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Nature Reviews. Immunology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733595/pain-killers
#1
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728475/t-cells-feel-the-heat
#2
Lucy Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728474/sleeping-off-sickness
#3
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723308/gut-iels-slow-metabolism
#4
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723307/butyrate-boosts-microbicidal-macrophages
#5
Alexandra Flemming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718831/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-an-environmental-sensor-integrating-immune-responses-in-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Veit Rothhammer, Francisco J Quintana
The environment, diet, microbiota and body's metabolism shape complex biological processes in health and disease. However, our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in these processes is still limited. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that integrates environmental, dietary, microbial and metabolic cues to control complex transcriptional programmes in a ligand-specific, cell-type-specific and context-specific manner. In this Review, we summarize our current knowledge of AHR and the transcriptional programmes it controls in the immune system...
February 4, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718830/macrophages-as-regulators-of-tumour-immunity-and-immunotherapy
#7
REVIEW
David G DeNardo, Brian Ruffell
Macrophages are critical mediators of tissue homeostasis, with tumours distorting this proclivity to stimulate proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis. This had led to an interest in targeting macrophages in cancer, and preclinical studies have demonstrated efficacy across therapeutic modalities and tumour types. Much of the observed efficacy can be traced to the suppressive capacity of macrophages, driven by microenvironmental cues such as hypoxia and fibrosis. As a result, tumour macrophages display an ability to suppress T cell recruitment and function as well as to regulate other aspects of tumour immunity...
February 4, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718829/breaking-the-law-unconventional-strategies-for-antibody-diversification
#8
REVIEW
Alexia Kanyavuz, Annaelle Marey-Jarossay, Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes, Jordan D Dimitrov
Antibodies are essential components of adaptive immunity. A typical antibody repertoire comprises an enormous diversity of antigen-binding specificities, which are generated by the genetic processes of recombination and mutation. Accumulating evidence suggests that the immune system can exploit additional strategies to diversify the repertoire of antigen specificities. These unconventional mechanisms exclusively target the antigen-binding sites of immunoglobulins and include the insertion of large amino acid sequences, post-translational modifications, conformational heterogeneity and use of nonprotein cofactor molecules...
February 4, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705422/itaconate-the-poster-child-of-metabolic-reprogramming-in-macrophage-function
#9
REVIEW
Luke A J O'Neill, Maxim N Artyomov
Itaconate is one of the best examples of the consequences of metabolic reprogramming during immunity. It is made by diverting aconitate away from the tricarboxylic acid cycle during inflammatory macrophage activation. The main reason macrophages exhibit this response currently appears to be for an anti-inflammatory effect, with itaconate connecting cell metabolism, oxidative and electrophilic stress responses and immune responses. A role for itaconate in the regulation of type I interferons during viral infection has also been described, as well as in M2 macrophage function under defined circumstances...
January 31, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700864/commensal-cocktail-for-cd8s
#10
Lucy Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700863/seeing-through-the-parasites-eyes
#11
Ricardo Gazzinelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679808/adaptive-immune-responses-to-primary-and-secondary-dengue-virus-infections
#12
REVIEW
Ashley L St John, Abhay P S Rathore
Dengue is the leading mosquito-borne viral illness infecting humans. Owing to the circulation of multiple serotypes, global expansion of the disease and recent gains in vaccination coverage, pre-existing immunity to dengue virus is abundant in the human population, and secondary dengue infections are common. Here, we contrast the mechanisms initiating and sustaining adaptive immune responses during primary infection with the immune pathways that are pre-existing and reactivated during secondary dengue. We also discuss new developments in our understanding of the contributions of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and antibodies to immunity and memory recall...
January 24, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679807/immunometabolism-at-the-interface-between-macrophages-and-pathogens
#13
REVIEW
David G Russell, Lu Huang, Brian C VanderVen
It is generally regarded that the progression of an infection within host macrophages is the consequence of a failed immune response. However, recent appreciation of macrophage heterogeneity, with respect to both development and metabolism, indicates that the reality is more complex. Different lineages of tissue-resident macrophages respond divergently to microbial, environmental and immunological stimuli. The emerging picture that the developmental origin of macrophages determines their responses to immune stimulation and to infection stresses the importance of in vivo infection models...
January 24, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30644452/sodium-in-the-microenvironment-regulates-immune-responses-and-tissue-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Dominik N Müller, Nicola Wilck, Stefanie Haase, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Ralf A Linker
During tissue inflammation, immune cells infiltrate the interstitial space of target organs, where they sense and adapt to local environmental stimuli. Such stimuli include not only pathogens but also local factors such as the levels of oxygenation, nutrients and electrolytes. An important electrolyte in this regard is sodium (Na+ ). Recent in vivo findings have shown a role of Na+ storage in the skin for electrolyte homeostasis. Thereby, Na+ intake may influence the activation status of the immune system through direct effects on T helper cell subsets and innate immune cells in tissues such as the skin and other target organs...
January 15, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30644451/containment-strategy
#15
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30644449/dna-stimulated-cell-death-implications-for-host-defence-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Søren R Paludan, Line S Reinert, Veit Hornung
The immune system detects disturbances in homeostasis that occur during infection, sterile tissue damage and cancer. This initiates immune responses that seek to eliminate the trigger of immune activation and to re-establish homeostasis. At the same time, these mechanisms can also play a crucial role in the progression of disease. The occurrence of DNA in the cytosol constitutes a potent trigger for the innate immune system, governing the production of key inflammatory cytokines such as type I interferons and IL-1β...
January 15, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30635620/organismal-immunometabolism-advances-in-both-directions
#17
Diane Mathis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30631206/car-t-cell-therapy-inroads-to-response-and-resistance
#18
Christine E Brown, Crystal L Mackall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30626905/21st-century-natural-killers
#19
Cristina M Tato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30622345/calcium-signalling-in-t-cells
#20
REVIEW
Mohamed Trebak, Jean-Pierre Kinet
Calcium (Ca2+ ) signalling is of paramount importance to immunity. Regulated increases in cytosolic and organellar Ca2+ concentrations in lymphocytes control complex and crucial effector functions such as metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, antibody and cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity. Altered Ca2+ regulation in lymphocytes leads to various autoimmune, inflammatory and immunodeficiency syndromes. Several types of plasma membrane and organellar Ca2+ -permeable channels are functional in T cells. They contribute highly localized spatial and temporal Ca2+ microdomains that are required for achieving functional specificity...
January 8, 2019: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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