Journals Best Practice & Research. Clin...

Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Lindokuhle Thela, Saeeda Paruk, Busisiwe Bhengu, Bonginkosi Chiliza
Pregnancy and puerperium are critical points in women's health, and various psychiatric emergencies may worsen or manifest (for the first time) during this period. In the presence of a psychiatric emergency, the pregnancy and puerperium outcomes may be compromised. In addition to the mother being at risk, the health of the fetus and the newborn may also be compromised if the psychiatric emergency is not managed appropriately. Early detection and collaborative approaches between mental health practitioners and obstetricians are of utmost importance in women who are at risk and those living with psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy and puerperium...
February 21, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Albaro José Nieto-Calvache, Jose M Palacios-Jaraquemada, Ahmed M Hussein, Eric Jauniaux, Conrado Milani Coutinho, Marcus Rijken
Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) can be associated massive intra- and post-operative hemorrhage which when not controlled can lead to maternal death. Important advances have occurred in understanding the pathophysiology and therapeutic options for this condition. The prevalence of PAS at birth is direct association with the cesarean delivery (CD) rate in the corresponding population and is increasing worldwide. Limited health infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries increases the morbidity and mortality of patients with PAS at birth...
February 17, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Osric B Navti, Sue Pavord
Venous thrombosis and thromboembolism (VTE) remain the leading cause of direct maternal deaths, occurring within 42 days of the end of pregnancy in the UK. Pregnancy is associated with an overall 10-fold higher incidence of VTE than in the non-pregnant state and has been reported to reach up to 30-fold higher in the puerperium. This increased risk is further exacerbated by maternal obesity in a relationship that appears to be proportional with increasing Body Mass Index (BMI). Maternal obesity is the most common health problem in women of reproductive age with clinically significant health risks to women during pregnancy and after delivery...
February 16, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Nnabuike Chibuoke Ngene, Jagidesa Moodley
Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex heterogeneous disorder with overlapping clinical phenotypes that complicate diagnosis and management. Although several pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed, placental dysfunction due to inadequate remodelling of uterine spiral arteries leading to mal-perfusion and syncytiotrophoblast stress is recognized as the unifying characteristic of early-onset PE. Placental overgrowth and or premature senescence are probably the causes of late-onset PE. The frequency of PE has increased over the last few decades due to population-wide increases in risk factors viz...
February 15, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
S R Ramphal, A H Sultan
Birth related perineal trauma (BRPT) and obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are leading causes of anal incontinence in women, which negatively impacts on their quality of life, resulting in low self-esteem and abandonment. In low resource countries (LRC), the true incidence is not known and since most births are unattended or occur in community-based health care systems, one can anticipate that it is a significant problem. Dissemination of information to women, education of traditional birth attendants, improvement of resources and transport, and training of health professionals on the detection and appropriate surgical management of these injuries will reduce morbidity and improve outcome...
February 15, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Rainer Kimmig, Fabinshi Thangarajah, Paul Buderath
Anatomical and functional aspects of the lymphatic drainage of the uterine corpus in endometrial cancer are demonstrated. Main lymphatic pathway runs along the upper pelvic pathway from the uterine artery first line to the medial external iliac nodes, followed by the lateral external and common iliac node basin. The second important pathway runs along the ovarian vessels directly to the paraaortic nodes. Pathways may visualized best by injection of indocyanine green (ICG) into the uterus. In contrast to the upper pelvic pathway visualized by cervical injection, the paraaortic drainage can only be marked by corporal injection...
February 15, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Christos Iavazzo, Kalliopi Kokkali, Emmanouil Kaouras, Alexandros Fotiou
While gynecological malignancies are more commonly diagnosed in elderly women, a substantial proportion of women will still be diagnosed with some type of gynecologic cancer during their reproductive age. Over 10% of newly diagnosed ovarian cancers and over one third of newly diagnosed cervical cancers involve women who are under the age of 45. This, coupled with the rising trend of women having their first child after the age of 35, has led to a concerning prevalence of complex fertility issues among women who have been diagnosed with cancer...
February 15, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Fiona Brownfoot, Daniel Lorber Rolnik
Preeclampsia is a relatively common pregnancy complication and constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality for mothers and children worldwide. It disproportionally affects low-resource countries. Appropriate identification of individuals at increased risk and prevention of the disease and its complications remain healthcare and research priorities, and the investigation of potential interventions to prevent preeclampsia has driven much of the obstetric research in recent decades. In this article, we review the scientific literature on the topic, highlighting established benefits and remaining questions regarding different non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies, including exercise, the timing of birth, aspirin and calcium use, among others, as well as potential novel therapies under investigation...
February 15, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Kusum Thapa, Sapana Amatya, Anil Thapa, Meghan Greeley
Postpartum Family Planning is a critical strategy in the first 12 months post-childbirth. It aims to prevent unintended, closely spaced pregnancies and thereby help reducing maternal, neonatal as well as child morbidity and mortality. Despite its significance, many women remain without contraception despite a desire to avoid pregnancy. The World Health Organization suggests a 24-month inter-pregnancy interval after delivery, emphasizing the importance of contraceptive counselling from the antenatal to the immediate postpartum period...
February 14, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Mohammed Bashir, Yassin Fagier, Badreldeen Ahmed, Justin C Konje
Rates of obesity are increasing world-wide with an estimated 1billion people projected to be obese by 2030 if current trends remain unchanged. Obesity currently considered one of the most significant associated factors of non-communicable diseases poses the greatest threat to health. Diabetes mellitus is an important metabolic disorder closely associated with obesity. It is therefore expected that with the increasing rates of obesity, the rates of diabetes in pregnancy will also be rising. This disorder may pre-date pregnancy (diagnosed or undiagnosed and diagnosed for the first time in pregnancy) or may be of onset in pregnancy...
February 10, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Justin C Konje, Badreldeen Ahmed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Maíra Casalechi, Giorgia Di Stefano, Gianfranco Fornelli, Edgardo Somigliana, Paola Viganò
A significant body of evidence has supported a negative impact of endometriosis on ovarian follicles; however, the origin and relevance of this ovarian impairment in endometriosis is still a matter of debate. The ovarian damage can be caused by endometriosis itself or by surgeries aiming to remove endometriotic lesions. In this review, we summarized the existing knowledge on the mechanisms by which endometriosis can impact the ovarian follicles, from molecular to clinical points of view. From a molecular standpoint, the presence of endometriosis or its consequences can induce oxidative stress, inflammation, aberrant mitochondrial energy metabolism and inappropriate steroid production in granulosa cells, phenomena that may impair the quality of oocytes to variable degrees...
February 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Annalisa Racca, Andrea Bernabeu, Rafael Bernabeu, Simone Ferrero
As endometriosis is recognized as a contributing factor to infertility, prompting couples to embark on Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatments, it becomes crucial to comprehend the extent and way this condition can affect success rates. Natural conception data reveal lower success rates for women with endometriosis, yet the same cannot be extrapolated to the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In recent years, advancements in the ART process, particularly the distinct stages of the IVF pathway and investigations into embryo quality have shown a comparable rate of embryonic quality and chromosomal normalcy (euploidy) between embryos obtained from individuals with or without endometriosis...
February 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Umberto Leone Roberti Maggiore, Valentina Chiappa, Marcello Ceccaroni, Giovanni Roviglione, Luca Savelli, Simone Ferrero, Francesco Raspagliesi, Ludovica Spanò Bascio
Endometriosis is a benign, chronic, inflammatory condition affecting up to 10 % of women and characterised by the presence of glands and stroma tissue outside the uterus. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate a consistent association between endometriosis and infertility. However, this relationship is far to be clearly understood and several mechanisms are involved. Available data show that patients with endometriosis have an increased estimated risk of infertility between two and four times compared with the general population...
February 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Dana Baraki, Elliott G Richards, Tommaso Falcone
Endometriomas may contribute to infertility and are associated with diminished ovarian reserve. Surgical management can damage the ovarian cortex and further diminish ovarian reserve. Surgical therapy of endometriomas can be achieved via cystectomy, ablation (electrosurgical, laser, or plasma energy), sclerotherapy, or oophorectomy. Each approach has varying effects on ovarian reserve, spontaneous pregnancy rates, and recurrence rates: Cystectomy is associated with a low recurrence rate but higher risk of diminished ovarian reserve; Ablation (with laser or plasma energy) appears to have minimal effect on ovarian reserve while also having low recurrence rates; Sclerotherapy is mixed in terms of effect on ovarian reserve as well as recurrence rates...
February 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Michelle Cooper, Sharon Cameron
Regardless of whether a pregnancy ends in abortion, miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, fertility and sexual activity can resume quickly. For those who do not plan to become pregnant again immediately, effective contraception is therefore required. Although a contraceptive discussion and the offer to provide contraception is considered an integral part of abortion care, health care providers may not always offer this same standard of care to those whose pregnancy ends in miscarriage or ectopic due to sensitivities or assumptions around this and future fertility intentions...
February 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Eduardo Goyri, Graciela Kohls, Juan Garcia-Velasco
Endometriosis is a complex medical condition with a high prevalence in women of reproductive age. Fertility is compromised in patients with endometriosis, and success in IVF treatments has been a challenge leading to evaluation of different stimulation protocols. The long-standing debate between GnRH agonist long protocols and short GnRH antagonist protocols is being resolved in favor of the latter, since in addition to presenting equivalent results with respect to the traditional option, they have the additional benefit of safety...
February 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Samantha Tan, Mathew Leonardi, Glen Lo, Emmeline Lee
Endometriosis is a complex chronic inflammatory process characterised by the presence of endometrial-like glandular tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically within the pelvic structures. This condition affects up to 10-15 % of women and those assigned female at birth, and can result in chronic pelvic pain and in/subfertility. Treatment goals include medical, surgical options and alternative therapies. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) is the currently recommended first line investigation for endometriosis with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reserved for those with equivocal ultrasound findings...
February 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Nikki M W Lee, Piya Chaemsaithong, Liona C Poon
Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is important to identify women who are at high risk of developing this disorder in their first trimester of pregnancy to allow timely therapeutic intervention. The use of low-dose aspirin initiated before 16 weeks of gestation can significantly reduce the rate of preterm preeclampsia by 62 %. Effective screening recommended by the Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) consists of a combination of maternal risk factors, mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) and placental growth factor (PLGF)...
February 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
T Hebert
Deep infiltrative endometriosis is a condition affecting up to 15 % of women of childbearing age, defined by extra uterine location of endometrial like tissues. The symptoms of endometriosis range from severe dysmenorrhea to infertility, chronic pelvic pain, bowel dysfunction and urinary tract involvement to name the most common. Endometriosis has an impact on the quality of life of patients, with personal and social consequences. Although medical treatment is indicated in the first instance, surgery may be necessary...
February 2024: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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