some promising experimental treatment options for septic encephalopathy and encephalitis is provided, with a focus on the clinical utility of published studies...
November 29, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Richard J Porter, Ben Beaglehole, Nilufar Baghaei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Jo Ann LeQuang, Peter Magnusson, Giustino Varrassi
INTRODUCTION: Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a prevalent condition that can diminish health-related quality of life, cause functional deficits, and lead to patient distress. Rates of CPSP are higher for certain types of surgeries than others (thoracic, breast, or lower extremity amputations) but can occur after even uncomplicated minimally invasive procedures. CPSP has multiple mechanisms, but always starts as acute postsurgical pain, which involves inflammatory processes and may encompass direct or indirect neural injury...
November 24, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Hannah Planells, Viraj Parmar, Hani J Marcus, Anand S Pandit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Alberto Picca, Francesco Bruno, Lucia Nichelli, Marc Sanson, Roberta Rudà
INTRODUCTION: Lower-grade (grade 2-3) gliomas (LGGs) constitutes a group of primary brain tumors with variable clinical behaviors and treatment responses. Recent advancements in molecular biology have redefined their classification, and novel imaging modalities emerged for the noninvasive diagnosis and follow-up. AREAS COVERED: This review comprehensively analyses the current knowledge on molecular and imaging biomarkers in LGGs. Key molecular alterations, such as IDH mutations and 1p/19q codeletion, are discussed for their prognostic and predictive implications in guiding treatment decisions...
November 20, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Simone Salemme, Antonio Ancidoni, Nicoletta Locuratolo, Paola Piscopo, Eleonora Lacorte, Marco Canevelli, Nicola Vanacore
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major global public health challenge. To date, no treatments have been shown to stop the underlying pathological processes. The cerebral accumulation of amyloid-beta (Ab) is still considered as the primum movens of AD and disease-modifying treatments targeting Ab are reaching - or have already reached - clinical practice. AREAS COVERED: The authors explore the main advancements from Aβ-targeting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of AD...
November 17, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Mario Tombini, Marilisa Boscarino, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
INTRODUCTION: In past years, a possible bidirectional link between epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed: if AD patients are more likely to develop epilepsy, people with late-onset epilepsy evidence an increased risk of dementia. Furthermore, current research suggested that subclinical epileptiform discharges may be more frequent in patients with AD and network hyperexcitability may hasten cognitive impairment. AREAS COVERED: In this narrative review, the authors discuss the recent evidence linking AD and epilepsy as well as seizures semeiology and epileptiform activity observed in patients with AD...
November 9, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Carlos Silva, Marta Rebelo, Inês Chendo
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder and one of the most severe and impactful mental illnesses. Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia but remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Sexual dysfunction is frequently attributed to antipsychotics which may reduce medication adherence, but negative symptoms can also reduce sexual drive. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia...
November 8, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Baratali Mashkani, Mohammad Jalili Nik, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Reza Boostani
INTRODUCTION: Nearly 2-3% of those 10 to 20 million individuals infected with the Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1); are predisposed to developing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is a neuro-inflammatory disease; differentiated from multiple sclerosis based on the presence of typical neurologic symptoms, confirmation of HTLV-1 infection, and other molecular biomarkers. AREAS COVERED: A brief review of the epidemiology, host immune responses, and molecular pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is followed by detailed discussions about the host-related risk factors for developing HAM/TSP and success/failure stories of the attempted management strategies...
November 7, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Carlos Eduardo Ferreira de Moraes, Brooke Donnelly, Jose Carlos Appolinario, Phillipa Hay
INTRODUCTION: Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a complex and disabling eating disorder (ED) associated with considerable burden and impairments in quality of life and physical/mental health. It has been recognized as a formal ED category since 2013, however BED is still underdetected and undertreated. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of BED as well as the evidence on the efficacy of the existing treatments...
November 2, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Raj N Kalaria, Rufus O Akinyemi, Stella-Maria Paddick, Masafumi Ihara
INTRODUCTION: The true global burden of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is unknown. Reducing risk factors for stroke and cardiovascular disease would inevitably curtail VCI. AREAS COVERED: The authors review current diagnosis, epidemiology, and risk factors for VCI. VCI increases in older age and by inheritance of known genetic traits. They emphasize modifiable risk factors identified by the 2020 Lancet Dementia Commission. The most profound risks for VCI also include lower education, cardiometabolic factors, and compromised cognitive reserve...
November 2, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Gautier Breville, Egle Sukockiene, Maria Isabel Vargas, Agustina M Lascano
INTRODUCTION: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated poly(radiculo)neuropathy with a variable clinical outcome. Identifying patients who are at risk of suffering from long-term disabilities is a great challenge. Biomarkers are useful to confirm diagnosis, monitor disease progression, and predict outcome. AREAS COVERED: The authors provide an overview of the diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for GBS, which are useful for establishing early treatment strategies and follow-up care plans...
October 30, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Biljana Kosanovic Rajacic, Marina Sagud, Nela Pivac, Drazen Begic
INTRODUCTION: Despite the growing number of different therapeutic options, treatment of depression is still a challenge. A broader perspective reveals the benefits of bright light therapy (BLT). It stimulates intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, which induces a complex cascade of events, including alterations in melatonergic, neurotrophic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic systems, and HPA axis, suggesting that BLT effects expand beyond the circadian pacemaker...
October 26, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Eliza T Firn, Hector H Garcia, Otto Rapalino, Anna M Cervantes-Arslanian
INTRODUCTION: Congenital and developmental intracranial cysts represent a large heterogenous group with varied presentations and etiologies. They can range from normal variants to pathologic lesions often associated with known congenital syndromes or acquired insults. While some are incidentally found, others are symptomatic or may become symptomatic over time. The preferred type of neuroimaging for timely diagnosis helps determine appropriate management and treatment, if indicated. AREAS COVERED: In this narrative review article, authors present a comprehensive description of developmental cystic lesions...
October 25, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Giacomo Grassi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Gabriele Masi, Sara Carucci, Pietro Muratori, Carla Balia, Gianluca Sesso, Annarita Milone
INTRODUCTION: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by repetitive and persistent antisocial behaviors, being among the most frequently reported reasons of referral in youth. CD is a highly heterogeneous disorder, with possible specifiers defined according to age at onset, Limited Prosocial Emotions (LPE) otherwise known as Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, Emotional Dysregulation (ED), and patterns of comorbidity, each with its own specific developmental trajectories. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the evidence from published literature on the clinical presentations, diagnostic procedures, psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational approaches, and pharmacological interventions from RCT and naturalistic studies in youth...
October 19, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Yuliya Lakhina, Nicholas M Boulis, Anthony Donsante
INTRODUCTION: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by insufficiency or total absence of the survival motor neuron protein due to a mutation in the SMN1 gene. The copy number of its paralog, SMN2 , influences disease onset and phenotype severity. Current therapeutic approaches include viral and non-viral modalities affecting gene expression. Regulatory-approved drugs Spinraza (Nusinersen), Zolgensma (Onasemnogene abeparvovec), and Evrysdi (Risdiplam) are still being investigated during clinical trials and show benefits in the long-term for symptomatic and pre-symptomatic patients...
October 16, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Tomasz Litwin, Petr Dusek, Agnieszka Antos, Anna Członkowska, Jan Bembenek
INTRODUCTION: Wilson's disease (WD) is a potentially treatable, inherited disorder resulting from impaired copper metabolism. Pathological copper accumulation causes a range of symptoms, most commonly hepatic and a wide spectrum of neurological symptoms including tremor, dystonia, chorea, parkinsonism, dysphagia, dysarthria, gait and posture disturbances. To reduce copper overload, anti-copper drugs are used that improve liver function and neurological symptoms in up to 85% of patients...
October 16, 2023: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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