Journals Best Practice & Research. Clin...

Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Liza Das, Pinaki Dutta
Growth hormone is among the most common hormones to be deficient in pituitary insult. It can occur either in isolation or combined with other hormone deficiencies. Growth hormone deficiency in adults (AGHD) can be due to causes acquired in adulthood or have a childhood-onset etiology, but the former is about three times more common. Usual causes of AGHD include mass effects due to a pituitary tumour, and/or its treatment (surgery, medical therapy, or radiotherapy), or radiotherapy to the head and neck region for non-pituitary lesions...
August 28, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Bassel H Al Wattar, Vikram Talaulikar
Women are living a significant portion of their adult lives in the post-reproductive phase, and many seek help for debilitating menopausal symptoms. Every individual's experience of menopausal transition is unique. Adopting a holistic approach to managing the menopause using a combination of lifestyle, hormonal, and non-hormonal interventions is key to maximise the quality of life of affected women. However, many opt to use non hormonal options or have contraindications to using hormonal therapy. Studies have shown that several pharmacological non-hormonal medications such as SSRIs, SSRI/SNRIs, Gabapentin, and Pregabalin are effective for managing vasomotor symptoms as well as other menopausal symptoms...
August 25, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Megan Herodes, Aviel Legaspi, Jose M Garcia
In recent years, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has been recognized as a cause of acquired growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) and is likely much more prevalent than previous estimates. There is great overlap between persistent symptoms following mTBI and those of AGHD and it is possible that these persistent symptoms of mTBI are, at least in part, due to or aggravated by AGHD. This article reviews the current literature of AGHD following mTBI, and proposes practice recommendations for the screening, diagnosis, and management of patients with AGHD following mTBI...
August 24, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Cesar Luiz Boguszewski
Daily injections of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) have been used in clinical practice for almost four decades as a replacement therapy in adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD). Long-term adherence to daily injections of rhGH is a clinical concern that may result in reduced therapeutic efficacy, and long-acting GH (LAGH) formulations have been developed in an attempt of overcoming this problem. Long-term safety issues of rhGH are the other side of the coin that has been carefully monitored over the years, particularly related to the proliferative actions of GH that could increase the risk of tumor recurrence or induce the development of new benign and malignant tumors...
August 24, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Petra Stute, Linus Josef Walker, Astrid Eicher, Elena Pavicic, Argyrios Kolokythas, Susanne Theis, Marc von Gernler, Michael von Wolff, Sabrina Vollrath
Menopausal women with an intact uterus choosing estrogens for menopausal symptom relief require a progestogen for endometrial protection. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the risks of endometrial hyperplasia resp. malignancy with different progestogens used in combined MHT. Overall, 84 RCTs were included. We found that 1) most studies were done with NETA, followed by MPA, MP and DYD and LNG, 2) most progestogens were only available as oral formulations, 3) the most frequently studied progestogens (oral MP, DYD, MPA, oral and transdermal NETA, transdermal LNG) were assessed in continuously as well as in sequentially combined MHT regimens, 4) FDA endometrial safety criteria were only fulfilled for some progestogen formulations, 5) most studies demonstrated endometrial protection for the progestogen dose and time period examined...
August 22, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Yutaka Takahashi
Growth hormone (GH) plays an essential role not only in promoting growth in children, but also in many important metabolic processes in adults. One of the major metabolic functions of GH is its stimulatory effects on the liver in generating approximately 80% of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is an established clinical entity defined as a defect in endogenous GH secretion that is frequently associated with central obesity, loss of muscle mass, decreased bone mass, and impaired quality of life...
August 16, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Noel P Somasundaram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Ashley Kieran Clift, Robert Thomas, Andrea Frilling
Neuroendocrine tumours commonly metastasise to the liver, particularly those arising from the intestinal tract and pancreas. Whilst surgery offers the only approach with intent to cure, the vast majority of patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases are ineligible. Liver-directed interventional therapies seek to exploit the patho-anatomy of the blood supply of hepatic metastases to deliver therapy to liver deposits. This may involve percutaneous ablation, bland embolization, or the selective infusion of chemotherapeutics, targeted agents or radiolabelled embolic material...
July 5, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Adeel Haq, Sampanna Rayamajhi, Maria Rosana Ponisio, Vikas Prasad
Neuroendocrine neoplasms are rare and heterogenous group of tumors with varying degrees of clinical presentations and involvement of multiple organ systems in the body. In the modern clinical practice somatostatin receptor molecular imaging and targeted radioligand therapy plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of the disease. Several new and promising radiotracers for NET imaging and theranostics, belonging to various groups and classes are being studied and investigated. This exponential growth of radiotracers poses concerns about the indication, clinical benefit, and safety profile of the agents...
July 5, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Sumudu Nimali Seneviratne, Chamathni Narmada Kumarihamy Karunathilake, Chamathka Madushi Pallegama, Thalompita Gamaralalage Malintha Lahiru, Umesh Jayarajah
In this review, we explore associations between SARS CoV-2 infection and the endocrine system and metabolism in children and adolescents. PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar databases were searched to identify published data on endocrine manifestations of COVID-19 in children up to 31 March 2023, including diabetes, obesity, puberty, thyroid disorders, adrenal disorders and pituitary disorders. Data on changes in disease pattern/ incidence, disease control, and other effects due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as effects of pre-existing endocrine conditions on severity of COVID-19 infection are presented, and practice points and research needs provided under each section...
June 28, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Anne Couvelard, Aurélie Cazes, Jérôme Cros
Histopathological classifications of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) change regularly and the latest WHO classification published in 2022, which concerns all NEN in the body, attempts to standardize classifications in the different locations. Differentiation and proliferation mainly assessed by Ki-67 index are still the cornerstone of those classifications. However, many markers are now used for diagnostic (to check neuroendocrine differentiation, to identify the site of origin of a metastasis, to help separating high-grade neuroendocrine tumors/NET and neuroendocrine carcinoma/NEC), prognostic or theranostic purposes...
June 28, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Osama Mosalem, Mohamad Bassam Sonbol, Thorvardur R Halfdanarson, Jason S Starr
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies that arise from neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the organs/tissues of the body. Treatment of advanced/metastatic disease varies depending on tumor origin and grade. Somatostatin analogs (SSA) have been the mainstay first-line treatment in the advanced/metastatic setting for tumor control and managing hormonal syndromes. Treatments beyond SSAs have expanded to include everolimus (mTOR inhibitor), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) (e...
June 28, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Nicola Fazio, Anna La Salvia
Precision medicine describes a target-related approach to tailoring diagnosis and treatment of the individual patient. While this personalized approach is revoluzionizing many areas of oncology, it is quite late in the field of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs), in which there are few molecular alterations to be therapeutically targeted. We critically reviewed the current evidence about precision medicine in GEP NENs, focusing on potential clinically relevant actionable targets for GEP NENs, such as the mTOR pathway, MGMT, hypoxia markers, RET, DLL-3, and some general agnostic targets...
June 28, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Dhruti Hirani, Victoria Salem, Kamlesh Khunti, Shivani Misra
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had an unprecedented effect on global health, mortality and healthcare provision. Diabetes has emerged as a key disease entity over the pandemic period, influencing outcomes from COVID-19 but also a tantalising hypothesis that the virus itself may be inducing diabetes. An uptick in diabetes cases over the pandemic has been noted for both type 1 diabetes (in children) and type 2 diabetes but understanding how this increase in incidence relates to the pandemic is challenging. It remains unclear whether indirect effects of the pandemic on behaviour, lifestyle and health have contributed to the increase; whether the virus itself has somehow mediated new-onset diabetes or whether other factors such as stress hyperglycaemic of steroid treatment during COVID-19 infection have played a roll...
July 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Nitin Kapoor, Sanjay Kalra
Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common vitamin deficiencies across different populations. It has primarily been implicated in the development of metabolic bone disease in adults and children. However, in recent years its role in immunomodulation has also emerged and has gained further importance since the occurrence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we describe the most recent literature on vitamin D and its impact on immunomodulatory pathways. Furthermore, the current evidence on the impact of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 infection, severity, and prognosis is summarised...
June 19, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Abbie Laing, Tim Hillard
PURPOSE: To summarise the dosing options, regimens, pharmacokinetics, risks and benefits of oestrogen-based therapies for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. METHODS: A review of the literature was undertaken using multiple databases. Randomised trials, observational studies, meta-analyses and review papers were included. RESULTS: Multiple systemic preparations of oestrogen exist and all appear comparable in terms of efficacy. They differ by pharmacokinetics and those preparations that avoid hepatic metabolism have a lower risk profile in general although their use can be limited by skin barriers or patient acceptability...
June 12, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Nicholas A Tritos
Between 2% and 60% of patients with cured acromegaly may eventually develop growth hormone deficiency. In adults, growth hormone deficiency is associated with abnormal body composition, decreased exercise capacity and quality of life, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk. Similar to patients with other sellar lesions, the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in adults with cured acromegaly generally requires stimulation testing, with the exception of patients with very low serum insulin-like growth factor I levels and multiple additional pituitary hormone deficiencies...
June 8, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Kjetil Søreide, Julie Hallet, Nigel B Jamieson, Stefan Stättner
The rising incidence and the accumulating prevalence of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) in the population makes this a common, prevalent and a clinically relevant disease group. Surgical resection represents the only potentially curative treatment for digestive NENs. Thus, resection should in principle be considered for all patients with NEN, although taking the patients age, relevant comorbidity, and performance status into account for operability. Patients with insulinomas, NEN of the appendix and rectal NENs are usually cured by surgery alone...
June 7, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Johannes Hofland, Wouter W de Herder
Neuroendocrine neoplasms are a unique form of malignancies as they can be accompanied by specific functioning hormonal syndromes that can impair survival and quality of life in patients. Functioning syndromes are defined by the combination of specific clinical signs and symptoms in combination with inappropriately elevated circulating levels of hormones. Clinicians should remain vigilant for the presence of functioning syndromes in neuroendocrine neoplasm patients at presentation as well as during follow-up...
June 7, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Marina Tsoli, Anna Koumarianou, Anna Angelousi, Gregory Kaltsas
The management of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represents a clinical challenge due to heterogeneity of their clinical behaviour, molecular biology and response to treatment. Over the years, several circulating biomarkers have been developed for the early diagnosis and follow-up of NETs. The specific secretory products of tumors associated with a secretory syndrome (functioning tumors) may be used as diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers while the most common non-specific circulating biomarkers, that may be increased in both functioning and non-functioning tumors, are chromogranin A and the neuron specific enolase...
June 5, 2023: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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