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Ageing Research Reviews

Lee Smith, Claudio Luchini, Jacopo Demurtas, Pinar Soysal, Brendon Stubbs, Mark Hamer, Alessia Nottegar, Rita T Lawlor, Guillermo Felipe Lopez-Sanchez, Joseph Firth, Ai Koyanagi, Justin Roberts, Peter Willeit, Thomas Waldhoer, Mike Loosemore, Adam David Abbs, James Johnstone, Lin Yang, Nicola Veronese
The aim of the present study was to map and grade evidence for the relationships between telomere length with a diverse range of health outcomes, using an umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses. We searched for meta-analyses of observational studies reporting on the association of telomere length with any health outcome (clinical disease outcomes and intermediate traits). For each association, random-effects summary effect size, 95% confidence interval (CI), and 95% prediction interval were calculated...
February 15, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Cristina Morsiani, Maria Giulia Bacalini, Aurelia Santoro, Paolo Garagnani, Salvatore Collura, Antonia D'Errico, Magda de Eguileor, Gian Luca Grazi, Matteo Cescon, Claudio Franceschi, Miriam Capri
An appraisal of recent data highlighting aspects inspired by the new Geroscience perspective are here discussed. The main findings are summarized as follows: i) liver has to be considered an immunological organ, and new studies suggest a role for the recently described cells named telocytes; ii) the liver-gut axis represents a crucial connection with environment and life style habits and may influence liver diseases onset; iii) the physiological aging of liver shows relatively modest alterations. Nevertheless, several molecular changes appear to be relevant: a) an increase of microRNA-31-5p; -141-3p; -200c-3p expressions after 60 years of age; b) a remodeling of genome-wide DNA methylation profile evident until 60 years of age and then plateauing; c) changes in transcriptome including the metabolic zones of hepatocyte lobules; d) liver undergoes an accelerated aging in presence of chronic inflammation/liver diseases in a sort of continuum, largely as a consequence of unhealthy life styles and exposure to environmental noxious agents...
February 14, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Nicholas D Johnson, Karen N Conneely
A healthy functioning immune system is critical to stave off infectious diseases, but as humans and other organisms age, their immune systems decline. As a result, diseases that were readily thwarted in early life pose nontrivial harm and can even be deadly in late life. Immunosenescence is defined as the general deterioration of the immune system with age, and it is characterized by functional changes in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and specific blood cell types as well as changes in levels of numerous factors, particularly those involved in inflammation...
February 12, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Diogo Trigo, André Nadais, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
Protein aggregation is normally associated with amyloidosis, namely motor neurone, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or prion diseases. However, recent results have unveiled a concept of gradual increase of protein aggregation associated with the ageing process, apparently not necessarily associated with pathological conditions. Given that protein aggregation is sufficient to activate stress-response and inflammation, impairing protein synthesis and quality control mechanisms, the former is assumed to negatively affect cellular metabolism and behaviour...
February 11, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Wa Cai, Christoph Mueller, Yi-Jing Li, Wei-Dong Shen, Robert Stewart
BACKGROUND: Post stroke depression is a significant neuropsychiatric manifestation, predicting a range of poor outcomes. There are several studies investigating the association between post stroke depression and stroke recurrence/mortality, but results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta regression of observational studies assessing the association between post stroke depression and risk of stroke recurrence and mortality...
January 31, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Eleftheria Vaportzis, Malwina A Niechcial, Alan J Gow
Activities running in community-based-settings offer a method of delivering multimodal interventions to older adults beyond cognitive training programmes. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the impact of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of 'real-world' interventions on the cognitive abilities of healthy older adults. Database searches were performed between October 2016 and September 2018. Forty-three RCTs were eligible for inclusion with 2,826 intervention participants and 2,234 controls...
January 29, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Jessica Y Vargas, Clara Grudina, Chiara Zurzolo
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. PD is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, primarily in brain regions that control motor functions, thereby leading to motor impairments in the patients. Pathological aggregated forms of the synaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), are involved in the generation and progression of PD. In PD brains, α-syn accumulates inside neurons and propagates from cell-to-cell in a prion-like manner. In this review, we discuss the in vitro and in vivo models used to study the prion-like properties of α-syn and related findings...
January 25, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Jing-Hong Liang, Wan-Ting Shen, Jia-Yu Li, Xin-Yuan Qu, Jing Li, Rui-Xia Jia, Ying-Quan Wang, Shan Wang, Rong-Kun Wu, Hong-Bo Zhang, Lei Hang, Yong Xu, Lu Lin
It's widely acknowledged that, as a neurodegenerative aging disease representing an intermediate stage between cognitive intactness and Alzheimer's disease(AD), Mild cognitive impairment(MCI) poses an excessive burden on patients' well-being, family members, health-care providers as well as the whole society. This study focuses on three cognitive interventions referred from Clare and Woods, that is, Cognitive stimulation(CS), Cognitive training(CT) and Cognitive rehabilitation(CR). Our Network meta-analysis(NMA) is aimed at comparing them with each other for evaluating the optimal cognitive intervention to help elderly adults with MCI to improve their cognitive function...
January 22, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Gotaro Kojima, Yu Taniguchi, Steve Iliffe, Stephen Jivraj, Kate Walters
Frailty is a well-established risk factor for adverse health outcomes. However, little is known about the dynamic nature of frailty and the extent it can improve. The purposes of this study were to systematically search for studies examining frailty transitions over time among community-dwelling older people, and to synthesise pooled frailty transitions rates. Four electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL) were searched in July 2018. Inclusion criteria were: prospective design, community-dwelling older people with mean age>60, using 5-item frailty phenotype criteria to define three states: robust, prefrail and frail and the numbers of participants with 9 frailty transition patterns based on frailty status at baseline and follow-up...
January 16, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Jennifer N Lohr, Evgeniy R Galimov, David Gems
A widely appreciated conclusion from evolutionary theory is that senescence (aging) is of no adaptive value to the individual that it afflicts. Yet studies of Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are increasingly revealing the presence of processes which actively cause senescence and death, leading some biogerontologists to wonder about the established theory. Here we argue that programmed death that increases fitness could occur in C. elegans and S. cerevisiae, and that this is consistent with the classic evolutionary theory of aging...
January 9, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Amir Tajbakhsh, Seyed Mohammad Gheibi Hayat, Alexandra E Butler, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Efferocytosis, the clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs), is a physiologic, multifaceted and dynamic process and a fundamental mechanism for the preservation of tissue homeostasis by avoiding unwanted inflammation and autoimmune responses through special phagocytic receptors. Defective efferocytosis is associated with several disease states, including cardiovascular disease and impaired immune surveillance, as occurs in cancer and autoimmune disease. A major cause of defective efferocytosis is non-functionality of surface receptors on either the phagocytic cells or the ACs, such as TAM family tyrosine kinase, which turns to a soluble form by cleavage/shedding or alternative splicing...
January 9, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Christoph Mueller, Pinar Soysal, Arvid Rongve, Ahmet Turan Isik, Trevor Thompson, Stefania Maggi, Lee Smith, Cristina Basso, Robert Stewart, Clive Ballard, John T O'Brien, Dag Aarsland, Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the evidence across longitudinal studies comparing survival in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing survival in clinically diagnosed DLB to AD. Longitudinal cohort studies were identified through a systematic search of major electronic databases from inception to May 2018. A random effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate survival time and relative risk of death...
January 5, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Emanuela Mensà, Silvia Latini, Deborah Ramini, Gianluca Storci, Massimiliano Bonafè, Fabiola Olivieri
Telomeres, the terminal nucleoprotein structures of eukaryotic chromosomes, play pleiotropic functions in cellular and organismal aging. Telomere length (TL) varies throughout life due to the influence of genetic factors and to a complex balancing between "shortening" and "elongation" signals. Telomerase, the only enzyme that can elongate a telomeric DNA chain, and telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a long non-coding RNA involved in looping maintenance, play key roles in TL during life...
January 4, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Belinda M Brown, Jeremiah Peiffer, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith
Several prospective cohort studies have reported an association between higher levels of physical activity and decreased risk of cognitive decline and dementia, years later. To support physical activity as a preventative measure against dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD; the most common form of dementia), evidence regarding the underlying mechanisms is vital. Here, we review previous work examining the role of physical activity in modulating levels of AD pathological hallmarks, beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau (in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and blood)...
January 4, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Francesca Cortini, Francesca Roma, Chiara Villa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder and represents the most common form of senile dementia. The pathogenesis of AD is not yet completely understood and no curative treatment is currently available. With the recent advancement in transcriptome-wide profiling approach, several non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified. Among them, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are long transcripts without apparent protein-coding capacity, have received increasing interest for their involvement in a wide range of biological processes as regulatory molecules...
January 2, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Steven Bradburn, Christopher Murgatroyd, Nicola Ray
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, evidence from brain imaging supports the role of neuroinflammation in dementia progression. Yet, it is not clear if there are patterns of spatial and temporal susceptibility to neuroinflammatory processes in the brain that may correspond to dementia staging or symptom expression. METHODS: We searched literature databases for case-control studies examining levels of translocator protein (TSPO) levels using positron emission tomography, representing neuroinflammation, in regional analyses between healthy controls and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects...
January 2, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Fedor Galkin, Bohan Zhang, Sergey E Dmitriev, Vadim N Gladyshev
Most multicellular organisms are known to age, due to accumulation of damage and other deleterious changes over time. These changes are often irreversible as organisms, humans included, evolved fully differentiated, irreplaceable cells (e.g. neurons) and structures (e.g. skeleton). Hence, deterioration or loss of at least some cells and structures should lead to inevitable aging of these organisms. Yet, some cells may escape this fate: adult somatic cells may be converted to partially reprogrammed cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
December 1, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Tânia R Soares, Sara D Reis, Brígida R Pinho, Michael R Duchen, Jorge M A Oliveira
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion mutation in the huntingtin protein. Expansions above 40 polyglutamine repeats are invariably fatal, following a symptomatic period characterised by choreiform movements, behavioural abnormalities, and cognitive decline. While mutant huntingtin (mHtt) is widely expressed from early life, most patients with HD present in mid-adulthood, highlighting the role of ageing in disease pathogenesis. mHtt undergoes proteolytic cleavage, misfolding, accumulation, and aggregation into inclusion bodies...
November 28, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Fernando Galvão, Kamila Castro Grokoski, Bruno Batista da Silva, Marcelo Lazzaron Lamers, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira
Aging is a risk factor for several illnesses, such as Alzheimer's Disease and various cancers. However, an inverse correlation between malignancies and Alzheimer's Disease has been suggested. This review addressed the potential role of non-amyloidogenic and amyloidogenic pathways of amyloid precursor protein processing as a relevant biochemical mechanism to clarify this association. Amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways have been related to Alzheimer's Disease and certain malignancies, respectively. Several known molecules involved in APP processing, including its regulation and final products, were summarized...
January 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Alex Zhavoronkov, Polina Mamoshina, Quentin Vanhaelen, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Alexey Moskalev, Alex Aliper
The applications of modern artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms within the field of aging research offer tremendous opportunities. Aging is an almost universal unifying feature possessed by all living organisms, tissues, and cells. Modern deep learning techniques used to develop age predictors offer new possibilities for formerly incompatible dynamic and static data types. AI biomarkers of aging enable a holistic view of biological processes and allow for novel methods for building causal models-extracting the most important features and identifying biological targets and mechanisms...
January 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
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