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Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

Yinzhao Zhong, Bo Song, Changbing Zheng, Fengna Li, Xiangfeng Kong, Yehui Duan, Jinping Deng
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the effects and roles of excess leucine (Leu) versus its metabolites α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) on fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of growing pigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two pigs with a similar initial weight (9.55 ± 0.19 kg) were fed one of the four diets (basal diet, L-Leu, KIC-Ca and HMB-Ca) for 45 days. Results indicated that dietary treatments did not affect the intramuscular fat (IMF) content (p > 0...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Luis Gustavo Dos Santos Cerqueira, Allan Paul Schinckel, Hebert Silveira, Thiago Hiroshi Kuribayashi, Rennan Herculano Rufino Moreira, Ítalo de Oliveira Lisboa, Vínicius de Souza Cantarelli, Cesar Augusto Pospissil Garbossa
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) on performance, measurement of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), body temperature and relative organ weights of weaned piglets exposed to a heat stress or a thermoneutral environment. One hundred and forty-four piglets with initial BW of 5.82 ± 0.33 kg (28 d old) were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement, four plasma levels (0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5%) and two environments (34º [heat stress (HS)] and 24°C [thermoneutral (TN)])...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Chen Zheng, Junhu Yao, Long Guo, Yangchun Cao, Ziqi Liang, Xinjian Yang, Chuanjiang Cai
The high rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of dairy calves can benefit their first lactation even lifetime milk yield. Since the rate of protein synthesis is relatively low in the post-absorptive state, the aim of this research was to determine whether leucine supplementation could increase the post-absorptive essential amino acid (EAA) utilization and protein synthesis in the skeletal muscle. Ten male neonatal dairy calves (38 ± 3 kg) were randomly assigned to either the control (CON, no leucine supplementation, n = 5) or supplementation with 1...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Heba S A Taha, Sameh A Abdelnour, Mahmoud Alagawany
Heavy metals have enormous variety of deleterious effects on many organs in the body. This study demonstrated the toxic influences of lead on the growth, biochemical, cellular and molecular aspects of developing rabbits. Seventy-five rabbits (New Zealand NZW) were divided into five equal groups as follows; control (C) and four treatment groups (T1-4) orally administered lead acetate solution as follow T1: 20, T2: 30, T3: 50 and T4: 70 mg/kg body weight. Lead resulted in a significant decrease in live body weight, daily body weight gain and feed intake in T3 and T4 compared to those in other groups...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Geovane R Oliveira, Willian K Oliveira, Carla Andrade, Antonio Diego B Melo, Fernando B Luciano, Renata E F Macedo, Leandro B Costa
This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of essential oils (EO) and organic acids (OA) against Salmonella Enteritidis in chicken feed and during an in vitro model that mimics the chicken digestive process. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), carvacrol (CV), propionic acid (PROP) and caproic acid (CAP) were individually determined. Then, based on the MICs of each compound, combinations of EOs and/or OAs were tested to evaluate their synergic antimicrobial effect. The synergic effect of AITC and CAP was the most efficient against the bacterial strain tested...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Diana Luise, Vincenzo Motta, Micol Bertocchi, Chiara Salvarani, Paolo Clavenzani, Flaminia Fanelli, Uberto Pagotto, Paolo Bosi, Paolo Trevisi
Putative genetic markers have been associated with ETEC F4 (Mucine 4 [MUC4]; MUC4GG;CG as susceptible; MUC4CC as resistant) and F18 (Fucosyltransferase 1 [FUT1]; FUT1GG;AG as susceptible; FUT1AA as resistant) resistances respectively. In this study, 71 post-weaning pigs were followed from d0 (35 days old) to d42 (77 days of age) to investigate the effect of MUC4 or FUT1 genotypes on the mid-jejunal microbiota composition, pigs expression of genes related to inflammation (IL8, GPX2, REG3G, TFF3, CCL20 and LBPI) and glycomic binding pattern profile (Ulex europaeus agglutinin I [UEA] fucose-binding lectin and peanut agglutinin [PNA] galactose-specific), and on blood plasma targeted metabolomics profile, faecal score and performance parameters of growing healthy pigs...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Heidi Blok Frandsen, Søren Krogh Jensen, Hanne Maribo, Keld Ejdrup Markedal, Flemming Schmidt, Hilmer Sørensen, Susanne Sørensen, Jens Christian Sørensen
The nutritional quality of rapeseed press cakes (RPCs) in piglet feed is closely linked to its digestibility and the content of glucosinolates. This study investigates the significance of intact glucosinolate (glc) levels and degree of glc transformations on piglets performance. Four different RPCs were made from a low glc (11 µmol/g seed DM) containing B. napus L. seed variety Lioness (RPC-LW, RPC-LXW, RPC-LC, RPC-LCD). RPC made from the variety Excalibur containing the upper level of glc (24 µmol/g seed DM) of double rapeseed and produced at higher and prolonged temperature (RPC-UXW) served as negative control, while soya bean protein concentrate served as positive control...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Shishuai Sun, Qingwei Meng, Zhang Luo, Baoming Shi, Chongpeng Bi, Anshan Shan
The purpose of this article was to investigate the effects of dietary resveratrol supplementation during gestation and lactation of sows on the milk composition of sows and the fat metabolism of sucking piglets. Forty sows were allotted to two experimental treatment groups that included the following: (a) control sows (CON treatment, n = 20) fed with a corn-soybean meal control diet and (b) treatment sows (RES treatment, n = 20) fed with a control diet with addition of 300 mg/kg resveratrol. The results showed that the content of lactose in the colostrum was increased (p < 0...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Avishek Biswas, Namit Mohan, Messam Raza, Nasir Akbar Mir, Asitbaran Mandal
This experiment was conducted to identify the suitable replacer of broiler feed antibiotics with prebiotics (mannan oligosaccharides-MOS or fructooligosaccharide-FOS). Two hundred and forty (240)-day-old chicks were randomly divided into 30 groups (6 treatments x 5 replicates/treatment x 8 chicks/replicate). Six experimental diets T1 , T2 , T3 , T4 , T5 and T6 were formulated to contain an additional 0, antibiotic, that is, bacitracin methylene di-salicylate (BMD) @20 mg/kg, MOS (0.1% and 0.2%) and FOS (0...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Youssef A Attia, Fulvia Bovera, Abd El-Hamid Abd Elhamid, Sameer A Nagadi, Mohamed A Mandour, Saber Sh Hassan
To evaluate the effect of bee pollen (BP) and/or propolis (Pro) supplementation on rabbit does, 64 nulliparous NZW rabbits does were distributed among eight groups (eight animals/group). One unsupplemented group was the control; the other seven groups were supplemented, respectively, with zinc bacitracin (ZnB) at 100 mg, BP at 150 and 300 mg, Pro at 150 and 300 mg, BP+Pro at 150 and 300 mg of each three times/week, day after day continuously along eight parities. The BP300, Pro300 and BP+Pro150 groups had higher body weight of litter at birth and number of kids born alive...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Youssef A Attia, Fulvia Bovera, Abd El-Hamid E Abd-Elhamid, Serena Calabrò, Mohamed A Mandour, Mohammed A Al-Harthi, Sabar S Hassan
Sixty-four nulliparous female rabbits were distributed among eight groups (eight animals/group). Group one was the unsupplemented control group; the other seven groups were supplemented with zinc bacitracin (ZnB) at 100 mg, or bee pollen (BP) and/or propolis (Pro) at 150 and 300 mg in a capsulated form, three times a week, day after day, continuously all over the experimental period. The experiment was run for eight parties; at each parity, 28 kids of each doe group (a total of 224 rabbits) were divided into two subgroups weaned, respectively, at 24 and 30 days of age...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Jiao Song, Xin Lei, Jingxian Luo, Nadia Everaert, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen, Ye Yang
This study was to investigate the effects of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory response in heat-stressed broiler. A total of 192 2-week-old Arbour Acres broilers chickens were divided into four groups with six replicates per group and eight chickens per replicate: one thermoneutral control group (28°C, group TN), which was fed the basal diet; and three cyclic high-temperature groups (35°C from 7:00 to 19:00 hr; 28°C from 19:00 hr to 7:00 hr, heat stress group), which were fed the basal diet supplementation with EGCG 0 mg/kg (group HS0), 300 mg/kg (group HS300) and 600 mg/kg (group HS600)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Wolfgang Siegert, Christian Ganzer, Holger Kluth, Markus Rodehutscord
In this study, we determined whether deficient dietary amino acid (AA) concentrations influence the precaecal (pc) AA digestibility when determined using the regression approach. We mixed two basal diets. Basal diet 1 was deficient in essential AAs, whereas adequate AA concentrations were ensured in basal diet 2 by adding free AAs. Rapeseed cake and full-fat soya beans as test ingredients were included in the basal diets at levels of 100 and 200, and 150 and 300 g/kg, respectively, at the expense of maize starch...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Dengsheng Sun, Xiao Jin, Irene Camerlink, Manman Tong, Junling Su, Fei Zhao, Sumei Yan, Binlin Shi
Dietary Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) could enhance immune function in broilers, which was attributed primarily to its saponin components. However, YSE also contains phenolic compounds which possess antioxidant ability. This study tested the effects of YSE on growth performance of broilers, its antioxidative enzyme activities and corresponding gene expressions in the small intestine. A total of 128 15-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: corn-soya bean meal as the basal control diet or the basal diet containing either 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg of YSE...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Eva Kovacikova, Anton Kovacik, Marek Halenar, Katarina Tokarova, Lubica Chrastinova, Lubomir Ondruska, Rastislav Jurcik, Eduard Kolesar, Jozef Valuch, Adriana Kolesarova
Amygdalin is one of the most studied secondary metabolites of Prunus genus. It is a cyanogenic glycoside which was initially obtained from the bitter almonds seeds and is a major component of the seeds of plants, such as apricots, almonds, peaches, apples and other rosaceous plants. The views of scientists on the use of amygdalin have been contradictory for many years, partly because toxicokinetics and metabolism of amygdalin still have not been adequately explored. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether pure amygdalin intramuscularly injected or apricot seeds oral consumption induce changes in overall health status of rabbit as a biological model...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Chao Xie, Hamada A M Elwan, Shaaban S Elnesr, Xinyang Dong, Jie Feng, Xiao-Ting Zou
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of iron glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) on laying performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, serum biochemical indices and iron concentrations in laying hens. A total of 810 laying hens (Hy-Line Variety White, 26 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six groups with five replicates of 27 layers. Hens in the control group received diet supplemented with 60 mg Fe/kg as FeSO4 , while hens in other five groups received the diet supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Fe/kg from Fe-Gly respectively...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Susanne Riede, Carola Lindig, Hansjörg Abel, Bettina Tonn, Johannes Isselstein, Gerhard Breves
According to climate change scenarios, central Europe may expect extending drought periods during summer. Lower water availability may influence the ruminal digestion of individual forage legume species differently. To test this hypothesis, Lotus corniculatus L. (var. Bull), Medicago lupulina L. (var. Ekola), Medicago falcata L. (wild seeds) and Trifolium repens L. (var. Rivendel) were each grown in parallel lots of control and drought-stressed monocultures. Rainout shelters (installed in May 2011 on a regrowth after first cut until harvest in mid of June) withheld rainfall of 40 mm in the drought stress treatment...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Xian Tan, Jun Zhang, Huansheng Yang, Jianzhong Li, Yali Li, Xueqin Ding, Pengfei Huang, Qiye Wang, Jia Yin, Yulong Yin
This study was conducted to measure the effects of orally administered glutamate (Glu) on suckling piglet (SP) intestinal morphology and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Forty-eight newborn piglets with similar initial weights (1.55 ± 0.20 kg) were selected from six sows (eight piglets/sow) and randomly assigned into four groups. There was daily administration of the following: 0.18 g/kg body weight (BW) of sodium chloride (CN group); 0.06 g/kg BW monosodium glutamate (LMG group); 0.50 g/kg BW monosodium glutamate (MMG group); and 1...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Lixia Wang, Fan Zhu, Huansheng Yang, Jianzhong Li, Yali Li, Xueqin Ding, Xia Xiong, Yulong Yin
The abnormalities in intestinal morphology and digestive function during weaning are associated with the loss of milk-borne growth factors. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to stimulate the growth of animals. This study was to determine the effect of dietary EGF on nutrient digestibility, intestinal development and the expression of genes encoding nutrient transporters in weaned piglets. Forty-two piglets were weaned at 21 days and assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) basal diet (control), (2) basal diet + 200 µg/kg EGF or (3) basal diet + 400 µg/kg EGF...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
David Risco, Pilar Gonçalves, María Bravo, Waldo García-Jiménez, Rosario Cerrato, Javier Hermoso de Mendoza, Pedro Fernández-Llario
Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in important mammalian physiological mechanisms, such as Ca-P metabolism, bone development and immunological response. VitD deficiencies are frequently detected in domestic animals and related to various health problems (e.g., rickets, bone deformation). However, knowledge about the status of VitD in wildlife species, such as the wild boar, is scarce. The aims of this work were to explore VitD status in wild boar populations from mid-western Spain and to elucidate the influence of daylight exposure and food supplementation in levels of VitD...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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